Abstract

We report a numerical investigation on parametric amplification of high-bit-rate signals and related noise figure inside silicon waveguides in the presence of two-photon absorption (TPA), TPA-induced free-carrier absorption, free-carrier-induced dispersion and linear loss. Different pump parameters are considered to achieve net gain and low noise figure. We show that the net gain can only be achieved in the anomalous dispersion regime at the high-repetition-rate, if short pulses are used. An evaluation of noise properties of parametric amplification in silicon waveguides is presented. By choosing pulsed pump in suitably designed silicon waveguides, parametric amplification can be a chip-scale solution in the high-speed optical communication and optical signal processing systems.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  45. G. Kalogerakis, K. Shimizu, M. E. Marchic, K. K.-Y. Wong, K. Uesaka, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Highrepetition- rate pulsed-pump fiber OPA for amplification of communication signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3021-3027 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

X. Sang, E.-K. Tien, N.S. Yuksek, F. Qian, Q. Sang and O. Boyraz, "Dual-Wavelength Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with an Intracavity Silicon Waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1184-1186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Turner et al, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz, "Nanoscale signal regeneration," Nat. Photonics 2, 12-13 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, D. R. Solli, R. Claps, O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Noise figure of silicon Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 847-852 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

2006 (8)

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1440-1445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman gain in helium-ion-implanted silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1714-1716 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, "Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4786-4799 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Kalogerakis, K. Shimizu, M. E. Marchic, K. K.-Y. Wong, K. Uesaka, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Highrepetition- rate pulsed-pump fiber OPA for amplification of communication signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3021-3027 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. -H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, "Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 11721-11726 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Tsia, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon wavelength converters," Opt. Express 14, 12327-12333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2004 (9)

P. Kylemark, P. O. hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, "Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 409-416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, Jr., S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall siliconon- insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong and L. G. Kazovsky, "Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 10, 1133-1141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, Jones, L. Liu, L. Liao et al, "A high speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, Jones, L. Liu, L. Liao et al, "A high speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596(2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali. "Demonstration of 11 dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon waveguides," Electron. Express 1, 429-434(2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1989 (1)

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

H. A. Haus and J. A. Mullen, "Quantum noise in linear amplifiers," Phys. Rev 128, 2407-2413 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Akasaka, Y.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson et al, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869(2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P.

T. Torounidis and P. Andrekson, "Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol.Lett. 19, 650-652 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Torounidis, P. Andrekson and B.-E. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson et al, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869(2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

Boyraz, O.

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Claps, R.

Cohen, O.

Dadap, J.

Dimitropoulos, D.

Espinola, R.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728(2005).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Fauchet, P. M.

Forst, M.

Foster, M. A.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Turner et al, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

Hak, D.

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and J. A. Mullen, "Quantum noise in linear amplifiers," Phys. Rev 128, 2407-2413 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.A.

Hedekvist, P.-O.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, M.-C.

Itabashi, S. -i.

Izhaky, N.

Jacome, L.

Jalali, B.

Jones, A.

A. Liu, Jones, L. Liu, L. Liao et al, "A high speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kalogerakis, G.

Kalogerakis, G. K.

Kazovsky, L. G.

Koonath, P.

Koos, C.

Kuo, Y. -H.

Kylemark, P.

Leuthold, J.

Li, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 660-668 (2007).

A. Liu, Jones, L. Liu, L. Liao et al, "A high speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 660-668 (2007).

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1440-1445 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728(2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, Jones, L. Liu, L. Liao et al, "A high speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

A. Liu, Jones, L. Liu, L. Liao et al, "A high speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxidesemiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Manolatou, C.

Marchic, M. E.

Marhic, M. E.

McNab, S.

Mullen, J. A.

H. A. Haus and J. A. Mullen, "Quantum noise in linear amplifiers," Phys. Rev 128, 2407-2413 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

Niehusmann, J.

Olsson, B.-E.

T. Torounidis, P. Andrekson and B.-E. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson et al, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2867-2869(2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

Plotzing, T.

Poulton, C.

Preble, S. F.

Qian, F.

X. Sang, E.-K. Tien, N.S. Yuksek, F. Qian, Q. Sang and O. Boyraz, "Dual-Wavelength Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with an Intracavity Silicon Waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1184-1186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. -K. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, and O. Boyraz, "Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 6500-6506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596(2004).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Rubin, D.

Salem, R.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Turner et al, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 2, 35-38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Express 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sang, Q.

X. Sang, E.-K. Tien, N.S. Yuksek, F. Qian, Q. Sang and O. Boyraz, "Dual-Wavelength Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with an Intracavity Silicon Waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1184-1186 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sang, X.

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X. Sang, E.-K. Tien, N.S. Yuksek, F. Qian, Q. Sang and O. Boyraz, "Dual-Wavelength Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with an Intracavity Silicon Waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1184-1186 (2008).
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Electron. Express (1)

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali. "Demonstration of 11 dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon waveguides," Electron. Express 1, 429-434(2004).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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M. E. Marhic, K. K.-Y. Wong and L. G. Kazovsky, "Wide-band tuning of the gain spectra of one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 10, 1133-1141 (2004).
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J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P.-O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
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X. Sang, E.-K. Tien, N.S. Yuksek, F. Qian, Q. Sang and O. Boyraz, "Dual-Wavelength Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with an Intracavity Silicon Waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1184-1186 (2008).
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C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007).
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