Abstract

We demonstrate a fully stabilized frequency comb in the 1µm spectral region based on an Yb-fiber oscillator and a cladding pumped chirped pulse Yb-fiber amplifier whose output is spectrally broadened in a dispersion micromanaged holey fiber. The dispersion micromanaged fiber is used to generate efficient, low noise spectral components at 523nm which are heterodyned with the second harmonic of the amplifier output for standard f-to-2f self-referenced carrier envelope offset frequency detection. For comb stabilization we phase-lock this offset frequency and the oscillator repetition frequency simultaneously to an RF reference by feedback controlling the oscillator pump diode current and the driving voltage of an intracavity piezo-electric fiber stretcher respectively.

©2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The integration of microstructured fibers with femtosecond laser systems have led to tremendous advances in the field of optical frequency metrology [13] initiated by the first demonstration of a self-referenced frequency comb with a Ti:Sapphire based laser system in 2000 [1]. However, Ti:Sapphire systems suffer when it comes to portability as they require frequent re-adjustments, are not very compact, and involve considerable expense owing to their large pump requirements. After its first demonstration by Washburn et al. [4], self-referenced Er-fiber laser frequency combs have emerged as relatively inexpensive, more compact counterparts, which offer the added advantages of low power consumption, longterm operation and compatibility with existing optical fiber-based technology [47]. Recently it has been shown that fiber laser frequency combs can provide both excellent long term stability with demonstrated relative Allan standard deviations of 2·10-17 [8] and excellent short term stability indicated by sub-Hertz relative linewidths and timing jitter of the order of 1fs [9]. Fiber laser frequency combs are therefore suitable tools for highly demanding applications such as optical frequency synthesis, optical clocks and low phase noise RF generation.

In the last few years, there has been increasing focus on several emerging optical standards such as Hg+, Al+ single ions and neutral Yb optical lattice, which provide narrow natural linewidth optical transitions (at 281.5nm, 267nm and 578.4nm respectively) suitable for optical clock applications [10]. All those transitions have sub-harmonics in the spectral region around 1µm (1.126µm, 1.068µm, and 1.157µm respectively) allowing narrow linewidth Yb-fiber laser technology to be used as probe (“clock”) lasers [10]. For the transfer of the optical clock signal within the optical spectral region or to generate an RF clock output, a frequency comb covering the spectral region around 1µm is required and Yb femtosecond laser frequency combs immediately come to mind. Here Yb-fiber laser techology is particularly attractive since it allows the construction of ultra-compact femtosecond oscillators [11] and very efficient, power scalable amplifiers, using the concepts of cladding pumping and chirped pulse amplification [12]. However it remains to be shown that those power scaling concepts can be applied without introducing prohibitively large amounts of phase noise, for example, caused by AM-PM conversion in fiber amplifiers.

Frequency comb stabilization requires carrier envelope phase slip detection, for example by the f-to-2f self-referencing technique [1,13] which uses a heterodyne beat between the frequency doubled low frequency wing of the output comb and the high frequency wing at twice the frequency. This technique needs a full octave of optical output spectrum which can not be directly generated from a femtosecond fiber system. Previous demonstrations of self-referenced setups have involved a range of nonlinear devices for spectral broadening such as highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fibers [49], ordinary photonic crystal fibers [1,3], and crystals [14]. Here we use a dispersion micromanaged (DMM) holey fiber [15,16] in order to generate efficient, low noise spectral components primarily at 523nm.

