Abstract

Laser action is demonstrated in Yb:KYW at wavelengths of 990 nm, 997 nm and 1066 nm, when pumped at 980 nm by a Ti:sapphire laser, with a lowest laser quantum defect of 1.0%. The laser output powers at the various wavelengths were 70mW, 160mW and 140mW, respectively. Locking of the laser wavelength and the spectrally close spacing of pump and laser were achieved by the use of a volume Bragg grating as an input coupler. A theoretical model is also presented that accurately describes the laser at various wavelengths, by solving the laser rate equations at spatial points throughout the laser crystal.

©2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Solid-state lasers with Yb3+ as the active ion are important laser sources in the 1 µm spectral region. Since Yb3+ shows a broadband gain, a large laser tuning range is available. Furthermore, suitable high power laser diodes are available for pumping in the 940 - 980 nm region. High power laser action in Yb3+ also benefits from the comparably low heat generation in the laser medium, thanks to the low quantum defect, compared to e.g. Nd3+. Consequently, Yb3+ lasers find applications where high power and high brightness are desirable, such as printing, marking and material processing, as well as in various spectroscopic applications thanks to the available tunability.

In order to exploit ytterbium’s broadband gain and obtain a narrowband laser output at a desired wavelength, a spectrally selective element is needed for locking of the laser. In previous works, it has been shown that volume Bragg gratings are an attractive element for spectral selection in solid-state lasers [1–6]. Volume Bragg gratings combine the possibility of >99.5% peak reflectivity with narrow, sub-nanometer bandwidth, and can easily be manufactured to match the needed spectral specifications. The gratings are written in a photo-thermo-refractive glass by irradiation to a UV interference pattern and subsequent thermal development [7]. Thanks to the fabrication process, the gratings are stable and show good durability, as shown by the successful operation in the above cited laser experiments.

In this paper, a new method to lock solid-state lasers is employed that uses a volume Bragg grating simultaneously as an input coupler and a wavelength selector in an end-pumped laser. The method is particularly interesting for lasers with very low quantum defect and was first presented in [8], where up to 3.6 W of laser power was demonstrated in a diode-pumped Yb:KY(WO4)2 (Yb:KYW) laser lasing at 998 nm at a quantum defect of 1.6%. In the present work, the method is further explored, and lasing is obtained in Yb:KYW at as short a wavelength as 990 nm with a quantum defect of only 1.0%, when pumping at 980 nm directly into the emitting level. In fact, by tuning the pump wavelength, lasing at a quantum defect of 0.85% was possible, comparable to the lowest reported value, to the authors knowledge, at 0.8% [9]. In addition, lasing at 997 nm and 1066 nm is also demonstrated. Eventually, these lasers are of most interest when diode-pumped, but for better control of the pump intensity distribution in this early work, I use a Ti:sapphire laser at 980 nm for pumping.

Due to the low quantum defect in the studied lasers, the lower laser level is substantially thermally populated. Hence, intense pumping is needed to overcome the large reabsorption loss in the system. This can be quantified by the gain cross sections in Fig. 2, e.g. indicating that to obtain positive gain at 990 nm, about 35% of the population needs to be in the upper laser level for a homogeneously pumped crystal. Since the laser is pumped at 980 nm directly into the emitting upper laser level, the maximum inversion that can be achieved is slightly below 50%, given by the inversion for which the gain at the pump wavelength becomes positive (i.e. negative absorption), see Fig. 2. In order to properly design the laser, it is needed to have a theoretical model for the pumping and lasing that incorporates the reabsorption loss. Due to the strong variation in pump and laser intensity throughout the laser crystal, the model must also account for (at least) a two-dimensional spatial variation. Such a model has previously been presented in [10–12], and in this work, the model is employed to evaluate its accuracy and usefulness. Since the present laser system is somewhat different than the previously modelled one, some alterations to the model are also necessary, as explained in more detail below.

The paper is organized as follows. In section 2, I present the theoretical model, and in section 3, the experimental setup of the laser experiments is described. Then, in section 4, the experimental results are presented and compared with numerical results based on the theory. Finally, a discussion of the results and conclusions are given in section 5.

