Abstract

A dynamic model of mastering for multilevel run-length limited read-only disc is built, and corresponding experiments on DVD are done to validate it. Results show that this model consists with real mastering process. Using the model, a preliminary write strategy for 4-level run-length limited read-only disc is calculated out. The readout signals of the disc optimizing by write strategy are very close to desired.

©2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Multilevel run-length-limited (ML-RLL) technology on read-only disc can increase the capacity of optical disc without changing the optical and mechanical units.[1] But the marks on the disc are very different from the conventional optical disc, so shaping the accurate multilevel patterns is the key point of the ML-RLL technology. The write strategy of ML-RLL read-only optical disc is much more complex than conventional optical disc. Both the recording power and pulse are adjusted during mastering, in contrast the recording power is not changed in conventional optical disc.

A good model of mastering for ML-RLL read-only disc can be very helpful in calculating the write strategy and reduce the computation work. Several models of mastering have been developed. [2, 3] But these models are all static and too complex to use. In this paper, a simple and dynamic model of mastering is described.

Using this model, a preliminary write strategy for a 4-level run-length limited read-only disc is given. In our multilevel read-only disc system, because of the difficulty of making conjoint multilevel pits, every two pits must be divided by a land, and this restriction is realized by a special coding method[4]. Experiments show good results on the consistency between the real and simulated data.

2. Mastering model

2.1 Focusing laser

In optical disc mastering process, the exposure light source is a short wavelength laser which is focused into a converging beam by a high numerical aperture object lens, as Fig. 1(a).

 

Fig. 1. Coordinates of the incidence laser.

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In this paper we assume that the polarization state of the laser is linear and the optical system is aplanatic. So the lens converts the incident plane wave into a spherical one. Here, it is convenient to introduce polar coordinates (ρ,φ) to describe the focal plane, see Fig. 1(b), since the optical system is revolution. ρ is in the xy-plane, and when the azimuth φ = 0, ρ is in the ox direction. The distribution of the energy density on the focal plane (z = 0) is given by [5]:

Iρφ=A28π(Q02+2Q12+Q22)

where

A=kfl02=πfl0λ
Q0(ρ)=0αcos12θsinθ(1+cosθ)J0(rsinθsinα)dθQ1(ρ)=0αcos12θsin2θJ1(rsinθsinα)dθQ2(ρ)=0αcos12θsinθ(1cosθ)J2(rsinθsinα)dθ}.

and

Here f is the focal length of the lens, l 0 is the amplitude factor, λ is the wavelength of the incident laser, α is the angular semi-aperture and Jn is the Bessel function of the first kind and order n.

The coordinate transformation equations between the rectangular coordinates and polar coordinates are expressed as:

x=ρcosφky=ρsinφk}.

Figure 2(a) shows the 3D view of normalized light intensity on the focal plane, and Fig. 2(b) gives out the cross sections distributions through the center when the laser power is changed.

 

Fig. 2. Distribution of normalized light intensity on the focal plane.

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2.2 Exposure process

In IC-lithography a model proposed by Dill et al.[6], is widely used for the description of the exposure process. This model is based on the assumption that the conversion of the photo active compound (PAC) depends on the exposure energy. In this model the conversion of the PAC at any position in the photoresist layer is described by:

Mxyztt=IxyztMxyztC

where I(x, y, z, t) is the exposure intensity, M(x, y, z, t) is the PAC concentration relative to the initial concentration (for unexposed photoresist M=1.0, for fully exposed photoresist M=0.0) and C is the conversion efficiency. In optical disc mastering process the If C is a constant this equation reduces to:

Mxyzt=Mxyz0eCExyz

where E(x,y,z) = ∫t 0 I (x,y,z,τ)dτ is the exposure dose and M(x,y,z,0) ≡ 1 .

2.3 Development

Several models have been proposed for the description of the development process by Kim et al[7], Trefonas et al.[8] and Hirai et al.[9] Local development rate of non-absorbing photoresist can be calculated according to these models. The Trefonas model and Hirai model are similar, except Hirai model includes an extra term for the development rate of unexposed photoresist. But in optical disc mastering process, the development rate of exposed photoresist is chose nearly a thousand times of unexposed photoresist, in order to obtain very sharp profile. [2] Thus the Trefonas model is accurate enough and more convenient for the mastering process. The local development rate is given by:

R(h)=ht=R0(1M(h))q

where R is the development rate, h is the dissolved photoresist film thickness, R0 is the development rate of fully exposed photoresist and q is the contrast of the photoresist.

