Abstract

A practical process to fabricate InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes (LEDs) with a self-organized nanorod structure is demonstrated. The nanorod array is realized by using nature lithography of surface patterned silica spheres followed by dry etching. A layer of spin-on-glass (SOG), which intervening the rod spacing, serves the purpose of electric isolation to each of the parallel nanorod LED units. The electroluminescence peak wavelengths of the nanorod LEDs nearly remain as constant for an injection current level between 25mA and 100mA, which indicates that the quantum confined stark effect is suppressed in the nanorod devices. Furthermore, from the Raman light scattering analysis we identify a strain relaxation mechanism for lattice mismatch layers in the nanostructure.

©2008 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

As there is a great demand of high brightness InGaN/GaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) for solid state lighting and backlight modules of flat panel displays, understanding the fundamental physics of GaN epi-structures and its influence on the device performance have therefore become an interesting research topic in recent years. For a GaN based material structure grown on the c-plane sapphire substrate, the peak wavelength and efficiency of emission depend on the built-in internal electric field arisen from the divergence effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations in the quantum wells (QWs). The strong built-in electric field can cause low internal quantum efficiency due to a reduced overlapping between the electron and hole wave functions. Such internal field can further introduce a quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) in which the interband transition energy between the QW ground states decrease quadratically with the field strength. For an InGaN-based LED under the current injection condition, there are two competing mechanisms that determine the QW emission wavelength. That is, the red shift of the spectrum due to carrier induced bandgap renormalization tends to be counteracted by the blue shift due to charge screening. The carrier-induced emission peak wavelength shift in the c-plane grown InGaN LED therefore becomes a concern for device applications. To overcome such an obstacle, several methods have been proposed to release the strain induced piezoelectric effect in the nitride based QWs. For example, the effect of QCSE can be mitigated by growing a p-InGaN layer on top of the active region [1–2], or by inserting a pre-strain layer prior to the growth of QW structures [3–5]. Furthermore, it can also be reduced by growing GaN based epi-layers on patterned sapphire [6–8], or m-plane sapphire substrates [9–10].

On the other hand, reduced spectral shifting in the PL (photoluminescence) wavelength of the GaN-based QW has been observed by using low-dimensional structures such as nanorods, nanocolumns, nanotips, nanoposts et. al [11–12]. There are also additional advantages inherent to the nanostructure approach. For example, the low-dimensional light emitting structures have the potential of high emission efficiencies due to the quantum confinement effect [13]. There are generally two approaches, viz. bottom-up and top-down, that have been applied to fabricate the GaN based nanostructures. For the bottom-up method, the common approach is to use metal nanoparticles such as Fe, Au and Ni as catalysts in the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth process to control the critical nucleation and the subsequent elongation steps for nanowire formation [14–16]. There are also methods to grow GaN nanowires directly without any extra existence. For example, self-assembled dislocation-free vertical GaN pillars are demonstrated on Si surface [17]. As for the top-down approach, nanorods can be realized by using nano-scale etch masks followed dry etching to achieve a desirable pattern transfer [18–19].

Among many reports related to the synthesis and characterization of nanostructures, only few of them investigated the device properties of light emitting nanorod arrays since p-type ohmic contacts are difficult to be deposited on nanorod tips. Chiu et al reported the fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs using inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching (ICP-RIE) via self-assembled Ni nanomasks followed by photo-enhanced chemical (PEC) wet oxidation process [20]. However, it has been noted that the light emission characteristics in the strained InGaN QWs activated by the electrical pumping are different from those of optical pumping due to different carrier transportation and recombination mechanisms between quantum wells [20–21]. On the other hand, although the mechanism of strain relaxation has been previously observed in the low-dimensional GaN/InGaN structures [22–23], the corresponding effect on the emission peak wavelength from nanostructure LEDs has not yet been reported.

In this work, we report the fabrication and electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN nanorod LED and structures by current injection and Raman scattering. The p-type contact electrodes of nanorods are connected in parallel by inserting a spin-on-glass (SOG) space layer between rods to avoid electric shorting to the n-type GaN layer. In our nanorod device, the peak wavelengths of EL spectra remain nearly as a constant as one increases the injection current. This observation indicates a balanced mechanism of carrier induced bandgap renormalization been offset by the screening of the QCSE and the band filling effect. It is also related to a reduced strain effect in these nano-structured InGaN QWs. The latter phenomenon is further analyzed by Raman scattering measurements by comparing the spectra of conventional LEDs and nanorod LEDs.

