Abstract

We demonstrate that left-handed resonance transmission from metallic metamaterial, composed of periodically arranged double rings, can be extended to visible spectrum by introducing an active medium layer as the substrate. The severe ohmic loss inside metals at optical frequencies is compensated by stimulated emission of radiation in this active system. Due to the resonance amplification mechanism of recently proposed lasing spaser, the left-handed transmission band can be restored up to 610 nm wavelength, in dependence on the gain coefficient of the active layer. Additionally, threshold gains for different scaling levels of the double-ring unit are investigated to evaluate the gain requirement of left-handed transmission restoration at different frequency ranges.

©2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, shortened as spaser [1], was proposed to explore the potential applications in nanoplasmonics. More recently, as an analogy of the localized surface plasmon amplification, a lasing spaser [2], by combining the metallic metamaterial and gain medium, can achieve transmission amplification or lasing effect with coherent stimulated emission. As it is different from the dark mode of a spaser, a lasing spaser with metallic metamaterial as the resonant inclusion can radiate to the far field and generate transmission amplification with orders of magnitude enhancement at resonance frequency.

On the other hand, metamaterials have attracted wide interest because of their important applications in negative refraction [37], superlens [8] and invisible cloak [9]. However, electromagnetic resonance is usually required for the metallic metamaterials to obtain these extraordinary properties [1013], such as the left-handed transmission, which unavoidably results in severe resonance loss, especially at optical frequencies where metals can not be regarded as perfect conductor. Therefore, how to compensate the intrinsic ohmic loss in metallic metamaterials is very important in order to obtain lossless negative refraction behavior and optical left-handed transmission, because metal attenuation progressively dominates the resonant response at optical frequencies. As a matter of fact, Sarychev and Tartakovsky have demonstrated theoretically that a plasmoic metamaterial comprising metallic horseshoe-shaped nanotennas, if filled with highly efficient gain medium, can serve as a very compact source of electromagnetic radiation [14]. In this paper, inspired by the concept of the lasing spaser mechanism [2] as well as the other works reported earlier, we investigate numerically the amplification of the left-handed resonant transmission at terahertz frequencies, and even visible spectrum, with the aim to compensate the severe intrinsic ohmic loss by stimulated emission of radiation.

2. Numerical model

According to the work of Zheludev et al., the active medium, such as a semiconductor pumped by optical or electrical signal, is characterized by a gain coefficient α with the value of (2πλ)Im(ε+), where ε′ and ε″ are the real and imaginary part of the electric permittivity of the active medium, respectively [2]. In this work, such an active medium is used as the substrate of the metallic structure composed of concentric double rings, which was demonstrated to be efficient on generating the left-handed resonance in microwave regime [15]. Figure 1 shows schematically the unit cell of the double-ring metamaterial, where the geometric parameters a and b are 3.0 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The gap between the inner and outer rings, represented by g, is 0.1 mm. The 0.02-mm-thick rings in square shape are silver with Drude-type dispersion (ωp=1.37×1016 s-1 and γ=8.5×1013s-1, see Refs. 16 and 17). As for the active substrate, the thickness is 1.0 mm, the real part of permittivity is 2.1, and the gain coefficient is 450 cm-1. In our numerical simulations based on the full-wave finite element method, the simulation configuration has a dimension of 1×1×5 units (i.e., one unit in the transverse xy-plane and five units in the electromagnetic propagation direction along the z-axis). The polarized incident wave with electric field in the x direction and magnetic field in the y direction is satisfied by applying the perfect electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively [1820].

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (Color online) Unit cell of the metallic double-ring metamaterial with an active medium as the substrate. The millimeter sizes correspond to a scaling factor s=1.