Supercontinuum generation is a phenomenon that is a consequence of several, highly complicated processes related to the fission of higher order solitons [17] and there needs to be a careful control over the various aspects contributing to it in order to obtain the desired spectral characteristics. DMM devices are essentially holey fibers (HFs) whose dispersion and nonlinearity are engineered on a millimeter or sub-millimeter scale by manipulating the physical profile of the fiber. This methodology offers controllable bandwidth and generates low noise anti-Stokes radiation (ASR) pulses tunable to anywhere within the visible region of the spectrum. These anti-Stokes pulses are a consequence of phase-matching between the dispersive wave and the soliton leading to energy leakage and resulting in Cherenkov radiation which appears on the shorter wavelength side of the spectrum. DMM devices are capable of generating highly coherent, low-noise ASR pulses and a careful selection of the length as well as the core size variation of the holey fiber can provide us with the required ASR wavelength. Compared to conventional continuum generation, dispersion micromanaging results in significantly lower noise characteristics, as the process of soliton fission is terminated before additional processes enter, causing accumulation of excess noise [15,18,19]. Fluctuations in intensity are often the main limiting factor for precision applications. The process of extreme broadening in microstructured fibers is a highly nonlinear process, and previous experiments have shown that noise resulting from the conversion of amplitude fluctuations to phase fluctuations inside the fiber can corrupt the CEO phase [20] and thus, the DMM fiber has been integrated with the self-referencing setup for high SNR CEO phase detection.

2. Setup of the experiment

The experiment was based on an Ytterbium (Yb)-fiber in-line oscillator [11] as shown in Fig. 1. A saturable absorber with a sub-picosecond lifetime was employed for mode-locking the laser at a repetition rate of 90MHz. The intra-cavity dispersion was compensated by a chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to a value close to zero. We used an intracavity piezo-electric tube-based fiber stretcher to control the repetition rate of the laser. A single mode fiber with anomalous third order dispersion was employed to stretch the pulse train from the oscillator to ~20 ps. The pulse train was amplified at the full repetition rate using a 700 µm2 mode field area polarization maintaining double clad Yb fiber which was end-pumped by up to 5 fibercombined 915nm single emitter diode lasers. We choose to pump the broad Yb-absorption band at 915nm instead the narrow, higher absorbance 975nm band in order to minimize output amplitude noise related to emitter temperature or mode-hop related pump-wavelength shifts. The mode-quality of the amplified signal was measured to be M2≈1.2. Due to pulse stretching and large amplifier mode field area the non-linear phase acquired in the amplification process (B-integral) was less than 0.1π. The pulses could be re-compressed using fused-silica transmission gratings to 120 to 150 fs at average powers up to 1.4W. Fig. 1b shows an autocorrelation trace of the re-compressed laser output. As reported in a previous publication [21], the linewidth of the individual comb lines of the system was determined to be smaller than 1 KHz by analyzing the spectral noise density of the error signal when locking the laser to a stable high finesse cavity.

 

Fig. 1. (a) Experimental set-up. SA: saturable absorber; PZT: piezo actuator; FBG: fiber-Bragg grating; ISO: isolator; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; DMM PCF: dispersion micromanaged photonic crystal fiber; LBO: Lithium triborate; BS: beam-splitter. (b) Autocorrelation measurement of the compressed laser output. For comparison a 117fs FWHM sech2 function is shown.

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Fig. 2. (a) Dispersion profiles for the dispersion micromanaged holey fiber’s (DMM HF) initial and final core diameters of 3.3µm and 2.7µm respectively. (b) Spectrum generated by launching ~7 nJ, 130fs pulses into the 18mm long DMM HF. For qualitative comparison a spectrum generated in a 25 mm non-tapered HF as well as the launched laser spectrum is shown.