2.4 Dynamic mastering model

Instead of splitting the process into an exposure and a development part, we combined the exposure model and development model and deduced a whole mastering model.

Exy=IvtyP(xvt)dt
=Ixy*P(x)v

where

P(x)={10<x<vt00x<0,x>vt0.

According to J. Pasman’s analysis, the absorption effects of the photoresist can be neglected, because of the absorption coefficient and the layer thickness in the mastering process are both very small. [10] Also, standing waves are negligible because the refractive index of the glass substrate is rather close to the value for positive photoresist. [2] Basing on above investigation, we can assume that the conversion of the PAC in mastering process is independent of the depth into the photoresist layer. Thus from equation (6) and (7), the depth of any point on the photoresist surface after development is given by:

hxy=R0(1eCExy)qT

where h(x, y) is the depth of dissolved film thickness, T is the development time, and the exposure dose E(x, y) can be calculated from the equation(8).

3. DVD experiment

The experiments is carried on a commercial DVD mastering system AM200 manufactured by a Dutch company ODME. Some key parameters during the mastering process are shown in Table 1.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Key parameters during the mastering process

First, the standard DVD disc is made to prove the model is correct and accurate enough. Before mastering, the optimum recording power should be chose according to the asymmetry of the readout signals. If the recording power is suitable, then the continuous 3T pits and 3T lands like Fig. 3(a), and have nearly equal length. Figure 3(b) shows the calculated result which is very close to the real data.

 

Fig. 3. The cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the DVD patterns.

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In Fig. 4, model calculations are given for pits with different lengths (3T to 11T). The 3T, 4T and 5T pits have smaller depth than others. In DVD, usually the coat thickness is no more than 130nm, so this difference will not affect the actual patterns. But in multilevel disc, the middle levels’ depths are smaller than coat thickness, so this effect must be treated carefully.

 

Fig. 4. The cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the pits.

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4. Adjusting write strategy using dynamic mastering model.

The reason we developed this dynamic mastering model is to help calculate the write strategy for multilevel read-only disc. Because adjusting the recording power and recording pulse both have complicated effects on readout signals, and only according to RF signal is difficult to make an accurate decision on how to change the write strategy. We must know what changes have been done to the marks on the disc.

 

Fig. 5. Readout signals of a 4-level read-only disc without any optimizing.

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First, based on readout signals, the recording power for each level is determined roughly. Figure 5 shows the readout signals of a 4-level read-only disc without optimizing photoresist thickness, write strategy and other parameters. The recording power for each level is P0, 0.7P0 and 0.6P0, where P0 is the normal DVD recording power.

 

Fig. 6. The cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the pits write with different power P0, 0.7P0 and 0.6P0.

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From Fig. 6 we can see that when the recording power is changed, the pits’ width, length, depth, angles of the pit walls all will change.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Preliminary write strategy matrix for 4-level RLL read-only disc

In order to compensate the pits length and depth for middle level pits and the short T pits, the recording powers and recording pulses need to be adjusted. Table 2 gives a preliminary write strategy for multilevel pits.

Generally, level 1pits are recorded with 0.5 T pulse width added at both the beginning and ending for each T, level 2 pits are recorded with 0.33 T added, and level 3 pits are recorded with no T added. But for short T pits, such as 3T, 4T and 5T, their depths are insufficient, so they not only need to be compensated by adding the recording pulses but also by increasing recording powers. Figure 7 shows the cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the pits after optimizing by the write strategy above.

 

Fig. 7. The cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the pits after optimizing by the write strategy.

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The write strategy is applied on the AM200 DVD mastering system. Patterns are recorded regularly with the sequences of 3T1P, 11TL, 3T2P, 11TL, 3T3P, 11TL, 4T1P, 11TL, 4T2P… 11T1P, 11TL, 11T2P, 11TL, 11T3P, 11TL, and repeat incessantly, 11TL indicates an 11T land.

In our multilevel read-only disc system, PRML is used in signal detection[11]. And the PRML detector is designed using a linear optical disc readout model. So the agreement between simulated signals and actual readout signals is used as a criterion to evaluate the write strategy. From Fig. 8, we can see that it is very similar between the actual data and simulated data.