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3. Simulation results

As demonstrated in our previous work [15], the double-ring metamaterial with the millimeter sizes specified earlier can exhibit the left-handed behavior with high transmission magnitude. However, by scaling the structure simultaneously down to the micrometer sizes (with a scaling factor s=10-3), the strong resonance transmission with left-handed behavior, originally exhibited in gigahertz range (near 26 GHz, see Ref. 15), is not inherited to the terahertz spectrum [see Fig. 2, solid circle line]. This attenuation of resonance transmission is easy to understand because the silver gradually loses its metallic luster at higher frequencies, as described by the Drude-type dispersion. To restore the fading left-handed resonance transmission by compensation of the resonance attenuation, a gain coefficient α=450cm-1 is introduced to the active substrate layer. The solid square line in Fig. 2 shows the gain-assisted transmission spectrum, from which it is obvious that the resonance response around 23.8 THz, in consistent with the scaling factor s=10-3, restores the transmission profile of its microwave counterpart to a large degree. Notice that there are also transmission amplifications around 18.6 and 33.4 THz, corresponding to the electric resonance frequency eo f and the electric plasma frequency ep f [15,21,22]. The corresponding reflection spectrum is also shown in Fig. 2, where the nonresonant reflectance larger than 0 dB is attributed to the effect of the gain layer. It is interesting that the left-handed transmission amplification at 23.8 THz is occurred with a decrease of the reflectance, while simultaneous enhancements of the transmittance and reflectance are found at both the electric resonance and electric plasma frequencies [see Fig. 2, open square line]. Although Fig. 2 indicates merely that certain gain coefficient is sufficient to compensate the resonance attenuation of metallic double rings above terahertz frequencies, it will be shown in the next part that further magnitude amplification of the resonance transmission is possible by tuning the gain coefficient.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (Color online) Transmission and reflection spectra of the double-ring metamaterial (scaling factor s=10-3) with and without gain coefficient.

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For further demonstration of the resonance restoration by using active medium, Figs. 3(a)–3(f) show the magnitude comparisons of the left-handed resonance with and without the gain coefficient. Firstly, the anti-parallel induced current on the metallic surfaces between the inner and outer ring edges implies a magnetic resonance of antisymmetric mode [4,23]. Secondly, after the introduction of gain coefficient α=450cm-1, the induced current as well as the resultant localized magnetic field is sufficiently enhanced in magnitude, which leads to the negative-permeability response and thus contributes to the restoration of the left-handed resonance transmission around 23.8 THz. Thirdly, there are two pairs of antisymmetric currents formed by the inner and outer ring, corresponding to magnetic moments of opposite directions, this should reduce, as a whole, the effective magnetic characteristic. However, from the Figs. 3(c) and 3(f), the magnetic alignments are strongly concentrated in the left and right gaps, and it seems that they mainly canceled each other only in the middle part of the double rings. In overall, the simulation result reveals that the opposite magnetic alignments are coupled to form a counterclockwise rotation [see Figs. 3(c) and 3(f)]. Theoretically, such antiparallel magnetic moments in a unit cell could be interpreted in the viewpoint of resonance hybridization, corresponding to the antisymmetric mode |ω+〉[24,25].

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (Color online) Comparison of the magnetic resonance at 23.8 THz with and without gain coefficient. Induced current, magnitude of magnetic field, and magnetic map at α=0cm-1 are presented in (a), (b), and (c), respectively. (d), (e), and (f) are the corresponding plots at α=450cm-1.

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Another issue worthy of investigation is the amplitude of resonance restoration and/or amplification as a function of the gain coefficient of the active layer. In fact, the enhancement of the resonance transmission does not always keep increasing with the gain level of the active medium; the reason has been demonstrated in Ref. 2. In our simulations, the peak transmissions of the left-handed resonance around 23.8 THz under different gain coefficients are shown in Fig. 4(a), from which the largest enhancement is obtained at the gain value of 600cm-1, corresponding to the maximum resonance amplification of 16.7 dB. Such an amplification magnitude is much smaller than the peak transmission of 42 dB at resonance frequency of about 35 THz from the asymmetric split-ring metamaterial (see Ref. 2). On the other hand, the threshold gain, i.e., the gain coefficient corresponds to 0 dB resonance transmission (so called resonance restoration), about 450 cm-1 at 23.8 THz resonance as shown in Fig. 4(a) is larger than the threshold gain of 70 cm-1 from the asymmetric split-ring metamaterial at 35 THz [2]. The reason for these two aspects may be that the asymmetric split-ring metamaterial has a resonance with higher Q-factor than the double-ring one does. In addition, the dependence of the left-handed bandwidth on the gain coefficient can be estimated from Fig. 4(b). The simulation result seems that transmission amplification does not lead to obvious change in the transmission bandwidth, which is attributed to the relatively low Q-factor of the double-ring metamaterial.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (Color online) (a) The transmission peak as a function of the gain coefficient at resonance frequency of 23.8 THz. (b) The transmission bands for different gains.