2. Theoretical model

In this section, a theoretical model for the laser is presented, to be compared with the experimental results. In the investigated laser, reabsorption due to thermal population of the lower laser level is important. This means that the inversion in different parts of the laser crystal is very different. Thus it is necessary to make a three-dimensional model of the pump and laser distribution in the laser crystal. The model is based on the one given in [11, 12], that is shown to give good correspondence between theory and experiments. Still, in this work, some modifications have been made to the model to suit this specific laser. The most important difference is that this laser is pumped directly into the upper laser level, meaning that stimulated emission at the pump wavelength cannot be neglected.

We assume a laser system with energy levels that can be described by a lower and an upper manifold. The population concentration is Nl in the lower and Nu in the upper manifolds, with a total doping concentration, N=Nl+Nu. To model the transition probability at different wavelengths λ we use the effective cross sections for absorption, σa(λ), and emission, σe(λ). These effective cross sections take into account the thermal population of the sublevels of the manifolds, with absorption and emission related by the reciprocity method [13]. For a pump wavelength λp and a laser wavelength λl, we use the following nomenclature for the cross sections: σap=σa(λp), σep=σe(λp), σal=σa(λl), σel=σe(λl). Furthermore, we assume an upper level lifetime τ, a pump intensity Ip and a laser intensity I (in units of W/m2).

The rate equation for the system is given by

dNldt=dNudt=(1τ+σelλlhcI+σepλphcIp)Nu(σalλlhcI+σapλphcIp)Nl.

At steady state, the populations are then

Nl=NNu=NσepλphcIp+σelλlhcI+1τ(σep+σap)λphcIp+(σel+σal)λlhcI+1τ.

The gain g and absorption α are given by

g(λ)=α(λ)=σe(λ)Nuσa(λ)Nl,

yielding a pump absorption of

αp=Nτ(σelσapσalσep)λlhcI+σapτ(σep+σap)λphcIp+τ(σel+σal)λlhcI+1
 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Setup in the laser crystal, showing pump (dashed blue) and laser (solid red) parameters.

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and a laser gain of

g=Nτ(σelσapσalσep)λphcIpσalτ(σep+σap)λphcIp+τ(σel+σal)λlhcI+1.

The above expressions give a complete description at any spatial point, so the next step is to define a geometry, as depicted in Fig. 1. We assume a cylindrical symmetry along the propagation axis, which is parameterized by the radius r and the axial position z, with the crystal extending over 0<z<d.

For the pump we assume a Gaussian beam with a constant radius wp inside the laser crystal. The incident pump intensity at z=0 is then given by the incident pump power Pin as

Ip(0)=Pin2πwp2exp(2r2wp2).

An axially constant pump beam radius is a good approximation of the present experiments with a Ti:sapphire pump laser with a confocal parameter that is larger than the crystal length. However, for beams with a shorter confocal length, as is the typical case for a diode-pumped laser, the variation with the position z is important and should be included in the model. As described below, the laser employs double pass pumping. The intensity of the first passage through the crystal is denoted I + p. For the second pass, with intensity I - p, the incident power is a fraction of the transmitted first pass pump, given by the output coupler pump reflectivity Rp. For simplicity we assume that this second pass has the same position and beam radius as the first one, though this is only approximately true in the experiments. Thus, the total pump intensity is Ip=I + p+I - p.

For the laser beam, which is more tightly focussed by the cavity design, the axial variation is included in the model. We assume a Gaussian beam of beam waist radius w l0 at position z l0, yielding a radius wl(z)=w l0(1+((z-z l0)λl/(πw 2 l0 n))2)1/2, for a refractive index n. We assume the laser power in the crystal to be composed of a forward travelling part P + and a backward travelling part P -. For simplicity, both are assumed to have axially constant power, which is a good approximation for low gain or equivalently high output coupler reflectivity. The laser output power Pout is related to these by the output coupler reflectivity R at the laser wavelength as P +=P -/R=Pout/(1-R). The effects of spatial hole-burning are not included in the model, as it is assumed that a sufficient number of longitudinal modes oscillate to completely saturate the gain. Finally, the laser intensity inside the laser crystal is

I(z)=1+R1RPout2πwl2(z)exp(2r2wl2(z)).

Next, the spatial variation of the pump intensity is to be calculated. Here we assume that the axial variation of the intensity at each radial position is independent of the neighbouring radial intensity. Thus, the intensity can be found separately for the different radial positions. This then corresponds to no radial transport of power. With this assumption, the intensity distribution can be found by solving the differential equation dIp/dz=-α(Ip)Ip with the incident power as boundary condition. However, due to the double pass pumping, the situation is somewhat complicated. The differential equation that needs to be solved is then a system

dIp+dz=α(Ip++Ip)Ip+
dIpdz=+α(Ip++Ip)Ip

with boundary conditions

Ip+(0)=Ip(0)
Ip(d)=RpIp+(d).