2. Fabrication of Nanorod LED Arrays

The LED samples were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a c-plane sapphire substrate. The epi-structure was shown in Fig. 1(a) and composed of a 25nm GaN buffer layer, a 2µm Si doped n-type GaN layer, a five period of InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structure in which each period is 17nm, and a 160nm Mg doped p-type GaN layer. The average indium (In) composition x was around 0.2 for a quantum well of 3nm thickness. The fabrication process of the nanorod LED was illustrated in Figs. 1(b)–1(d). First, a p-type mesa area was defined by the use of photolithography and ICP-RIE etching. We then deposited a 200nm thick SiO2 film by PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) across the sample but with vias left open on the p-type mesa.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a). The as-grown LED structure. (b). Illustration of a SiO2 layer deposited by PECVD. The SiO2 thin film is served as the etch mask and the via hole is for silica nanoparticle coating at a latter step. (c). Formation of nanorods by spin coating a monolayer of silica nanoparticles followed by ICP dry etching. (d). Device profiles of nanorod LEDs. SOG (in pink) is coated between rods as a space and sidewall passivation layer.

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The latter approach allows a spin-cast mono-layer of silica nano-particles to be prepared as the etch mask for forming a nanorod structure on the p-GaN opening by dry etching. We note the silica particles were self-organized and firmly bounded to the GaN surface by the van der Waals force. [24]. Here the SiO2 layer is meant to prevent surface and sidewall damage on the GaN materials at the subsequent ICP etching step. To investigate the effect of strain relaxation on the GaN based nanorod LED structures, a monolayer of self-organized silica nanoparticles of diameter 100nm and 50nm, respectively, was employed as the etch mask. Our ICP dry etching condition consisted of a gas mixture of SiCl4/Cl2/Ar (1/20/15 sccm) and source power 200W and bias power 100W at 13.56MHz. The etching rate was about 400nm/min. After completing the etching process, the sample was dipped in buffer oxide etchant (BOE) to remove the silica nanoparticles and SiO2 layer on sample surface. The SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) indicate that nanorod structures with diameter 100nm and 50nm, respectively, and a height of 300nm can be achieved. In order to prevent the occurrence of electric shorting between metallic contact to the p-type and n-type layers, we refilled the nanorod spacing by a 300nm-thick SOG layer using a reflow process at 130°C for 10 mins. The insulating property of SOG can also serve to compensate the sidewall defects as induced by the ICP etching. After the passivation, we then deposited a thin Ni/Au (5nm/5nm) metal layer to connect each of the nanorod LED units in parallel. Finally, thick Ni/Au (10nm/120nm) and Ti/Au (10nm/120nm) were deposited as the p-type and n-type probe contact pad, respectively. The finished GaN nanorod LED structure was illustrated in Fig. 1(d), with a cross section view of a100nm-diameter nanorod device shown in Fig. 2(c). From the image, the p-type current spreading layer was shown on top of the nanorod structure along with the SOG space layer.

3. Results and discussions

3.1 Characterizations of nanorod LEDs

The electrical properties of nanorod LED devices were characterized by using Agilent 4155C semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage curves of LED arrays with rod diameter 50nm and 100nm are shown in Fig. 3. We note both I–V curves do exhibit the rectifying behaviors in the forward bias regime. However, there exists noticeable leakage current at reverse bias. The latter can be ascribed to the surface defects caused by the ICP dry etching. At a bias voltage of -5V, the reverse leakage current of a 50nm and a 100nm nanorod LED is 5.2 mA and 1.2mA, respectively. The higher leakage current of the smaller-size nanorod array is due to a larger sidewall area of such a device.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a). An SEM image of 100nm-diameter (a) and 50nm-diameter (b) nanorods. (c) The cross-section SEM image of nanorod LED array.

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 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. I–V curves of the 100nm and 50nm nanorod LEDs.

