Abstract

We first time prepared Nd3+ ions doped anodic aluminum oxide (Nd:AAO) templates, reported linear, sublinear and superlinear photoluminescence (PL) from Nd:AAO templates loaded with Ag nanowires in different excitation power regions, in which, the excitation laser with wavelength 805 nm resonantly pumped the population to 4F5/2 states of Nd3+, and the radiative transitions 4F3/24I9/2 of Nd3+ centered at 880 nm. The excitation power dependences of emission polarization ratio and the spectral width were also investigated. The observed nonlinear amplifications of the PL intensity implied strong interaction between randomly-dispersed Nd3+ ions and ordered-arrayed Ag nanowires in AAO templates.

©2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Recently, remarkable advances have been made in the exploiting and demonstrating plasmonic nanodevices such as single-photon emitter based on the conversion of single-plasmon [1], single-photon transistor [2], all-optical modulator and surface plasmon (SP) amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SPASER) [3, 4], which are all based on the interaction of nanoscale optical emitter and SP of metallic nanostructure and have promising applications in quantum information processing and communication [57]. A single plasmon is generated in the exciton-plasmon-photon conversion system by the efficiently coupling of emission from a single quantum dot, it propagates along Ag NW and emits out at the end of NW. Single-photon transistor is also designed based on the strong coupling of quantum emitter and propagating SPs confined in a metallic NW.

Au and Ag nanostructures have large local field enhancement and optical nonlinearities due to the SP resonant absorption [814], which could be used to modulate emission properties of the optical emitters [1518]. Comparing to a single Ag NW, the arrayed Ag NWs with appropriate separations more significantly strengthen the coupling with the optical emitters [19]. The resonant excitation wavelength of Nd3+ (4F5/2 states) is around 805 nm, it is far off the resonance of transverse SP (TSP) of Ag NWs, which is helpful to effectively depress the direct excitation of SPs by the excitation laser with a polarization vertical to the long axis of the NWs. The Ag NW arrays act as very efficient nanolens arrays to direct the majorities of the radiative emissions of proximal optical emitters into the SP modes of NWs [2024]. The SPs are waveguided in subwavelength dimension and propagate along the arrayed NWs, the propagating SPs could be stimulated amplified by the population-inversed optical emitters around the NWs.

2. Exprimental

Ag NWs array in Nd3+ doped AAO template (Ag/Nd:AAO) were grown by using electrochemistry deposition. The templates were prepared by using two-step anodization processes. The Silver was deposited in the pores of membranes by dc electrolysis in an electrolyte containing AgNO3 (0.45 g/10 mL) and H3BO3 (0.45 g/10 mL) with Pt counter electrodes.

The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed using a FEG SEM Sirion 200 operated at an accelerating voltage of 10.0 kV. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using a JEOL 2010HT operated at 100 kV. The absorption spectra were recorded by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer (Varian Cary 5000). The excitation source for PL was a mode lock Ti:Sapphire picosecond pulsed laser (Mira 900, Coherent) with pulse width ~3 ps and repetition rate 76 MHz. The PL from samples were recorded by spectrometer (SpectraPro 2500i, Acton) with liquid nitrogen cooled CCD (SPEC-10, Princeton).

3. Results and discussion

The SEM image of Nd3+ doped AAO template is shown in Fig. 1(a). All the samples used in this study were annealed 4 hrs at 600°C in N2 atmosphere to improve the photoactivity of Nd3+ in AAO. The SEM image of arrayed Ag NWs and TEM image of a single Ag NW are shown in Fig. 1(b) and 1(c), respectively. The Ag NWs have average length ~3µm and diameter ~80 nm with separation ~30 nm. The electron diffraction pattern of a single NW shown in Fig. 1(d) and XRD pattern of the whole sample are attributed to metallic Ag NWs of the annealed sample. Fig. 1(e) shows the absorption spectra of and Ag/Nd:AAO sample and Nd:AAO template, which were recorded by using unpolarized source with normal incident. The absorption bands of Ag/Nd:AAO around 460 nm are caused by the TSP of Ag NW arrays.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Nanostructures and absorption spectra of Ag/Nd:AAO (all the samples in this study were annealed 4 hours in N2 atmosphere at 600°C). (a) SEM of Nd:AAO template. (b) SEM image of Ag NWs embedded in Nd:AAO. (c) TEM image of a single Ag NWs. The Ag NWs have an average diameter of ~80 nm and a separation of ~30 nm. (d) Electron diffraction pattern of a single Ag NW. (e) The absorption spectra of Ag/Nd:AAO sample and Nd:AAO template. The absorption peak around 460 nm is attributed to TSP of Ag NW arrays.