To decouple (8) and (9), we note that by adding (8)×I - p and (9)×I + p, one can see that

Ip+(z)Ip(z)=constant=RpIp+2(d).

Now the system can be decoupled and we get the single differential equation

dIp+dz=α(Ip++RpIp+2(d)Ip+)Ip+,

with the boundary condition I + p(0)=Ip(0). Since the equation includes its own solution in z=d, it is solved iteratively, using in every iteration step a fourth order Runge-Kutta with automatic step-size adjustment, the starting value I + p(d)=0 and halting at a relative error of 1%. Finally, I - p is given by (12).

The laser output power is calculated indirectly by finding the point where the laser total gain G equals the total loss, given by the output coupler reflectivity R and the roundtrip passive loss in the cavity L

G=1R(1L).

As shown in [10], the total roundtrip gain is given by

G=(1+0ddz0rdrg(r,z)4wl2(z)exp(2r2wl2(z)))2.

Finally, at a given pump power, the point where (14) is satisfied is found by a numerical minimization procedure with the laser output power as variational parameter. A special case is the laser threshold, which is found where (14) is satisfied at zero laser power, which is a comparatively easy numerical problem. For the minimization at an arbitrary laser power, the Matlab function fzero is used. The function finds a minimum for a laser power in an interval between zero and the incident pump power. The function is based on Brent’s method, a derivative-free combination of bisection, secant, and inverse quadratic interpolation methods [14]. This minimization process is fairly demanding on computational time, since each evaluation step requires an iterative solution of a differential equation for all discretized spatial points.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Yb:KYW gain cross sections at various inversions Nu/N (see legend), corresponding to emission cross section σe for Nu/N=1 and (negative) absorption cross section -σa for Nu/N=0 (all for the nm direction). The experimental laser spectra and (negative) pump spectrum are also given (thick black lines).

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For the numerical simulations, the computer program Matlab was used. The discretization of the space coordinates r and z was done in a 15 by 15 grid, with r truncated at r=2.5wp. The following experimental input data were used for the modelling. The lifetime used was τ=236µs, determined for 5% doping from [15], and a KYW refractive index of n=2 was assumed.

To determine the cross sections in the nm polarization direction, direct measurements on the laser crystal were made. Below 1010 nm, where the absorption is high, the absorption and emission cross sections were obtained through the reciprocity method [13] from direct transmission loss measurements with a tunable Ti:sapphire laser at low intensity. A temperature of 300 K, 5% doping concentration, a KYW density of 6.5 g/cm2 [16], and the intramanifold energy sublevels reported in [17] were assumed. Above 1010 nm, where the absorption is weak, the fluorescence induced from pumping at 980 nm was used to find the cross sections through the reciprocity method and the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg method [18]. The fluorescence data were calibrated by a fit at the 1010 nm junction point. The emission and absorption cross sections are depicted in Fig. 2, together with the gain cross sections, given by (3), at various levels of inversion. The measured value of the peak absorption cross section at 981 nm of 7.1·10-20 cm2 can be compared to previously reported values. In [19], a value of 3.7·10-20 cm2 in the nm direction is reported, while a value of 16·10-20 cm2 is given in [17], although in the a-direction, at ~15° degrees to nm. As can be seen, the fluctuations are large, possibly because of uncertain doping concentrations. Since in this paper, the same crystal was used for determining the cross sections and in the laser experiments, the accuracy in the simulations should still be good.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Laser setup, showing the laser beam (solid red) and the pump beam (dashed blue). Mirrors M2 and M3 are highly reflective with a radius of curvature of 50 mm and mirror M4 is flat with variable reflectivity R.