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Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the conventional (planar) and nanorod LEDs are shown in Figs. 4(a)–4(c). Referring to Fig. 4(a), we note a spectral blue shift from 478nm to 461nm can take place on a conventional LED as one increases the injection current from 25mA to 100mA (corresponding voltage drop 3V to 8.5V). This blue shift phenomenon can be ascribed to the screening of QCSE and band filling of localized states. The blue shift can also be attributed to the low miscibility of GaN and InN that leads to indium compositional fluctuation and indium-rich nm scale cluster formation in InGaN [12]. The latter mechanism of composition fluctuation and cluster structures indeed are controlled by the strain condition in QWs. For our nanorod LEDs, the material strain in the planar InGaN QW structure can be relaxed in the nanorod formation process. This can therefore lead to a mitigation of the effect of QCSE. The latter is reflected in the EL spectra of the 100nm [Fig. 4(b)] and 50nm [Fig. 4(c)] nanorod LED, where only minor ranges for peak wavelength variation, e.g. 478~480nm and 474~476nm, respectively, were observed at an injection current level between 25mA and 100mA (extending bias voltages between 4.8V and 7.6V for 100nm rods, and 4.6V and 6.6V for 50nm rods) [see Fig. 4(d)]. As compared with the significant blue shift in conventional structures, the piezoelectric field is suppressed on nanorod LEDs since the strain in InGaN layers is relaxed. Or it can be attributed to the balance between effects of carrier screening and QCSE. Also, by comparing the EL spectra of 50nm and 100nm nanorod LEDs, the emission peak wavelength of 50nm nanorod LEDs is lower than that of 100nm nanorod devices. Since both samples were fabricated from the same planar LED epi-structure, we believe the shorter peak wavelength of 50nm nanorods is due to the effect of quantum confinement.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. EL spectra of a conventional LED (a), a 100nm nanorod LED (b) and a 50nm nanorod LED (c). (d) Comparison of peak wavelengths of conventional, 50nm and 100nm nanorod LEDs.

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Figure 5 shows the emission images of 100nm nanorod LEDs. When the device is biased at 20mA (4V), point source light emission can be seen from Fig. 5(a) as some rods are brighter than the others, which is mainly associated with the non-uniformity of contact resistance. As the injection current is increased to 30mA (4.5V) [see Fig. 5(b)] and 45mA (5.5V), light emission can be observed from more and more rods and point light sources become brighter.

3.2 Strain Relaxation Analysis of Nanorod structures

Since the QCSE phenomenon is related to the piezoelectric field and the strain between the mismatched layers, we next carry out the Raman scattering measurement to verify the strain of those devices. Figure 6 shows Raman spectra of the planar and nanorod epistrucutres. The nanorod epi-structures were obtained from etching the planar LED epi- material using either 50nm or 100nm silica nanoparticles as the mask and to the same 300nm depth as nanorod LED structures. In Fig. 6(a), two phonon modes are identified from Raman spectra. The peak near 569 cm-1 is from the E2 H mode of GaN [25–26], and the shoulder line around 560 cm-1 is the E2 H mode of InGaN [27]. The intensity of Raman scattering spectrum of the InGaN/GaN nanorods is much stronger than that of the planar MQWs structure. Moreover, the closeup view of E2 H phonon mode of InGaN in Fig. 6(b) shows a lower wave number for InGaN/GaN nanorods than the planar structure.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Light emission of a 100nm nanorod LED with an injection current 20mA (a) 30mA (b) and 45mA (c).

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 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. (a). Room-temperature Raman scattering spectra of the planar, 100nm- and 50nm-nanorod structures. (b). Closeup view of the InGaN E2 modes of these three structures under comparison.

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The low Raman phonon shift results from either nanorod size effect or strain relaxation in the nanostructure, or both [27–28]. Since the 50nm and 100nm diameter nanorods are not small enough for the effect of phonon confinement to be observed, the Raman shift is due to the strain relaxation. While the Raman mode shifted to a higher frequency represents the compressive strain, the lower frequency shift indicates the tensile strain. Furthermore, the phonon mode of 50nm nanorods shows a slightly lower shift than 100nm nanorods. It implies that, with smaller nanorods, the compressive strain between InGaN and GaN is further relaxed, which results in a better lattice match in nanorod structure. Therefore, the Raman scattering measurement suggests strain relaxed nanorod light emitting devices are achieved with a nearly constant peak wavelength at an injection current between 25mA and 100mA.