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The input laser (cw or ps) is normally incident and the PL is recorded by using transmission model as shown in Fig. 2(a). The normal incident laser depressed the direct excitation of LSP of Ag NWs and effectively populated Nd3+ in different depth of the sample.

The similar PL spectra of Ag/Nd:AAO sample and Nd:AAO template are shown in Fig. 2(b). In which, Nd3+ were resonantly excited to 4F5/2 levels by using Ti:Sapphire laser at wavelength λ exc=805 nm. The PL peak around 870~880 nm is attributed to the radiative transitions 4F3/24I9/2 of Nd3+. The excitation wavelength dependence of PL intensity (usually called PLE) of Ag/Nd:AAO is shown in Fig. 2(c). In which, a narrow band pass filter (BPF) is used to record the peak PL intensity at 900 nm. Two peaks around 750 and 805 nm in PLE are corresponding to the metastates 4F7/2 and 4F5/2 of Nd3+, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Excitation and recoding of PL from Ag/Nd:AAO sample and Nd:AAO template. (a) Illustration of excitation and recording of PL in transmittance mode. (b) PL spectra of Nd:AAO template and Ag/Nd:AAO sample with excitation wavelength λ exc=805 nm (P exc=5 mW). The PL peak around 870~880 nm is attributed to the radiative transitions 4F5/24I3/2 of Nd3+. (c) PL excitation (PLE) spectrum of Ag/Nd:AAO recorded at the emission wavelength λ emi=900 nm (P exc=60 mW). Two peaks around 750 and 805 nm in PLE are corresponding to the metastates 4F7/2 and 4F5/2 of Nd3+.

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The PL spectra of Ag/Nd:AAO recorded with excitation power P exc=60, 80 and 100 mW are shown in Fig. 3(a). The peak PL intensity around 880 nm super-linearly increased and the spectral width slightly decreased as P exc increased to 100 mW. The detailed excitation power dependence of PL intensity is surprisingly interesting (see Fig. 3(b)). Linear, sub-linear and super-linear dependences are all exhibited. One can clearly see different power dependences in the four power regions. Region I: ν 1=∂logI PL/∂P exc=0.92, P exc<P C2=33 mW. Region II: ν 2=0.52, P C2P exc<P C3=84 mW. Region III: ν 3=3.4, P C3P exc<P C4=115 mW. And region IV: ν 4=8.1, P excP C4=115 mW. We will discuss the originations of four different power dependences later.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Excitation power dependence of PL. (a) PL spectra from Ag/Nd:AAO with P exc=60, 80 and 100 mW. As P exc increases from 80 to 100 mW, the peak intensity increases ~50% while the spectral width decreases ~12%. (b) Peak PL intensity (leakage SPs) at λ emi=872 nm as a function of excitation power. The SPs in Ag nanocavity arrays are linearly (ν 1=0.92), sublinearly (ν 2=0.52), stimulated (ν 3=3.4) and avalanched (ν 4=8.1) amplified in the region I, II, III and IV. The threshold power for the region II, III and IV are P C2=33 mW, P C3=84 mW and P C4=115 mW, respectively.

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The polarization distribution of PL from Ag/Nd:AAO recorded with P exc=20 and 90 mW are shown in Fig. 4(a). The polarization ratio is defined as r p=(I VI H)/(I V+I H), where I V and I H represent vertical and horizontal component of PL intensity, respectively. The value of r p is around 0 in region I, it approximately linearly increases with the power P exc in region II, reaches the maximum 0.082 and then decreases with P exc in region III, and finally dramatically decreases to the negative value in region IV(see Fig. 4(b)).