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We have demonstrated that the resonance restoration to 0 dB transmission at 23.8 THz corresponds to a threshold gain of 450 cm-1. It should be of interest to investigate the threshold gains for different scaling levels of the double-ring unit, in order to evaluate the gain requirement of the left-handed transmission restoration at different frequency ranges, as well as to explore whether the similar left-handed resonance amplification can be generated at the visible spectrum. Figure 5(a) shows the dependence of the threshold gain on the resonance frequency of the left-handed transmission, as a result of shrinking down the sizes of the double-ring unit simultaneously by the scaling factor s (in accordance with the scaling law fo1s2+const., see Ref. 26). In order to obtain the similar resonance behavior in the visible regime, a nanometer version of the double rings is required. However, simply scaling down the microwave metamaterial (see Fig. 1) into the visible spectrum will lead to the unrealistic case of gap g and metal thickness smaller than 20 nm. Thus, this case is calculated with a different geometric configuration: edge length of the out ring a is 185 nm, gap g is 20 nm, metal cross section is 20×20 nm2, and unit cell is in 210×100×210 nm3. Figure 5(b) shows the restoration of the left-handed resonance near 492 THz (about 610 nm wavelength of red light); with the threshold gain α=1.45×104 cm-1 and the thickness of the active substrate is 60 nm. It should be emphasized that the proposed gain-assisted left-handed response in visible spectrum is promising for its lossless or even amplification capability of the left-handed resonance transmission; while in contrast, the other visible left-handed metamaterials in literature are confronted with heavily lossy predicament. Nevertheless, It should be reminded that the active media with very high gain coefficients are disadvantageous to be obtained, although the threshold gain for visible spectrum (α=1.45×104 cm-1) is comparable to that of the active media available in semiconducting quantum dots. For example, gain with order of 105 cm-1 has been attainable experimentally [27,28]. Therefore, increasing the Q-factor of the left-handed resonance by exploring optimization of metallic metamaterials, consequently decreasing the threshold gain, should be important for improvement of such gain assisted left-handed resonance transmission.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (Color online) (a) The threshold gain as a function of resonance frequency, corresponding to different scaling factors. (b) Left-handed resonance transmission at 492 THz, with the threshold gain α=1.45×104 cm-1.

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4. Conclusions

Resonance amplification of left-handed transmission with considerable magnitude enhancement is demonstrated numerically in a metamaterial composed of metallic double rings when an active medium is introduced as the substrate. The significant amplification of left-handed transmission remains very well even when the left-hand resonance moves up to the visible spectrum, indicating that it is possible to overcome the severe resonance loss inside metals at optical frequencies. By optimizing the metallic structures of various left-handed metamaterials, left-handed transmission amplification with less threshold gain value could be obtained in the future. Amplification method similar to the active left-handed materials could also be extended to other metamaterials, such as superlens and cloaking structures.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2004CB619003, 2006CB921804 and 2009CB930501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10534020, 10604029, 10704036, 10747116, 60578034 and 10874081).

References and links

1. D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008). [CrossRef]  

3. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005). [CrossRef]  

4. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007). [CrossRef]  

5. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006). [CrossRef]  

7. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Materials 7, 435–441 (2008). [CrossRef]  

9. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006). [CrossRef]  

11. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 13, 4922–4930 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005). [CrossRef]  

13. M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007). [CrossRef]  

14. A. K. Sarychev and G. Tartakovsky, “Magnetic plasmonic metamaterials in actively pumped host medium and plasmonic nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085436 (2007). [CrossRef]  

15. Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008). [CrossRef]  

16. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008). [CrossRef]  

18. F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007). [CrossRef]  

19. Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005). [CrossRef]  

20. Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007). [CrossRef]  

21. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007). [CrossRef]  

25. H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu. T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 12095–12101 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. H. Carrere, X. Marie, L. Lombez, and T. Amand, “Optical gain of InGaAsN/InP quantum wells for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181115 (2006). [CrossRef]  

28. S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Materials 7, 435–441 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. K. Sarychev and G. Tartakovsky, “Magnetic plasmonic metamaterials in actively pumped host medium and plasmonic nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085436 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu. T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 12095–12101 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. H. Carrere, X. Marie, L. Lombez, and T. Amand, “Optical gain of InGaAsN/InP quantum wells for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181115 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Materials 7, 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (8)

F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. K. Sarychev and G. Tartakovsky, “Magnetic plasmonic metamaterials in actively pumped host medium and plasmonic nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085436 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu. T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 12095–12101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

H. Carrere, X. Marie, L. Lombez, and T. Amand, “Optical gain of InGaAsN/InP quantum wells for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181115 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Near-infrared double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 13, 4922–4930 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amand, T.