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3. Experimental setup

The laser cavity was formed in a bow-tie setup, as depicted in Fig. 3. It consisted of a volume Bragg grating as input coupler, two broadband highly reflective 50 mm radius-of-curvature mirrors surrounding the Yb:KYW laser crystal, and finally a flat output coupler. The laser was end-pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser delivering a maximum power of ~900 mW in a close to diffraction-limited beam. The pump power was controlled by a waveplate-polarizer arrangement and to avoid feedback into the Ti:sapphire laser, an optical isolator was used. The pump was collimated when passing through the input coupler, with a beam radius of 280µm at mirror M2, yielding a focus of 27µm radius in the laser crystal. For maximum absorption, the pump was polarized in the nm direction of the Yb:KYW crystal and tuned to a wavelength of 980 nm, see Fig. 2. Since the laser output couplers had a broadband coating, they also reflected a large fraction of the pump light for a second pass through the crystal, which increased the absorbed pump light. However, only a part of the second pass pump light is believed to be properly focussed and positioned in the crystal to be of use. This is since the mirrors M3 and M4 were primarily adjusted to optimize the laser cavity, with the double pass pumping as a beneficial side-effect.

Three different volume Bragg gratings, at 990.2 nm, 997.2 nm and 1066.0 nm, were used as input couplers (Optigrate Inc.). The 990 grating had a full width at half maximum bandwidth of 0.22 nm and a peak reflectivity of 99.5%, the 997 grating a bandwidth of 0.25 nm and a reflectivity of 99.7% and the 1066 grating a bandwidth of 0.22 nm and a reflectivity of 98.8%. The gratings had a broadband anti-reflection (AR) coating. For comparison, a conventional dielectric input coupler was also used, with high transmission >98% below 980 nm and high reflectivity >99.9% above 1020 nm. The laser crystal was 5 at.% Yb:KYW that was b-cut with a length of 3 mm and AR-coated surfaces.

To adjust the laser mode size in the laser crystal for optimal performance, mirror M3 and the laser crystal could be translated along the cavity axis. To avoid detrimental effects from oblique incidence on a curved mirror, the incident angle for mirrors M2 and M3 should be kept small. In the experiments, an angle of 2.4° was used, which gave slightly different mode radii for the tangential and sagittal directions. As an example, a total distance between the two curved mirrors of (53.0 mm, 52.0 mm, 51.7 mm) yields cavity mode waist radii of (28µm; 22µm; 18µm) in the tangential and (28µm; 21µm; 16µm) in the sagittal direction. In the experiments, the cavity was optimized for the 990 nm operation and was kept with that setting for the other wavelengths. The distances volume Bragg grating – M2 and M3 – M4 were both 100 mm. After the laser cavity, the residual transmitted pump at 980 nm was separated from the generated laser by a slightly tilted volume Bragg grating at 982 nm for normal incidence, with a reflectivity of 99%.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Pump-induced saturation of pump absorption for various situations, showing experimental measurements (points) and theoretical simulations (lines).

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Various output coupler reflectivities were investigated for all the different input couplers, ranging from 35% to 99%. For most of the results reported below and the 990, 997 and conventional input couplers, respectively, a reflectivity of ~85% was used (with pump reflectivity of 83%). Due to the lower gain for the 1066 input coupler, a 95% reflectivity was used (pump reflectivity 93%).

4. Experimental and numerical results

For the various volume Bragg gratings, the laser was locked to lase at the grating wavelength, as shown in Fig. 2. For the 990-grating, the quantum defect is only 1.0%, among the lowest values reported ever. In fact, by tuning the pump wavelength from 980.0 nm to 981.8 nm, it was still possible to lase at 990.2 nm, with a quantum defect of 0.85%, although the efficiency was low due to decreasing pump absorption, with a laser output power of around 10 mW. For the free-running laser with a conventional input coupler, the loss-gain balance determined a wavelength of ~1029 nm for 85% and 90% output couplers. This can be compared to the gain cross sections in Fig. 2, indicating that in a crystal with homogenous inversion, the corresponding inversion is with ~10% of the population in the upper laser level. The laser bandwidths for the Bragg-grating-locked versions were below the 0.07 nm resolution of the grating-based spectrum analyzer, while the conventional laser showed a few peaks with ~0.5 nm separation. By observing the Ti:sapphire pump laser spectrum before it entered the Yb-laser cavity, it was confirmed that the observed radiation at the volume Bragg grating wavelengths was not caused by spectral locking of the Ti:sapphire pump, but indeed originated from the Yb-laser. In all experiments, the laser was found to be linearly polarized along the nm direction of the KYW crystal.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Laser threshold for various output coupler reflectivities, experimental data (points) and theoretical simulations (lines).