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Polarization behaviors of output PL. (a) Polarization distribution of output PL with excitation power P exc=20 and 90 mW. (b) Polarization factor r p as a function of P exc. The value of r p is around 0 in region I, approximately linearly increases in region II, reaches the maximum 0.082 in region III and dramatically decreases to the negative in region IV.

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In region I (P exc<P C2=33 mW), the output PL intensity approximately linearly increased with the input power and the slope ν 1=0.92. Ag/Nd:AAO and Nd:AAO have the same power dependences. Considering that the thickness of Nd:AAO is about 20 µm, and the average length of Ag NWs in Nd:AAO is only about 3 µm, so we believe that the PL is mainly from the Nd3+ in the layer without Ag NWs (or we say that only the Nd3+ in the layer without Ag NWs is populated by the input laser) in the weak excitation region, which means that the interaction between populated Nd3+ and Ag NWs is very weak.

In region II (P C2P exc<P C3=84 mW), the Nd3+ in the layer with Ag NWs was also partially populated. This portion of populated Nd3+ strongly interacted with Ag NWs due to the small distance (the average gap between the NWs is only about 30 nm). On the one hand, the dipole emissions from this portion of Nd3+ with revised populations generated the SPs. On the other hand, the propagating SPs were absorbed by the other portion of Nd3+ unpopulated. This interconversion of Nd3+ dipoles and Ag SPs leads to a sublinear power dependences (ν 2=0.52). The partial polarization of output PL is additional evidence that the dipole transitions of Nd3+ coupled to the propagating SPs along the NWs and the SPs emit out from the end of NWs.

As the input power increasing to region III (P C3P exc<P C4=115 mW), almost all the populations of Nd3+ in AAO were reversed. The output PL intensity superlinearly increased with the input power, the slope ν 3 increased from 0.52 to about 3.4. The polarization factor r p increased to the maximum 0.082 at P exc≈(P C3+P C4)/2. The value of r p will be equal to (1-cos245°)/(1+cos245°)=0.333 if all the radiative transitions of Nd3+ coupled to the NWs and all far field emissions are from the ends of NWs when the relatively larger reflection of I H is neglected. So the observed polarization factor 0.082 implied an efficient conversion from the dipole emission of Nd3+ to propagating SPs. In the PL spectra of Ag/Nd:AAO (see Fig. 2(a)), the half spectral width of right side at half maximum (HWHM) is about 34.1 and 34.2 nm at P exc=60 and 80mW, it decreased to 30.2 nm at P exc=100 mW. The decreasing of spectral width is about 12%. The increasing of slope (power index) ν 3 and decreasing of spectral width of PL implied stimulated processes were partially involved [25, 26] in region III.

When the input power further increased to region IV (P excP C4=115 mW), an additional amplification processes caused by strong coupling between the Ag NWs were involved. These amplification processes lead to a broadened PL spectrum with a higher slope ν 4=8.1 and a larger negative polarization ratio r p=-0.15. The broadened PL spectrum in this strong excitation region may be partially caused by the direct plasmon emission and intraband transitions from Ag NWs [2730].

Comparing to a single Ag NW, the Ag NWs array system has larger plasmonic coupling efficiency and smaller SP propagation loss [19]. By improving the design of plasmonic nanocavity system (such as optimizing the diameters of Ag NWs and the gap distances between the Ag NWs array, increasing the concentration of Nd3+ ions, increasing the coupling between the radiative emission of Nd3+ ions and the SPs of Ag NWs array, and decreasing the propagating loss of SPs along the Ag NWs), it is possible to realize stimulated amplifications of SPs in this nanosystem [3133].

4. Conclusions

In summary, the plasmonic nanocavity system consisting of Ag NWs arrays embedded in Nd3+ doped AAO exhibited linear, sublinear and superlinear PL. The input laser with λ exc=805 nm resonantly pump the population to 4F5/2 states of Nd3+, the radiative transitions 4F3/24I9/2 of Nd3+ centered at 880 nm were strongly coupled to the propagating SPs. The slope ν=∂logI PL/∂P exc increased from 0.52 to 3.4, the polarization ratio of output PL reached the maximum 0.082 and the corresponding spectral width decreased about 12%. The observed nonlinear PL should find the applications in plasmonic nanodevices.

