Abstract

We have demonstrated the bandwidth control of a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 (Ti:PPLN) Sﬞolc filter by a temperature-gradient-control technique. Up to 2.8 nm of filtering bandwidth was achieved with a simple temperature-gradient-control technique in a 78-mm-long of Ti:PPLN waveguide, which has a 0.2 nm filtering bandwidth at an uniform temperature. We have also analyzed the experimental results with the theoretical calculation which is derived from the codirectional coupled mode equations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

The advance of the electric field poling techniques to fabricate periodically poled ferroelectric materials open new renaissance of nonlinear optics based on a quasi-phase-matching (QPM) device. Among the various periodically poled ferroelectric materials, a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) is particularly attractive for various QPM devices due to its large nonlinear coefficient and easy integration. The main application fields of QPM device based on PPLN are all-optical wavelength conversion [1, 2, 3], optical pulse compression [4], all-optical switching [5, 6], and all-optical logic gate [7, 8] because periodically reversed spontaneous polarization of lithium niobate gives high conversion efficiency. Actually, the PPLN devices modulate not only the nonlinear optical coefficients but also the electro-optical (EO) coefficients due to the periodically reversed microdomains. The former property has been well utilized in various nonlinear optics fields, during past 15 years after first electric field poling was succeed in LiNbO 3 at room temperature [9]. However, the latter property is only studied in high-frequency electro-optic modulator fields for quasi-matching between the traveling velocity of the optical wave and the electrical wave velocity in a waveguide [10]. Recently, a peculiar birefringent narrow band wavelength filter based on a PPLN was proposed by using the latter property [11]. Such kind of the wavelength filter is named Sﬞolc filter [12]. After first PPLN Sﬞolc filter was proposed [11], several researchers reported bulk PPLN Sﬞolc filters and waveguide-type Sﬞolc filters [13]. Most of the researches were focused on filtering wavelength tuning by a temperature change [13, 14] or an ultra-violet (UV) illumination method [15, 16] and multi-channel wavelength filtering by a waveguide-mode selecting [17] or a local-temperature-gradient technique [18]. However, up to now, no research on active bandwidth control of a PPLN Sﬞolc filter has been reported. In this paper, we demonstrate, for what we believe is the first time, the bandwidth control of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter which has a domain period of 16.6 µm by a temperature-gradient-control technique [19].

In the case of narrow band wavelength filtering in a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter [13], the power exchange between the two polarization modes in a periodically reversed ferroelectric domain can be described by codirectional coupled mode equations [20],

ddzAo(z)=iκ(z)Ae(z)eiΔkz,
ddzAe(z)=iκ*(z)Ao(z)eiΔkz,

where A o(z) and A e(z) are the field amplitude of the ordinary- and extraordinary-wave modes, respectively, Δk is the wave-vector mismatch and κ is the coupling coefficient. This is given by

κ=iωcno2ne2noneρsin(mπD)mπ,

where ρ is the rocking angle, D is the duty cycle, n o and n e are the effective refractive indices of the ordinary and extra-ordinarywaves, respectively. When TE-polarization beam is launched into a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter, the initial condition at z=0 is given by

Ao(0)=1
Ae(0)=0.

Then, the amplitude of a TM-polarized beam at z=L is given by the solution of eq. (1), and eq. (2) as following

Ae2=κ2sin2sLs2,

where s is given by s 2=κ * κ+(Δk/2)2.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristics of Ti:PPLN waveguide

A 78-mm-long Ti:PPLN waveguide of 16.6 µ m QPM period was used to demonstrate the bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. The waveguide loss at 1280 nm (TM-polarization) was determined by the Fabry-Perot method [21] to be 0.11 dB/cm. Detail information about the Ti:PPLN waveguide is listed in Table 1.

 

Fig. 1. Schematic of experimental setup for a bandwidth tunable the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter.