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For a first comparison between experiments and theory, the saturation of the pump absorption with increased pump power was investigated, in other words the bleaching of the laser crystal, without laser operation. In this three-level-laser, the bleaching is an indication of how many ions are pumped to the upper laser level, i.e. the inversion in the laser. First, the single pump-pass absorption without mirror M4 was measured, as shown in Fig. 4 (empty stars). To compare with the theory and establish the effective pump beam radius wp, this parameter was used as a fit parameter, yielding a value of 26µm, that was used in subsequent calculations. This fit is in very good agreement with the experimental value of 27µm. The theoretically predicted absorption is shown with a dashed line in Fig. 4. With mirror M4 in place and aligned, but the input coupler misaligned to prevent lasing, the absorption for double pass pumping was also evaluated (empty circles in Fig. 4), for various input couplers and output coupler reflectivities. A comparison with the theoretical prediction for double pass pumping (dotted line), shows that, as suspected, the second pump pass is not precisely aligned, something which decreases the effect of the double pass pumping. Nevertheless, in subsequent calculations, perfect double pass pumping is assumed in order not to complicate things.

The pump absorption was also measured under lasing conditions. The output coupler had ~85% reflectivity for all wavelengths except at 1066 nm, where 95% reflectivity was used. Both the experimental data and the theoretical predictions are shown in Fig. 4. Here, the theoretical predictions are made under the same assumptions as for the laser threshold and power calculations described below.

The laser threshold at the different wavelengths and losses was investigated experimentally by trying out different output couplers. The results are reported in Fig. 5. Here it should be noted that for the conventional input coupler, there is a drift of the laser wavelength with output coupler reflectivity. To avoid too much drift, only experiments with low output coupling were performed.

The experimental laser output power at different wavelengths is shown in Fig. 6. The maximum output powers obtained were 70 mW, 160 mW, 370 mW and 140 mW at wavelengths of 990 nm, 997 nm, 1029 nm and 1066 nm, respectively. Here, the output coupler had ~85% reflectivity for all wavelengths except at 1066 nm, where 95% reflectivity was used. The experimental slope efficiency at the different wavelengths is shown in the legend of Fig. 6.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Laser power, comparison of experiments (points) and theory (lines) for various wavelengths. The legend gives the experimental slope efficiency.

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In Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, the results of the theoretical simulations of the laser threshold and output power, respectively, are also shown, as described in Sec. 2, assuming double-pass pumping. For these calculations, assumptions must be made about the laser mode beam waist and position, as well as the passive roundtrip loss L in the cavity. By a comparison with the experimental results at 990 nm, a beam waist w l0=16µm and a waist location z l0=d/2 (in the middle of the crystal) were deduced, as well as a loss of 7%. Since the same cavity setup was used for the other wavelengths, the laser beam parameters were kept fixed, while the loss was adjusted. In this way, a loss of 4% was inferred for 997 nm and 2% loss at 1066 nm. As can be seen in Fig. 6, the experimental output power for the conventional output coupler running at 1029 nm is higher than the theoretically predicted one, why no fit of the loss could be made. Instead a loss of 1% was assumed. Furthermore, for the 1066 nm threshold simulations, a modification of the experimentally measured cross sections had to be made. Since the gain is low there, a small error in the cross section measurements can have large effects on the modelling outcome. In the present case, the theory predicted the laser to be below threshold at all pump powers, which is not very interesting, and in disagreement with the laser experiments. Instead, a fit of the cross section values was made to the experimental threshold at 95% reflectivity. This yielded an increase of the cross sections of 38% compared to the separately measured data, a value used in the subsequent calculations. The reason for the disagreement is believed to be due to a relatively large error in the measured emission cross section at this comparatively low value, perhaps due to a miscalibration of the fluorescence data.

To determine the transverse properties of the laser, the beam radius was measured just beyond the output coupler for the laser at 1029 nm, with a collimated beam of 450µm by 540µm in the tangential/sagittal direction. From these measurements, a beam waist in the laser crystal can be deduced of 18µm by 15µm in the tangential/sagittal direction. The reason for the elliptic beam is a somewhat large incidence angle on the curved mirrors, something to improve in future experiments. The M2 of the beam was measured to be <1.05 in both directions.