H. Carrere, X. Marie, L. Lombez, and T. Amand, “Optical gain of InGaAsN/InP quantum wells for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Cai, W.

Cao, W.

Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carrere, H.

H. Carrere, X. Marie, L. Lombez, and T. Amand, “Optical gain of InGaAsN/InP quantum wells for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chettiar, U. K.

Choi, Y.-S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

Dong, Z. G.

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

Fan, W.

Fedotov, V. A.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Firsov, A. A.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

Gleeson, H. F.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

Hennessy, K.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katsarakis, N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Khrushchev, I. Y.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, S. Y.

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.-Q.

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

Liu, H.

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

Liu, Y. M.

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Materials 7, 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. W.

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lombez, L.

H. Carrere, X. Marie, L. Lombez, and T. Amand, “Optical gain of InGaAsN/InP quantum wells for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malloy, K. J.

Marie, X.

H. Carrere, X. Marie, L. Lombez, and T. Amand, “Optical gain of InGaAsN/InP quantum wells for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meyrath, L. Fu. T. P.

Osgood, R. M.

Panoiu, N. C.

Papasimakis, N.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petroff, P. M.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrovic, J.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rakher, M. T.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

Shalaev, V. M.

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strauf, S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tartakovsky, G.

A. K. Sarychev and G. Tartakovsky, “Magnetic plasmonic metamaterials in actively pumped host medium and plasmonic nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085436 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tuttle, G.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, F. M.

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.-M.

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.-M.

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D. M.

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, M. X.

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Materials 7, 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J. F.

J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S. N.

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.-N.

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. G. Dong, M. X. Xu, S. Y. Lei, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Negative refraction with magnetic resonance in a metallic double-ring metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 064101 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Carrere, X. Marie, L. Lombez, and T. Amand, “Optical gain of InGaAsN/InP quantum wells for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181115 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Li, S.-M. Wang, H. Liu, J.-Q. Li, F.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Dispersion of magnetic plasmon polaritons in perforated trilayer metamaterials,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 023104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Materials (1)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Materials 7, 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nat. Photonics 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, H. F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A. A. Firsov, I. Y. Khrushchev, and J. Petrovic, “Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies,” Nature 438, 335–338 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarakis, Th. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235114 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. K. Sarychev and G. Tartakovsky, “Magnetic plasmonic metamaterials in actively pumped host medium and plasmonic nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 085436 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, Z. W. Liu, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon hybridization and optical activity at optical frequencies in metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. Y. Lei, Q. Li, M. X. Xu, H. Liu, T. Li, F. M. Wang, and S. N. Zhu, “Non-left-handed transmission and bianisotropic effect in a π-shaped metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 075117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

F. M. Wang, H. Liu, T. Li, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Metamaterial of rod pairs standing on gold plate and its negative refraction property in the far-infrared frequency regime,” Phys. Rev. E 75, 016604 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Cao, “Numerical simulations of negative-index refraction in wedge-shaped metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 016607 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773–4776 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Effective medium theory of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (Color online) Unit cell of the metallic double-ring metamaterial with an active medium as the substrate. The millimeter sizes correspond to a scaling factor s=1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (Color online) Transmission and reflection spectra of the double-ring metamaterial (scaling factor s=10-3) with and without gain coefficient.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (Color online) Comparison of the magnetic resonance at 23.8 THz with and without gain coefficient. Induced current, magnitude of magnetic field, and magnetic map at α=0cm-1 are presented in (a), (b), and (c), respectively. (d), (e), and (f) are the corresponding plots at α=450cm-1.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (Color online) (a) The transmission peak as a function of the gain coefficient at resonance frequency of 23.8 THz. (b) The transmission bands for different gains.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (Color online) (a) The threshold gain as a function of resonance frequency, corresponding to different scaling factors. (b) Left-handed resonance transmission at 492 THz, with the threshold gain α=1.45×104 cm-1.

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