4. Conclusions

We present a practical process to fabricate InGaN/GaN MQW structure using silica nanoparticle nature lithography. The EL peak wavelength occurs in the range of 478~480nm and 474~476nm for 100nm and 50nm nanorod LEDs, respectively, with injection currents between 25mA and 100mA. As compared with the significant blue shift in planar structures (from 478nm to 461nm), the piezoelectric field is suppressed on nanorod LEDs since the strain in InGaN layers is relaxed. We also carried out Raman measurement to study the strain relaxation of the nanostructures. The Raman shift of nanorods is lower than that of planar MQW structure. It indicates strain relaxed nanorod light emitting devices are achieved with a nearly constant peak wavelength.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under the grants NSC 97-ET-7-002-008-ET and NSC 96-2221-E-002-113-.

References and links

1. J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008). [CrossRef]  

2. W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007). [CrossRef]  

3. C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007). [CrossRef]  

4. C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006). [CrossRef]  

5. W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007). [CrossRef]  

6. T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007). [CrossRef]  

7. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006). [CrossRef]  

8. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006). [CrossRef]  

9. E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005). [CrossRef]  

10. M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003). [CrossRef]  

11. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. T. Liang, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15, 9357 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006). [CrossRef]  

13. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003). [CrossRef]  

15. C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12–15 (2001). [CrossRef]  

16. C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12, 738–741 (2000). [CrossRef]  

17. L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003). [CrossRef]  

18. H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

19. T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005). [CrossRef]  

20. C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007). [CrossRef]  

21. L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, and L. H. Lou, “Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795–797 (1999). [CrossRef]  

22. H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006). [CrossRef]  

23. Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology , 2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

24. Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nature Materials 3, 121–125 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770–1772 (2003). [CrossRef]  

26. A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005). [CrossRef]  

27. C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002). [CrossRef]  

28. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, C. -T. Ling, T.Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. express 15, 9357–9365 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. T. Liang, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15, 9357 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12–15 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12, 738–741 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).
  19. T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, and L. H. Lou, “Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795–797 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).
  24. Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nature Materials 3, 121–125 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770–1772 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  27. C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, C. -T. Ling, T.Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. express 15, 9357–9365 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (7)

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. T. Liang, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15, 9357 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, C. -T. Ling, T.Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. express 15, 9357–9365 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nature Materials 3, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

2003 (4)

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12, 738–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, and L. H. Lou, “Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795–797 (1999).
[Crossref]

Airey, R.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bai, J.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. J.

Chapelle, M. L.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12, 738–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. D.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Q.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. G.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. H.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. C.

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, C. -T. Ling, T.Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. express 15, 9357–9365 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q. Y.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. T.

Chen, W. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and C. T. Liang, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15, 9357 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. S.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chi, T. W.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. T.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Chu, W. K.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chuang, C. W.

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, and L. H. Lou, “Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795–797 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deng, S.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, R. D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eisler, H.-J.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ewing, M. A.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, S. S.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gaevski, M.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gao, R. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Georgakilas, A.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hill, G.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hollingsworth, A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, C. L.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, K. Y.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, Y. P.

Hsu, C. W.

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsueh, T. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Hu, Z.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. W.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Huang, J. J.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hung, Y. T.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huo, K.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. S.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Iliev, M. N.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Im, H.

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

Jalabert, D.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kang, T. W.

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

Kao, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Khan, M. Asif

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T. S.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kontos, A. G.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Korenblit, Y.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Kuokstis, E.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lai, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lalatonne, Y.

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nature Materials 3, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

Lee, S. J.

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

Lee, W.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liang, C. H.

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liang, C. T.

Limb, J.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Lin, S. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. Y.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.Y.

Ling, C. -T.

Liu, J. P.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lo, I.

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lou, L. H.

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, and L. H. Lou, “Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795–797 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. C.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malko, J.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mean, J. K.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J. E.

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

Pan, M. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

Parbrook, P. J.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, C. M.