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To perform the active bandwidth control of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter, we used the temperature-gradient-control technique [19] along the waveguide. In this way, we can control the filtering bandwidth even with a regular PPLN device that has a uniform periodic QPM gratings. Figure 1 shows the schematic of a bandwidth controllable Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. To obtain the temperature gradient along the waveguide, two Peltier devices were used in a sample holder, one is for heating and the other is for cooling. Through this method, we achieved almost linear temperature gradient along the whole length of a sample [19]. The polarization of input beam was adjusted to TE-polarization by a first polarizer and end-fire coupled into the z-cut Ti:PPLN waveguide. The transmitted optical signal through the Ti:PPLN waveguide was analyzed by a second polarizer which is aligned to a TM-polarization direction. The details of experimental setup is described in Ref [13].

Figure 2 shows the transmission spectrum of the 78-mm-long Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter at room temperature. The normalized transmittance shows about 50%. If we consider the waveguide coupling losses (~-3 dB) of input and output Ti:PPLN waveguide, the measured transmittance indicates almost 100%. Actually, the transmittance of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc is decided by two parameters. One is a rocking angle and the other is a length of device (numbers of microdomain). The former can be controlled by an external electric field [22, 23] along the Y-axis of the Ti:PPLN waveguide. However, the latter is a fixed value after a device was fabricated. The relation between the transmittance and the length of the device is well discussed in Ref [23]. The measured full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the filter was about 0.2 nm, which is slightly broader than that of the predicted value in theoretical calculation (~0.19 nm). Each microdomain of a Ti:PPLN works as a half-wave plate which is alternately aligned at small angles of +θ (positive domains) and -θ (negative domains) with respect to the crystal’s z-axis. From the previous experimental results and theoretical calculations [13, 16, 17], we know that the minimum rocking angle of a Ti:PPLN is about 0.001 o. However, the exact rocking angle and the origin of such small tilting angle in a microdomain are not clear. Only one paper had reported the origin of the angle as photovoltaic effect in a PPLN [24]. Further research on this issue is required for more understanding of Sﬞolc filtering function in a PPLN. In the case of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter, the period of the grating is determined by the dispersion of the material given a desired center wavelength and the bandwidth is determined by the number of microdomains. Unfortunately, these are the fixed parameters after a Ti:PPLN waveguide was fabricated. Therefore, for the active control of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter, most of the researchers used the temperature control method which can induce the refractive index change in a PPLN. In this way, they tuned the center wavelength of the filter[13, 14] and demonstrated a tunable single- and dual-wavelength filter [18].

 

Fig. 2. Optical spectrum of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter at room temperature. The scatter (O) and solid line indicate the experimental data and theoretical curve respectively.

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In our experiments, the active bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter was performed by temperature-gradient-technique using a specially designed sample holder (Fig. 1). The distribution of the temperature along the Ti:PPLN waveguide T(z) and wave-vector mismatch Δk can be described follows:

T(z)=T(0)+[T(L)T(0)](z/L)
Δk(z)=2πλ[no(T,z)ne(T,z)]2πΛ,

where T(0) and T(L) are the temperatures at the input and output positions of the Ti:PPLN waveguide, and Λ is the period of QPM grating. Actually, the temperature induces the change of QPM grating period (Λ) as well as the refractive indices (n o, n e). The influence of the temperature in eq. (8) can be expressed as follows:

δ(ΔkΛ)=δ(Δk)·Λ+Δk·δΛ
=2π[dno/dTdne/dTnone+α]δT,

where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion. In the case of a Ti:PPLN, the influence of the changes in refractive indices (first term in right hand side of eq. (9)) to the effective grating period is about two orders of magnitude bigger than that of the thermal expansion (second term in right hand side of eq. (9)) [13]. Therefore, we neglected the thermal expansion effects in a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. The temperature gradient along the Ti:PPLN waveguide results in the broadening of bandwidth in the filter, such kind of broadening effect can also be achieved by a chirped QPM grating [19, 25]. However, the temperature gradient method allows the active bandwidth control which couldn’t be obtained in the chirped QPM grating method. Moreover, we can use the temperature gradient method not only in a uniform QPM grating but also in a chirped QPM grating sample for the active control of the filtering bandwidth. The transmission curves of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for various temperature gradients are shown in Fig 3. Figure 3(a) and 3(b) show the experimental and the theoretical results, respectively. The theoretical curves of Fig. 3(b) show good agreement with experimental results of Fig. 3(a) except for a 5.47oC case. In the case of a steep slope temperature gradient, we observed large ripples in transmission spectrum. This is mainly caused by several factors including inhomogeneity of refractive index along the Ti waveguide, and so on [26, 27]. As increased of the temperature gradients, the bandwidth of transmitted signal was broadened as you can see in Fig. 3. When the spectrum was broadened, the transmittance spectrum oscillates within bandwidth and transmittance was decreased as a function of spectrum bandwidth. The ripple feature in Fig. 3 is created by the interference among phase-matching conditions [25, 28]. We can solve this problem using apodized QPM grating which has different duty ratio of inverted mircodomains at the beginning and end parts of QPM grating [28, 29].

 

Fig. 3. The transmission curves of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. (a)Measured transmission spectra for four different temperature gradients, (b) Theoretical results for transmission spectra for four different temperature gradients.

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The bandwidth of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter as a function of temperature gradients is shown in Fig. 4. The theoretical bandwidths are calculated by using eq. (6) and (8). Here we used the effective refractive indices (n o, n e) of a Ti:PPLN as a function of temperature. The values of refractive indices are decided by the dispersion equations of the refractive index changes according to Ti diffusion densities [30]. The bandwidths of experimental results show more broad than those of theoretical calculation through the almost whole temperature gradient. These kinds of different bandwidths come from the different effective length between the ideal and real Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. The short effective length in the Ti:PPLN waveguide is induced by the difficulties with the fabrication technology in making the same QPM grating in a Ti:LiNbO 3 as originally intended when the QPM mask pattern was designed and homogeneous waveguide [6, 27, 31]. At a temperature difference of 5.47 °C at both endfaces of the Ti:PPLN, we achieved about 2.8 nm broad bandwidth in the filter which has a 0.2 nm filtering bandwidth at a uniform temperature. However, in the case of broad transmittance bandwidth, one cannot avoid a trade-off between transmittance and bandwidth. The transmittance of the filter as a function of temperature gradients is shown in Fig. 5. The transmittance decrease dramatically as a function of temperature gradients. To increase the transmittance of broadened bandwidth, the rocking angle, θ control is needed by applying an external dc-field along the Y-axis of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter [22].

 

Fig. 4. The bandwidth of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. The scatters and dot line indicate experimental results and theoretical calculation, respectively. The theoretical bandwidths are calculated by using eq. (6) and (8).

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Fig. 5. The transmittance of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. The scatters and solid line indicate experimental results and theoretical calculation, respectively.

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In conclusion, for the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the bandwidth control of a transmission spectrum in a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter that has regular QPM grating (Λ=16.6 µ m). Up to 2.8 nm of filtering bandwidth was achieved with a simple temperature-gradient-control technique in a 78-mm-long Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter, which has a 0.2 nm bandwidth at an uniform temperature. Further research is underway to increase of the transmittance even in a broaden bandwidth by applying the electric field along th Y-axis of a Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter. We believe this kind of bandwidth controllable Sﬞolc filter to be very useful for various optical experiments.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by IITA of Korea through the ‘Leading edge R&D Program and MEST of Korea through ’APRI- Research Program of GIST’.