 

Fig. 8. Actual and simulated readout signals after optimizing by write strategy.

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5. Conclusion

In this paper a dynamic mastering model of optical disc is described and experiments prove that this model can represent the recorded patterns acceptably with a very low cost calculation by converting the computations into a convolution. Based on this mastering model, a preliminary write strategy for multilevel read-only disc is determined by adjusting recording powers and recording pulses. Finally, the agreement between the actual and theoretical signals shows that the adjusting of the write strategy is in a right direction.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60677036).

References and Links

1. Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006). [CrossRef]  

2. P. L. Put, H. P. Urbach, R. D. Morton, and J. J. Rusch, “Resolution limit of optical disc mastering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36,539–548 (1997). [CrossRef]  

3. J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006). [CrossRef]  

5. B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Ser. A253,358–379 (1959). [CrossRef]  

6. F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge, and J. M. Shaw, “Characterization of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 22,445–452 (1975). [CrossRef]  

7. D. J. Kim, W.G. Oldham, and A.R. Neureuther, “Development of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31,1730–1736 (1984). [CrossRef]  

8. P. Trefonas and B. Daniels, “New principle for image enhancement in single layer positive photoresists,” in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing IV, M. J. Bowden, eds., Proc. SPIE771,194–210 (1987).

9. Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987). [CrossRef]  

10. P. L. Put, P. A. Kraakman, R. D. Morton, and J. Pasman, “Evaluation of photolithographic processes for high-density optical disc mastering,” in Optical Data Storage, D. B. Carlin and D. B. Kay , eds., Proc. SPIE1663,336–348 (1992). [CrossRef]  

11. Q. Zhang, J. Xiong, and D. Xu, “A viterbi detector with feedback used in multilevel run-length-limited modulation optical recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,6331–6333 (2006). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. L. Put, H. P. Urbach, R. D. Morton, and J. J. Rusch, “Resolution limit of optical disc mastering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36,539–548 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Ser. A253,358–379 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge, and J. M. Shaw, “Characterization of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 22,445–452 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. J. Kim, W.G. Oldham, and A.R. Neureuther, “Development of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31,1730–1736 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Trefonas and B. Daniels, “New principle for image enhancement in single layer positive photoresists,” in Advances in Resist Technology and Processing IV, M. J. Bowden, eds., Proc. SPIE771,194–210 (1987).
  9. Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. L. Put, P. A. Kraakman, R. D. Morton, and J. Pasman, “Evaluation of photolithographic processes for high-density optical disc mastering,” in Optical Data Storage, D. B. Carlin and D. B. Kay , eds., Proc. SPIE1663,336–348 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. Q. Zhang, J. Xiong, and D. Xu, “A viterbi detector with feedback used in multilevel run-length-limited modulation optical recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,6331–6333 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2006 (4)

Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, J. Xiong, and D. Xu, “A viterbi detector with feedback used in multilevel run-length-limited modulation optical recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,6331–6333 (2006).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. L. Put, H. P. Urbach, R. D. Morton, and J. J. Rusch, “Resolution limit of optical disc mastering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36,539–548 (1997).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. J. Kim, W.G. Oldham, and A.R. Neureuther, “Development of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31,1730–1736 (1984).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge, and J. M. Shaw, “Characterization of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 22,445–452 (1975).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Ser. A253,358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Dill, F. H.

F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge, and J. M. Shaw, “Characterization of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 22,445–452 (1975).
[Crossref]

Endo, M.

Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hauge, P. S.

F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge, and J. M. Shaw, “Characterization of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 22,445–452 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hirai, Y.

Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hornberger, W. P.

F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge, and J. M. Shaw, “Characterization of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 22,445–452 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. J.

D. J. Kim, W.G. Oldham, and A.R. Neureuther, “Development of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31,1730–1736 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mano, Y.

Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987).
[Crossref]

Morton, R. D.

P. L. Put, H. P. Urbach, R. D. Morton, and J. J. Rusch, “Resolution limit of optical disc mastering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36,539–548 (1997).
[Crossref]

Neureuther, A.R.

D. J. Kim, W.G. Oldham, and A.R. Neureuther, “Development of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31,1730–1736 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ni, Y.