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

Pelekanos, N. T.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peng, L. H.

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, and L. H. Lou, “Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795–797 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pileni, M. P.

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nature Materials 3, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponce, F. A.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ranalli, F.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Raptis, Y. S.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rattlidge, R.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Richardi, J.

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nature Materials 3, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryou, J.-H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J-H.

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seo, H. W.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shiao, W. Y.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shur, M. S.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Simin, G.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, W. H.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. C.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tang, T. Y.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tseng, S. C.

Tu, L. W.

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. M.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Wang, T.

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. C.

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wen, K. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. H.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. W.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12, 738–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yeh, D. M.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoo, D.

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Yu, Y. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. P.

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (1)

Y. S. Park, C. M. Park, H. Im, S. J. Lee, T. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, and J. E. Oh, “Growth and optical properties on formation of self-assembled GaN nanorod grown on Si (111) substrates,” 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology,  2, 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology 687–690 (2005).

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12, 738–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1601–1603 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, F. Ranalli, P. J. Parbrook, R. Airey, J. Bai, R. Rattlidge, and G. Hill, “Fabrication and optical investigation of a high-density GaN nanowire array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103103 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaNGaN multiple quantum well active region by p -type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101113 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaNGaN quantum-well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051121 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, W. Y. Shiao, C. C. Yang, C. W. Hsu, and L. C. Chen, “Prestrained effect on the emission properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051913 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. S. Ko, T. C. Wang, R. C. Gao, Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and H. G. Chen, “InGaN/GaN nanostripe grown on pattern sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 013110 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161105 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, and L. H. Lou, “Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795–797 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. W. Seo, Q. Y. Chen, M. N. Iliev, L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, J. K. Mean, and W. K. Chu, “Epitaxial GaN nanorods free from strain and luminescent defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153124 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, “Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770–1772 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liang, L. C. Chen, J. S. Hwang, K. H. Chen, Y. T. Hung, and Y. F. Chen, “Selective-area growth of indium nitride nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 22–24 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333, 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Display Technol. (1)

W. Lee, J. Limb, J-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” IEEE J. Display Technol. 3, 126–132 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. Y. Shiao, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “X-ray diffraction study on an InGaNGaN quantum-well structure of prestrained growth,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113503 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, C. Q. Chen, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Internal polarization fields in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with different crystallographic orientations,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103719 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Soc. (1)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, R. H. Horng, Y. S. Yu, and M. H. Pan, “Fabrication of pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates for high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Soc. 153, G765–G770 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Nanotechnology (2)

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18, 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17, 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature Materials (1)

Y. Lalatonne, J. Richardi, and M. P. Pileni, “Van der Waals versus dipolar forces controlling mesoscopic organizations of magnetic nanocrystals,” Nature Materials 3, 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, “Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research (1)

M. Asif Khan, W. H. Sun, E. Kuokstis, M. Gaevski, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, H. M. Wang, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Strong ultraviolet emission from non-polar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown over r-plane sapphire substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) Appl. Research 200, 48–51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. A. Xu, J. Malko, A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H.-J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a). The as-grown LED structure. (b). Illustration of a SiO2 layer deposited by PECVD. The SiO2 thin film is served as the etch mask and the via hole is for silica nanoparticle coating at a latter step. (c). Formation of nanorods by spin coating a monolayer of silica nanoparticles followed by ICP dry etching. (d). Device profiles of nanorod LEDs. SOG (in pink) is coated between rods as a space and sidewall passivation layer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a). An SEM image of 100nm-diameter (a) and 50nm-diameter (b) nanorods. (c) The cross-section SEM image of nanorod LED array.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. I–V curves of the 100nm and 50nm nanorod LEDs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. EL spectra of a conventional LED (a), a 100nm nanorod LED (b) and a 50nm nanorod LED (c). (d) Comparison of peak wavelengths of conventional, 50nm and 100nm nanorod LEDs.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Light emission of a 100nm nanorod LED with an injection current 20mA (a) 30mA (b) and 45mA (c).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a). Room-temperature Raman scattering spectra of the planar, 100nm- and 50nm-nanorod structures. (b). Closeup view of the InGaN E2 modes of these three structures under comparison.

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