5. Discussion and conclusions

From the obtained results, one can make some general observations regarding the design of lasers with a varying degree of reabsorption loss. By considering the laser threshold in Fig. 5, as well as the gain cross sections in Fig. 2, it can be seen how the laser properties vary at different wavelengths. For the short wavelength lasers at 990 nm and 997 nm, the threshold is high but fairly insensitive to the passive loss, since the dominating aspect below threshold is the laser wavelength reabsorption loss. Once the pumping is strong enough to achieve positive gain, the gain is also comparatively large, so that large passive loss can be tolerated. Consequently, the most important design consideration in these lasers is not the cavity’s passive loss, but rather the pump intensity. At medium wavelengths (1029 nm), the reabsorption diminishes, and the threshold is reduced. Also at this wavelength, the gain can become large, so that large passive loss can be allowed. Finally, at long wavelengths (1066 nm), the gain cross section is decreased, which gives large sensitivity to passive cavity loss, and make that an important design parameter. Still, the reabsorption loss is small, so that for low passive loss, the threshold can be faily low.

To determine the usefulness of the theoretical model, a comparison between the experimental and the numerical results is made. For the laser thresholds at 990 nm and 997 nm, it can be seen that the correspondence between experiments and theory is good. An exception is the 35% reflectivity, where the model’s assumption of low loss is no longer valid. Also, the theoretically deduced laser beam waist of 16µm is in fairly good correspondence with the experimental data of 18µm by 15µm. Furthermore, for the laser output power, the experiments and simulations agree, albeit to some degree, this is due to the loss fitting procedure. Still, there is some discrepancy at 1029 nm, for which the reason is not clear at the moment. Also note that the deduced passive loss vary with wavelength, with more loss at shorter wavelengths, which is not expected from the experimental settings. This is perhaps best used as an indicator of the level of general discrepancy between the model and reality. Then, the deduced loss should be interpreted in a wide sense, to incorporate the total system varitation between the different wavelengths. Potentially, the varying loss is an indicator of geometrical shortcomings of the model, so that there is a crosstalk with the reabsorption loss, which is inadvertently contributed for as passive loss. Concerning the pump absorption data, the agreement is good, except under lasing conditions at 990 nm and 1066 nm, although the qualitative agreement is still fair. Also, the experimental pump beam waist of 27µm agrees well with the theoretically deduced one of 26µm, which shows that in these experiments, the approximation of a constant pump beam radius is valid.

From the generally good correspondence between theory and experiments, I conclude that the used theoretical model is a useful tool for the design of laser experiments. The found discrepancies between experiments and theory could be due to a few things, such as inaccurate input data to the model, model oversimplifications and experimental errors. Some aspects of the theoretical model that could deserve further investigation are the assumption of a constant pump beam radius and the assumption of an axially constant laser power.

To conclude, laser action is demonstrated in Yb:KYW at 990 nm, 997 nm, and 1066 nm by locking of the wavelength by different volume Bragg gratings and using Ti:sapphire pumping. This demonstrates that lasing anywhere in the interval between 990 nm and 1066 nm can conveniently be achieved with this technique. By use of the volume Bragg grating as input coupler, the pump and laser wavelengths could be spectrally close, with pumping at 980 nm, and a demonstrated quantum defect of only 1.0%. The output power at the various wavelengths of 990 nm, 997 nm and 1066 nm was 70 mW, 160mW and 140mW, respectively, and was limited by the available pump power. It is also demonstrated that the experimental laser system could be accurately described by a theoretical model that is based on solving the laser rate equations in every spatial point in the laser crystal.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Valdas Pasiskevicius and Fredrik Laurell for fruitful discussions. This work has received financial supported from the Carl Trygger Foundation, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation and the EU project DT-CRYS.

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16. A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000). [CrossRef]  

17. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, and G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1317–1319 (1997). [CrossRef]  