H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldham, W.G.

D. J. Kim, W.G. Oldham, and A.R. Neureuther, “Development of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31,1730–1736 (1984).
[Crossref]

Pan, L.

H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pei, J.

H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
[Crossref]

Put, P. L.

P. L. Put, H. P. Urbach, R. D. Morton, and J. J. Rusch, “Resolution limit of optical disc mastering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36,539–548 (1997).
[Crossref]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Ser. A253,358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Rusch, J. J.

P. L. Put, H. P. Urbach, R. D. Morton, and J. J. Rusch, “Resolution limit of optical disc mastering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36,539–548 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sasago, M.

Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987).
[Crossref]

Shaw, J. M.

F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge, and J. M. Shaw, “Characterization of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 22,445–452 (1975).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsuji, D.

Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987).
[Crossref]

Urbach, H. P.

P. L. Put, H. P. Urbach, R. D. Morton, and J. J. Rusch, “Resolution limit of optical disc mastering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36,539–548 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Ser. A253,358–379 (1959).
[Crossref]

Xiong, J.

H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, J. Xiong, and D. Xu, “A viterbi detector with feedback used in multilevel run-length-limited modulation optical recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,6331–6333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

Q. Zhang, J. Xiong, and D. Xu, “A viterbi detector with feedback used in multilevel run-length-limited modulation optical recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,6331–6333 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

J. Song, Y. Ni, D. Xu, L. Pan, Q. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Modeling and realization of a multilevel read-only disc,” Opt. Express 14,1199–1207 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1199.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, J. Xiong, and D. Xu, “A viterbi detector with feedback used in multilevel run-length-limited modulation optical recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,6331–6333 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design (1)

Y. Hirai, M. Sasago, M. Endo, D. Tsuji, and Y. Mano, “Process modeling for photoresist development and design of dlr/sd (double-layer resist by a single development) process,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design 6,403–409 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge, and J. M. Shaw, “Characterization of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 22,445–452 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kim, W.G. Oldham, and A.R. Neureuther, “Development of positive photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 31,1730–1736 (1984).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Q. Zhang, Y. Ni, D. Xu, H. Hu, J. Song, and H. Hu, “Multilevel run-length limited recording on read-only disc,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,4097–4101 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. L. Put, H. P. Urbach, R. D. Morton, and J. J. Rusch, “Resolution limit of optical disc mastering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36,539–548 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Hu, J. Pei, J. Xiong, Y. Ni, L. Pan, and H. Hu, “DC-free four-ary (2, 8) run-length limited code for multi-level recording channels,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,5786–5790 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, J. Xiong, and D. Xu, “A viterbi detector with feedback used in multilevel run-length-limited modulation optical recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45,6331–6333 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Coordinates of the incidence laser.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Distribution of normalized light intensity on the focal plane.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the DVD patterns.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the pits.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Readout signals of a 4-level read-only disc without any optimizing.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the pits write with different power P0, 0.7P0 and 0.6P0.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The cross sections in the tangential direction through the center of the pits after optimizing by the write strategy.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Actual and simulated readout signals after optimizing by write strategy.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Key parameters during the mastering process

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Table 2. Preliminary write strategy matrix for 4-level RLL read-only disc

Equations (11)

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I ρ φ = A 2 8 π ( Q 0 2 + 2 Q 1 2 + Q 2 2 )
A = kfl 0 2 = π fl 0 λ
Q 0 ( ρ ) = 0 α cos 1 2 θ sin θ ( 1 + cos θ ) J 0 ( r sin θ sin α ) d θ Q 1 ( ρ ) = 0 α cos 1 2 θ sin 2 θ J 1 ( r sin θ sin α ) d θ Q 2 ( ρ ) = 0 α cos 1 2 θ sin θ ( 1 cos θ ) J 2 ( r sin θ sin α ) d θ } .
x = ρ cos φ k y = ρ sin φ k } .
M x y z t t = I x y z t M x y z t C
M x y z t = M x y z 0 e CE x y z
R ( h ) = h t = R 0 ( 1 M ( h ) ) q
E x y = I vt y P ( x vt ) d t
= I x y * P ( x ) v
P ( x ) = { 1 0 < x < vt 0 0 x < 0 , x > vt 0 .
h x y = R 0 ( 1 e CE x y ) q T

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