Acknowledgments

Thank to H. M. Gong and S. Xiao for the assistance in sample preparations and PL measurements. Thank to Q. Q. Wang for the helpful discussions. This work was supported by NSFC (No.10534030), National Program on Key Science Research (No. 2006CB921500 and 2007CB935300).

References and links

1. D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007). [CrossRef]  

3. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007). [CrossRef]  

4. Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-Plasmon-Photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007) [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005) [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling Model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243–18253 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004). [CrossRef]  

10. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. P. Mühlschlegel, H. -J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006). [CrossRef]  

14. J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006) [CrossRef]  

15. C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004). [CrossRef]  

16. J. Y. Yan, W. Zhang, S Duan, X. G. Zhao, and A. O. Govorov, “Optical properties of coupled metalsemiconductor and metal-molecule nanocrystal complexes: Role of multipole effects,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 165301 (2008). [CrossRef]  

17. M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, H. J. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Coherent exciton-plasmon interaction in the hybrid semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle complex,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2125–2127 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 162107 (2008). [CrossRef]  

19. S. D. Liu, M. T. Cheng, Z. J. Yang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Surface plasmon propagation in a pair of metal nanowires coupled to a nanosized optical emitter,” Opt. Lett. 33, 851–853 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007). [CrossRef]  

21. J. N. Farahani, D.W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095–6098 (2000). [CrossRef]  

24. J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 475–477 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. W. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, and G. W. Bryant, “Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and the nonlinear fano effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146804 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004). [CrossRef]  

28. K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730–12731 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005). [CrossRef]  

31. V. V. Temnov and U. Woggon, “Superradiance and subradiance in an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of two-level systems coupled to a low-Q cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243602 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. I. E. Protsenko, A. V. Uskov, O. A. Zaimidoroga, V. N. Samoilov, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Dipole nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063812 (2005). [CrossRef]  

33. M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. (2008), 10.1021/nl802603r (to be published). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

  • View by:

  1. D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-Plasmon-Photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling Model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243–18253 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Mühlschlegel, H. -J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Y. Yan, W. Zhang, S Duan, X. G. Zhao, and A. O. Govorov, “Optical properties of coupled metalsemiconductor and metal-molecule nanocrystal complexes: Role of multipole effects,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 165301 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, H. J. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Coherent exciton-plasmon interaction in the hybrid semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle complex,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2125–2127 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 162107 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. D. Liu, M. T. Cheng, Z. J. Yang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Surface plasmon propagation in a pair of metal nanowires coupled to a nanosized optical emitter,” Opt. Lett. 33, 851–853 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. N. Farahani, D.W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095–6098 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 475–477 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. W. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, and G. W. Bryant, “Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and the nonlinear fano effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146804 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  28. K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730–12731 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  31. V. V. Temnov and U. Woggon, “Superradiance and subradiance in an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of two-level systems coupled to a low-Q cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243602 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. I. E. Protsenko, A. V. Uskov, O. A. Zaimidoroga, V. N. Samoilov, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Dipole nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063812 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. (2008), 10.1021/nl802603r (to be published).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Y. Yan, W. Zhang, S Duan, X. G. Zhao, and A. O. Govorov, “Optical properties of coupled metalsemiconductor and metal-molecule nanocrystal complexes: Role of multipole effects,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 165301 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 162107 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. D. Liu, M. T. Cheng, Z. J. Yang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Surface plasmon propagation in a pair of metal nanowires coupled to a nanosized optical emitter,” Opt. Lett. 33, 851–853 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, H. J. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Coherent exciton-plasmon interaction in the hybrid semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle complex,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2125–2127 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-Plasmon-Photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling Model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243–18253 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
[Crossref]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, and G. W. Bryant, “Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and the nonlinear fano effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146804 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. V. Temnov and U. Woggon, “Superradiance and subradiance in an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of two-level systems coupled to a low-Q cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243602 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. E. Protsenko, A. V. Uskov, O. A. Zaimidoroga, V. N. Samoilov, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Dipole nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063812 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. N. Farahani, D.W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. -J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730–12731 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095–6098 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Akimov, A. V.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambati, M.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. (2008), 10.1021/nl802603r (to be published).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artemyev, M. V.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-Plasmon-Photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. (2008), 10.1021/nl802603r (to be published).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bryant, G. W.

W. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, and G. W. Bryant, “Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and the nonlinear fano effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146804 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caruso, F.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. J.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
[Crossref]

Cheng, M. T.

Conley, N. R.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demler, E. A.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dickson, R. M.

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095–6098 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ding, S.

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, S

J. Y. Yan, W. Zhang, S Duan, X. G. Zhao, and A. O. Govorov, “Optical properties of coupled metalsemiconductor and metal-molecule nanocrystal complexes: Role of multipole effects,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 165301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dufresne, E. R.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Eisler, H. -J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. -J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

J. N. Farahani, D.W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling Model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243–18253 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eustis, S.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling Model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243–18253 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, D.W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedutik, Y.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-Plasmon-Photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, J. Y.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Franzl, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

Genov, D. A.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. (2008), 10.1021/nl802603r (to be published).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillet, P.

C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gittins, D. I.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gong, H. M.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Govorov, A. O.

J. Y. Yan, W. Zhang, S Duan, X. G. Zhao, and A. O. Govorov, “Optical properties of coupled metalsemiconductor and metal-molecule nanocrystal complexes: Role of multipole effects,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 165301 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, and G. W. Bryant, “Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and the nonlinear fano effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146804 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, D. L.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J. B.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
[Crossref]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Han, Y. B.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. H.

Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, D.W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. -J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P. R.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofer, F.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imura, K.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730–12731 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling Model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243–18253 (2006).
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D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

Kostcheev, S.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kreibig, U.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ledoux, G.

C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lemelle, L.

C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lerondel, G.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. D.

Louis, C.

C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lukin, M. D.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
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D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6095–6098 (2000).
[Crossref]

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V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. -J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

Morimoto, A.

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. -J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, A.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mulvaney, P.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
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K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730–12731 (2004).
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M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. (2008), 10.1021/nl802603r (to be published).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

O’Reilly, E. P.

I. E. Protsenko, A. V. Uskov, O. A. Zaimidoroga, V. N. Samoilov, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Dipole nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063812 (2005).
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K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Plasmon mode imaging of single gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 12730–12731 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photon. 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perriat, P.

C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. -J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. N. Farahani, D.W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 017402 (2005).
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I. E. Protsenko, A. V. Uskov, O. A. Zaimidoroga, V. N. Samoilov, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Dipole nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063812 (2005).
[Crossref]

Reed, M. A.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, J. J.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Royer, P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Samoilov, V. N.

I. E. Protsenko, A. V. Uskov, O. A. Zaimidoroga, V. N. Samoilov, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Dipole nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063812 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sanders, A. W.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-Plasmon-Photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sørensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, E. A. Demler, and M. D. Lukin, “A single-photon transistor using nanoscale surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 807–812 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
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A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “Bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Temnov, V. V.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-Plasmon-Photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov and U. Woggon, “Superradiance and subradiance in an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of two-level systems coupled to a low-Q cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243602 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tillement, O.

C. Louis, S. Roux, G. Ledoux, L. Lemelle, P. Gillet, O. Tillement, and P. Perriat, “Gold nano-antennas for increasing luminescence,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2163–2166 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. (2008), 10.1021/nl802603r (to be published).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uskov, A. V.

I. E. Protsenko, A. V. Uskov, O. A. Zaimidoroga, V. N. Samoilov, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Dipole nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063812 (2005).
[Crossref]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von. Plessen, G.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von. Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 205424 (2004).
[Crossref]

W, X.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 257403 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 162107 (2008).
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S. D. Liu, M. T. Cheng, Z. J. Yang, and Q. Q. Wang, “Surface plasmon propagation in a pair of metal nanowires coupled to a nanosized optical emitter,” Opt. Lett. 33, 851–853 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, H. J. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Coherent exciton-plasmon interaction in the hybrid semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle complex,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2125–2127 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
[Crossref]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wiley, B. J.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilk, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, O.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woggon, U.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-Plasmon-Photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov and U. Woggon, “Superradiance and subradiance in an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of two-level systems coupled to a low-Q cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 243602 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6, 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, D. L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y. B. Han, H. M. Gong, and X. W, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7, 723–728 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, G. G.