18. B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–930 (1982). [CrossRef]  

19. G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable single-longitudinal-mode ErYb:glass laser locked by a bulk glass Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1663–1665 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Single-longitudinal-mode Nd-laser with a Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity,” Opt. Express 14, 9284–9292 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Chung, A. Rapaport, V. Smirnov, L. B. Glebov, M. C. Richardson, and M. Bass, “Solid-state laser spectral narrowing using a volumetric photothermal refractive Bragg grating cavity mirror,” Opt. Lett. 31, 229–231 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. I. Häggström, B. Jacobsson, and F. Laurell, “Monolithic Bragg-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11,589–11,594 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Widely tunable Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 1003–1010 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable Yb:KYW laser using volume Bragg grating in s-polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 85–88 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. O. Efimov, L. Glebov, L. Glebova, K. Richardson, and V. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photother-morefractive glass,” Appl. Opt. 38, 619–627 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. E. Hellström, B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Quasi-two-level Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 13,930–13,935 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.
  10. F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Yiou, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Numerical modeling of a continuous-wave Yb-doped bulk crystal laser emitting on a three-level laser transition near 980 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 572–581 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. E. Forsythe, M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler, Computer methods for mathematical computations (Prentice-Hall, 1976).
  15. K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, and G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1317–1319 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–930 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable Yb:KYW laser using volume Bragg grating in s-polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 85–88 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

I. Häggström, B. Jacobsson, and F. Laurell, “Monolithic Bragg-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11,589–11,594 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hellström, B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Quasi-two-level Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 13,930–13,935 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Widely tunable Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 1003–1010 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

S. Yiou, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Numerical modeling of a continuous-wave Yb-doped bulk crystal laser emitting on a three-level laser transition near 980 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 572–581 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. Efimov, L. Glebov, L. Glebova, K. Richardson, and V. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photother-morefractive glass,” Appl. Opt. 38, 619–627 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, and G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1317–1319 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Aka, G.

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

Auge, F.

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aull, B.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Balembois, F.

S. Yiou, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Numerical modeling of a continuous-wave Yb-doped bulk crystal laser emitting on a three-level laser transition near 980 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 572–581 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.

Bass, M.

Boudeulle, M.

G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boulon, G.

G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brenier, A.

G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brun, A.

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chung, T.

Danailov, M. B.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Demidovich, A. A.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Didierjean, J.

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.

Druon, F.

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
[Crossref]

Druon, F. P.

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.

Efimov, O.

Fagundes-Peters, D.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Falcoz, F.

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
[Crossref]

Forsythe, G. E.

G. E. Forsythe, M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler, Computer methods for mathematical computations (Prentice-Hall, 1976).

Georges, P.

S. Yiou, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Numerical modeling of a continuous-wave Yb-doped bulk crystal laser emitting on a three-level laser transition near 980 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 572–581 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.

Giesen, A.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Glebov, L.

Glebov, L. B.

Glebova, L.

Goldner, P.

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.

Häggström, I.

I. Häggström, B. Jacobsson, and F. Laurell, “Monolithic Bragg-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11,589–11,594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hellström, J. E.

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable Yb:KYW laser using volume Bragg grating in s-polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 85–88 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hellström, B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Quasi-two-level Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 13,930–13,935 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Widely tunable Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 1003–1010 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

Jacobsson, B.

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable Yb:KYW laser using volume Bragg grating in s-polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 85–88 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hellström, B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Quasi-two-level Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 13,930–13,935 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Widely tunable Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 1003–1010 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Häggström, B. Jacobsson, and F. Laurell, “Monolithic Bragg-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11,589–11,594 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable single-longitudinal-mode ErYb:glass laser locked by a bulk glass Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1663–1665 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Single-longitudinal-mode Nd-laser with a Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity,” Opt. Express 14, 9284–9292 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenssen, H.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Johannsen, J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kerboull, F.

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
[Crossref]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kutovoi, S.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Laurell, F.

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable Yb:KYW laser using volume Bragg grating in s-polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 85–88 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. E. Hellström, B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Quasi-two-level Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 13,930–13,935 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Widely tunable Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 1003–1010 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Häggström, B. Jacobsson, and F. Laurell, “Monolithic Bragg-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11,589–11,594 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable single-longitudinal-mode ErYb:glass laser locked by a bulk glass Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1663–1665 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Single-longitudinal-mode Nd-laser with a Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity,” Opt. Express 14, 9284–9292 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malcolm, M. A.

G. E. Forsythe, M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler, Computer methods for mathematical computations (Prentice-Hall, 1976).

Métrat, G.

G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, V. P.

Moler, C. B.

G. E. Forsythe, M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler, Computer methods for mathematical computations (Prentice-Hall, 1976).

Mond, M.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mougel, F.

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

Muhlstein, N.

G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pasiskevicius, V.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peters, V.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Petit, J.

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.

Podlipensky, A. V.

Rapaport, A.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M. C.

Romero, J. J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ryabtsev, G. I.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, V.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Speiser, J.

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Strek, W.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Titov, A. N.