References and links

1. A. Jechow, M. Schedel, S. Stry, J. Sacher, and R. Menzel, “Highly efficient single-pass frequency doubling of a continuous-wave distributed feedback laser diode using a PPLN waveguide crystal at 488 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3035–3037 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “1.5 µm band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupled structures,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1004–1006 (1998). [CrossRef]  

3. Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, M. Y. Park, C. C. Byeon, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Channel Selective Wavelength Conversion and Tuning in periodic poled Ti:PPLN Channel Waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2649–2655 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2649. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. M. A. Arbore, O. Marco, and M. M. Fejer, “Pulse compression during second-harmonic generation in aperiodic quasi-phase-matching gratings,” Opt. Lett. 22, 865–867 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. T. Suhara and H. Ishizuki, “Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203–1205 (2001). [CrossRef]  

6. Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, “Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978–980 (2003). [CrossRef]  

7. K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654–656 (2000). [CrossRef]  

8. Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 2776–2782 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-7-2776. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–346 (1993). [CrossRef]  

10. Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, “Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035–1037 (2001). [CrossRef]  

11. J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Electron. Lett. 39, 224–225 (2003). [CrossRef]  

12. I. Sﬞolc, “Birefringent chain filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 621–625 (1965). [CrossRef]  

13. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, “Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Sﬞolc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505–1507 (2007). [CrossRef]  

14. Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 228, 139–143 (2003). [CrossRef]  

15. J. Shi, J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Tunable Sﬞolc-type filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by UV-light illumination,” Opt. Express 14, 6279–6284 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, “All-optical wavelength tuning in Sﬞolc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 44, 30–32 (2008). [CrossRef]  

17. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, “Wavelength filtering characteristics of Sﬞolc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2813–2815 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. J. Wang, J. Shi, Z. Zhou, and X. Chen, “Tunable multi-wavelength filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by a local-temperature-control technique,” Opt. Express 15, 1561–1566 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, “Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 11, 2813–2819 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2813. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals, (Wiley, New York, 1984), 189–194.

21. R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36, 143–147 (1985).

22. X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, “Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2115–2117 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. E. Rabia and A. Arie, “Duty cycle dependence of a periodically poled LiNbO3-based electro-optic Solc filter,” Appl. Opt. 45, 540–545 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. L. Chen, J. Shi, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Solc-type wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121118-121118-3, (2006). [CrossRef]  

25. T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, “Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 26, 1265–1275, (1990). [CrossRef]  

26. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, “Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596–1604 (1994). [CrossRef]  

27. S. Helmfrid and G. Arvidsson, “Influence of randomly varying domain lengths and nonuniform effective index on second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matching waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 797–804 (1991).

28. A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, “Design of Novel Unapodized and Apodized Step-Chirped Quasi-Phase Matched Gratings for Broadband Frequency Converters Based on Second-Harmonic Generation,” J. Lighw. Technol. 26, 343–349 (2008). [CrossRef]  

29. T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, “Widely tunable 3.4 µm band difference frequency generation using apodized χ(2) grating,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1129–1131 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, “Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method,” J. Lightwav. Technol. 6, 1126–1135 (1988). [CrossRef]  

31. Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, K.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, “Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. , 86, 011104-011104-3 (2005). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. A. Jechow, M. Schedel, S. Stry, J. Sacher, and R. Menzel, "Highly efficient single-pass frequency doubling of a continuous-wave distributed feedback laser diode using a PPLN waveguide crystal at 488 nm," Opt. Lett. 32, 3035-3037 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "1.5 μm band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupled structures," Opt. Lett. 23, 1004-1006 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, M. Y. Park, C. C. Byeon, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Channel Selective Wavelength Conversion and Tuning in periodic poled Ti:PPLN Channel Waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2649-2655 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A. Arbore, O. Marco, and M. M. Fejer, "Pulse compression during second-harmonic generation in aperiodic quasi-phase-matching gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 865-867 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Suhara, and H. Ishizuki, "Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203-1205 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, "Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654-656 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, "Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035-1037 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Solc, "Birefringent chain filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 621-625 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Shi, J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, "Tunable Solc-type filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by UV-light illumination," Opt. Express 14, 6279-6284 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Wang, J. Shi, Z. Zhou, and X. Chen, "Tunable multi-wavelength filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by a local-temperature-control technique," Opt. Express 15, 1561-1566 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2813-2819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, (Wiley, New York, 1984) pp. 189-194.
  21. R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
  22. X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Rabia and A. Arie, "Duty cycle dependence of a periodically poled LiNbO3-based electro-optic Solc filter," Appl. Opt. 45, 540-545 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. Chen, J. Shi, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, "Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Solc-type wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett.  88, 121118-121118-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, "Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1275 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, "Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Helmfrid and G. Arvidsson, "Influence of randomly varying domain lengths and nonuniform effective index on second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matching waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 797-804 (1991).
  28. A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of Novel Unapodized and Apodized Step-Chirped Quasi-Phase Matched Gratings for Broadband Frequency Converters Based on Second-Harmonic Generation," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-349 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, "Widely tunable 3.4 μm band difference frequency generation using apodized X(2) grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 1129-1131 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126-1135 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, K.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique," Appl. Phys. Lett.  86,011104-011104-3 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of Novel Unapodized and Apodized Step-Chirped Quasi-Phase Matched Gratings for Broadband Frequency Converters Based on Second-Harmonic Generation," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2004

2003

X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2813-2819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Suhara, and H. Ishizuki, "Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203-1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, "Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035-1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, "Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654-656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1994

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, "Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, "Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126-1135 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).

1965

Arbore, M. A.

Arie, A.

Arvidsson, G.

Asobe, M.

Bava, G. P.

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126-1135 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

Chen, L.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, M. H.

K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, "Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654-656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, "1.5 μm band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupled structures," Opt. Lett. 23, 1004-1006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eom, T. J.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fujimura, M.

K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, "Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654-656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, "Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grundkoetter, W.

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hauden, J.

Helmfrid, S.

Ishizuki, H.

T. Suhara, and H. Ishizuki, "Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203-1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jechow, A.

Jung, C.

Kashyap, R.

Kato, M.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, "Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kee, C.-S.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, D.-K.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, M. Y. Park, C. C. Byeon, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Channel Selective Wavelength Conversion and Tuning in periodic poled Ti:PPLN Channel Waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2649-2655 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2813-2819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, M. Y. Park, C. C. Byeon, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Channel Selective Wavelength Conversion and Tuning in periodic poled Ti:PPLN Channel Waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2649-2655 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2813-2819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, M. Y. Park, C. C. Byeon, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Channel Selective Wavelength Conversion and Tuning in periodic poled Ti:PPLN Channel Waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2649-2655 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2813-2819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, "Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035-1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Magari, K.

Marco, O.

Menzel, R.

Min, Y. H.

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizuuchi, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, "Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126-1135 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Noda, N.

M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y.

Noh, Y.-C.

Oh, K.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parameswaran, K. P.

K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, "Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654-656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, M. Y.

Quiring, V.

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rabia, E.

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).

Sacher, J.

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, "Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035-1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, "Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schedel, M.

Shi, J.

Shin, W.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohler, W.

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).

Solc, I.

Strake, E.

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126-1135 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stry, S.

Suche, H.

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, and H. Ishizuki, "Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203-1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, "Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Tadanaga, O.

Tehranchi, A.

Umeki, T.

Wang, J.

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

J. Shi, J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, "Tunable Solc-type filter in periodically poled LiNbO3 by UV-light illumination," Opt. Express 14, 6279-6284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, "Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035-1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, "Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

Yu, B.-A.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, T. J. Eom, W. Shin, C. Jung, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "All-optical AND and NAND gates based on cascaded second-order nonlinear processes in a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguide," Opt. Express 14, 2776-2782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N. E.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, J. Lee, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and Y.-C. Noh, "Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide," Opt. Lett. 32, 2813-2815 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T. J.