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science. 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamagishi, S.

Yan, J. Y.

J. Y. Yan, W. Zhang, S Duan, X. G. Zhao, and A. O. Govorov, “Optical properties of coupled metalsemiconductor and metal-molecule nanocrystal complexes: Role of multipole effects,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 165301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. J.

Yu, C. L.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaimidoroga, O. A.

I. E. Protsenko, A. V. Uskov, O. A. Zaimidoroga, V. N. Samoilov, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Dipole nanolaser,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 063812 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

J. Y. Yan, W. Zhang, S Duan, X. G. Zhao, and A. O. Govorov, “Optical properties of coupled metalsemiconductor and metal-molecule nanocrystal complexes: Role of multipole effects,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 165301 (2008).
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W. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, and G. W. Bryant, “Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and the nonlinear fano effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146804 (2006).
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Zhang, X.

M. Ambati, S. H. Nam, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Observation of stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. (2008), 10.1021/nl802603r (to be published).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X. G.

J. Y. Yan, W. Zhang, S Duan, X. G. Zhao, and A. O. Govorov, “Optical properties of coupled metalsemiconductor and metal-molecule nanocrystal complexes: Role of multipole effects,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 165301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. J.

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H. J.

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, H. J. Zhou, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Coherent exciton-plasmon interaction in the hybrid semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle complex,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2125–2127 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Han, D. J. Chen, S. Ding, H. J. Zhou, Y. B. Han, G. G. Xiong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Plasmon resonant absorption and third-order optical nonlinearity in Ag-Ti cosputtered composite films,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023526 (2006)
[Crossref]

Zibrov, A. S.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Q. Wang, J. B. Han, H. M. Gong, D. J. Chen, X. J. Zhao, J. Y. Feng, and J. J. Ren, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanowire polarizing glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 2405–2408 (2006).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Nanostructures and absorption spectra of Ag/Nd:AAO (all the samples in this study were annealed 4 hours in N2 atmosphere at 600°C). (a) SEM of Nd:AAO template. (b) SEM image of Ag NWs embedded in Nd:AAO. (c) TEM image of a single Ag NWs. The Ag NWs have an average diameter of ~80 nm and a separation of ~30 nm. (d) Electron diffraction pattern of a single Ag NW. (e) The absorption spectra of Ag/Nd:AAO sample and Nd:AAO template. The absorption peak around 460 nm is attributed to TSP of Ag NW arrays.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Excitation and recoding of PL from Ag/Nd:AAO sample and Nd:AAO template. (a) Illustration of excitation and recording of PL in transmittance mode. (b) PL spectra of Nd:AAO template and Ag/Nd:AAO sample with excitation wavelength λ exc=805 nm (P exc=5 mW). The PL peak around 870~880 nm is attributed to the radiative transitions 4F5/24I3/2 of Nd3+. (c) PL excitation (PLE) spectrum of Ag/Nd:AAO recorded at the emission wavelength λ emi=900 nm (P exc=60 mW). Two peaks around 750 and 805 nm in PLE are corresponding to the metastates 4F7/2 and 4F5/2 of Nd3+.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Excitation power dependence of PL. (a) PL spectra from Ag/Nd:AAO with P exc=60, 80 and 100 mW. As P exc increases from 80 to 100 mW, the peak intensity increases ~50% while the spectral width decreases ~12%. (b) Peak PL intensity (leakage SPs) at λ emi=872 nm as a function of excitation power. The SPs in Ag nanocavity arrays are linearly (ν 1=0.92), sublinearly (ν 2=0.52), stimulated (ν 3=3.4) and avalanched (ν 4=8.1) amplified in the region I, II, III and IV. The threshold power for the region II, III and IV are P C2=33 mW, P C3=84 mW and P C4=115 mW, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Polarization behaviors of output PL. (a) Polarization distribution of output PL with excitation power P exc=20 and 90 mW. (b) Polarization factor r p as a function of P exc. The value of r p is around 0 in region I, approximately linearly increases in region II, reaches the maximum 0.082 in region III and dramatically decreases to the negative in region IV.

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