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Viana, B.

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.

Vivien, D.

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yiou, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Tunable Yb:KYW laser using volume Bragg grating in s-polarization,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 85–88 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 269–278 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Auge, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of a diode-pumped quasi-three-level laser: the Yb3+-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Yb:GdCOB) laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 598–606 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Comp. (1)

A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Kuzmin, G. I. Ryabtsev, M. B. Danailov, W. Strek, and A. N. Titov, “Influence of Yb concentration on Yb: KYW laser properties,” J. Alloys Comp. 300–301, 238–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

G. Métrat, M. Boudeulle, N. Muhlstein, A. Brenier, and G. Boulon, “Nucleation, morphology and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals grown by the top nucleated floating crystal method,” J. Cryst. Growth 197, 883–888 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Petermann, D. Fagundes-Peters, J. Johannsen, M. Mond, V. Peters, J. J. Romero, S. Kutovoi, J. Speiser, and A. Giesen, “Highly Yb-doped oxides for thin-disc lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 275, 135–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (4)

J. E. Hellström, B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Quasi-two-level Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 13,930–13,935 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobsson, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Single-longitudinal-mode Nd-laser with a Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity,” Opt. Express 14, 9284–9292 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Häggström, B. Jacobsson, and F. Laurell, “Monolithic Bragg-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11,589–11,594 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Jacobsson, J. E. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Widely tunable Yb:KYW laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 15, 1003–1010 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

G. E. Forsythe, M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler, Computer methods for mathematical computations (Prentice-Hall, 1976).

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, F. P. Druon, and P. Georges, “Quest of athermal solid-state laser: case of Yb:CaGdAlO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (Optical Society of America, 2006), WD1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Setup in the laser crystal, showing pump (dashed blue) and laser (solid red) parameters.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Yb:KYW gain cross sections at various inversions Nu /N (see legend), corresponding to emission cross section σe for Nu /N=1 and (negative) absorption cross section -σa for Nu /N=0 (all for the nm direction). The experimental laser spectra and (negative) pump spectrum are also given (thick black lines).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Laser setup, showing the laser beam (solid red) and the pump beam (dashed blue). Mirrors M2 and M3 are highly reflective with a radius of curvature of 50 mm and mirror M4 is flat with variable reflectivity R.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Pump-induced saturation of pump absorption for various situations, showing experimental measurements (points) and theoretical simulations (lines).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Laser threshold for various output coupler reflectivities, experimental data (points) and theoretical simulations (lines).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Laser power, comparison of experiments (points) and theory (lines) for various wavelengths. The legend gives the experimental slope efficiency.

Equations (15)

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d N l d t = d N u d t = ( 1 τ + σ el λ l hc I + σ ep λ p hc I p ) N u ( σ al λ l hc I + σ ap λ p hc I p ) N l .
N l = N N u = N σ ep λ p hc I p + σ el λ l hc I + 1 τ ( σ ep + σ ap ) λ p hc I p + ( σ el + σ al ) λ l hc I + 1 τ .
g ( λ ) = α ( λ ) = σ e ( λ ) N u σ a ( λ ) N l ,
α p = N τ ( σ el σ ap σ al σ ep ) λ l hc I + σ ap τ ( σ ep + σ ap ) λ p hc I p + τ ( σ el + σ al ) λ l hc I + 1
g = N τ ( σ el σ ap σ al σ ep ) λ p hc I p σ al τ ( σ ep + σ ap ) λ p hc I p + τ ( σ el + σ al ) λ l hc I + 1 .
I p ( 0 ) = P in 2 π w p 2 exp ( 2 r 2 w p 2 ) .
I ( z ) = 1 + R 1 R P out 2 π w l 2 ( z ) exp ( 2 r 2 w l 2 ( z ) ) .
d I p + d z = α ( I p + + I p ) I p +
d I p d z = + α ( I p + + I p ) I p
I p + ( 0 ) = I p ( 0 )
I p ( d ) = R p I p + ( d ) .
I p + ( z ) I p ( z ) = constant = R p I p + 2 ( d ) .
d I p + d z = α ( I p + + R p I p + 2 ( d ) I p + ) I p + ,
G = 1 R ( 1 L ) .
G = ( 1 + 0 d d z 0 r d r g ( r , z ) 4 w l 2 ( z ) exp ( 2 r 2 w l 2 ( z ) ) ) 2 .

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