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Electro-optic Solc-type wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 28, 2115-2117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Yamada, N. Noda, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Lu, M. Xiao, and G. J. Salamo, "Wide-bandwidth high-frequency electro-optic modulator based on periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1035-1037 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Shi, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Zhu, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Observaton of Solc-like filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 39, 224-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, K. Oh, and J. Lee, "All-optical wavelength tuning in Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN waveguide," Electron. Lett. 44, 30-32 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Suhara and M. Fujimura, "Theoretical Analysis of Waveguide Second-Harmonic Generation Phase Matched with Uniform and Chirped Gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1275 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, and H. Sato, "Broadening of the Phase-Matching Bandwidth in Quasi-Phase-Matched Second-Harmoic Generation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Suhara, and H. Ishizuki, "Integrated QPM Sum-Frequency Generation Interferometer Device for Ultrafast Optical Switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1203-1205 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, H. Suche, Y. H. Min, J. H. Lee, W. Grundkoetter, V. Quiring, and W. Sohler, "Wavelength- and time- selective all-optical channel dropping in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel wavegudies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 978-980 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Parameswaran, M. Fujimura, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, "Low-power all-optical gate based on sum frequency mixing in APE waveguides in PPLN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 654-656 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C.-S. Kee, D.-K. Ko, Y.-C. Noh, B.-A. Yu,W. Shin, T. J. Eom, and J. Lee, "Waveguide-Type Wavelength-Tunable Solc Filter in a Periodically Poled Ti:LiNbO3 Wavegudie," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1505-1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

E. Strake, G. P. Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided Modes of Ti:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguides: A Novel Quasi-Analytical Technique in Comparison with the Scalar Finite-Element Method," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1126-1135 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of Novel Unapodized and Apodized Step-Chirped Quasi-Phase Matched Gratings for Broadband Frequency Converters Based on Second-Harmonic Generation," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

Y. Zhu, X. Chen, J. Shi, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, and Y. Chen, "Wide-range tunable wavelength filter in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Commun. 228, 139-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

L. Chen, J. Shi, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, "Photovoltaic effect in a periodically poled lithium niobate Solc-type wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett.  88, 121118-121118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, Y.-C. Noh, C. Jung, T. J. Yu, B.-A. Yu, J. Lee, K.-K. Ko, and K. Oh, "Reshaping of a second-harmonic curve in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide by a local-temperature-control technique," Appl. Phys. Lett.  86,011104-011104-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, (Wiley, New York, 1984) pp. 189-194.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of experimental setup for a bandwidth tunable the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical spectrum of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter at room temperature. The scatter (O) and solid line indicate the experimental data and theoretical curve respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The transmission curves of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. (a)Measured transmission spectra for four different temperature gradients, (b) Theoretical results for transmission spectra for four different temperature gradients.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The bandwidth of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. The scatters and dot line indicate experimental results and theoretical calculation, respectively. The theoretical bandwidths are calculated by using eq. (6) and (8).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The transmittance of the Ti:PPLN Sﬞolc filter for different temperature gradients. The scatters and solid line indicate experimental results and theoretical calculation, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristics of Ti:PPLN waveguide

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d d z A o ( z ) = i κ ( z ) A e ( z ) e i Δ k z ,
d d z A e ( z ) = i κ * ( z ) A o ( z ) e i Δ k z ,
κ = i ω c n o 2 n e 2 n o n e ρ sin ( m π D ) m π ,
A o ( 0 ) = 1
A e ( 0 ) = 0 .
A e 2 = κ 2 sin 2 s L s 2 ,
T ( z ) = T ( 0 ) + [ T ( L ) T ( 0 ) ] ( z / L )
Δ k ( z ) = 2 π λ [ n o ( T , z ) n e ( T , z ) ] 2 π Λ ,
δ ( Δ k Λ ) = δ ( Δ k ) · Λ + Δ k · δ Λ
= 2 π [ d n o / d T d n e / d T n o n e + α ] δ T ,

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