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For self-referenced f-to-2f CEO detection we used the second harmonic of the Yb-laser system and spectrally overlapped a 10nm wide spectral slice of the continuum output from a DMM device. Our self-referencing setup was based on a Mach-Zehnder configuration with a 7mm long, non-critically phase-matched type-I LBO crystal in one arm and a DMM holey fiber in the other with the modified dispersion profile (Fig. 2a). The LBO crystal was maintained at a temperature of 173°C. The splitting ratio for the two interferometer arms was set to generate in the first arm roughly 20mW of frequency-doubled radiation at 523nm. In the other interferometer arm about 600mW of the pump was coupled into the DMM corresponding to ~7nJ pulse energy. A broad output extending from 400nm to nearly 1300nm was obtained with an isolated anti-Stokes feature centered at around 530nm with a bandwidth of ~22nm as shown in Fig. 2b. The spectral shape of the continuum and the threshold energy for onset of continuum generation was found to be dependent on the orientation of the polarization axis of the linearly polarized launched pulse, most likely due to unintentional birefringence of the DMM device. The DMM device consisted of an 18mm long commercially available holey fiber (Crystal Fibre A/S) with an initial core diameter of 3.3µm which was tapered down to 2.7µm using an in-house CO2-laser based tapering rig. The DMM was fabricated with appropriate parameters, such as the pulling speed of the fiber and the output power of the laser heat source, so as to maintain the adiabaticity of the structure. The fiber initially had a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDWL) at 880nm, i.e., at a core diameter of 3.3 µm. At the final core diameter of 2.7 µm, the zero dispersion wavelength had shifted to around 800nm in accordance with the eigenvalue equation for fibers [22]. The Cherenkov radiation phasematching condition [16], which depends on the center wavelength of the soliton, the nonlinearity of the structure, and the ZDWL, will now shift to the shorter wavelength side and hence yields an ASR feature centered at ~530nm. A narrow-band interference filter (bandwidth=10nm) was placed at the output of the DMM to spectrally filter out radiation at 520nm. The outputs from the two arms of the interferometer were then combined using a beam splitter. A delay line in one interferometer arm was used to introduce an appropriate delay to ensure temporal overlap of the two beams at the detector. The combined beam was then focused onto a Si PIN diode after passing a single mode optical fiber, which ensured a spatial overlap of the two beams and the CEO related beat signal could be observed. To stabilize f CEO a mixing product of f rep and f CEO centered at 125 MHz was bandpass filtered (5.5MHz bandwidth), amplified and phase-locked to a stable RF reference using a digital phase detector and an analog PID-type feedback loop for controlling the oscillator pump diode current [23]. A frequency division by 16 was implemented after rectifying the signal in a comparator input stage to expand the locking range [3].

In order to stabilize the second degree of freedom of the comb, an intermode beat signal at the 28th harmonic of the repetition frequency around 2.55 GHz was phase-locked to a second stable RF synthesizer using a double-balanced mixer as a phase detector and the intracavity fiber stretcher as feedback control element.

3. Results and conclusions

As shown in Figs. 3(a) the free running CEO-related beat signal could be observed with ~30 dB SNR at a RF spectrum analyzer set to 100 kHz resolution bandwidth. The SNR of the beat signal was maximized by adjusting the polarization of the input pulse to the DMM and the splitting ratio of the interferometer at the polarizing beam splitter using two half wave plates. The free running beat signal could be fitted with a 250 kHz FWHM Lorentzian line shape (Fig 3b). The line width is most likely limited by relative intensity noise of the 976nm grating stabilized telecom pump diode for the oscillator [23]

 

Fig. 3. a) Free running beat signal. b) Mixing product of f CEO and f rep at 125 MHz (phase locked with low gain). c) At higher gain phase locked operation a coherent peak (instrument limited bandwidth) as well as 60Hz pick-off can be observed.

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Fig 4. Frequency counter measurement of f CEO (a) and f rep (b). The low frequency oscillatory noise is correlated and might be related to cross talk or various environmental noise sources.

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Both f r and f CEO could be simultaneously phase-locked via RF synthesizers to a stable RF rubidium clock reference. The frequency of the optical comb lines f o,n is then stabilized to f o,n=n * f r + f CEO, where n is a large integer [13]. After closing the phase-locked loop for f CEO the CEO-related beat signal collapsed to a coherent spike with instrument limited 1 Hz bandwidth (Fig3c), a first indication that Yb-comb technology is suitable for low noise optical frequency synthesis [9]. Fig 4 shows a frequency counter measurement of f CEO (in loop) and f r (out of loop) over 20 minutes. With the counter gate time set to 10s we measured an instability of 1.6mHz rms and 0.5mHz rms on the 125MHz and ~90MHz signals for f CEO and f r respectively. We note that an out-of loop characterization of the phase-locked f CEO is necessary to confirm our results. However since the frequency noise of the comb-lines is governed by intracavity noise sources [24], we do not expect significantly different results for our in-loop characterization.

The oscillations on the traces shown in Fig. 3 as well as the 60 Hz sidebands of the phase locked f CEO signal in Fig 3c) are possible caused by imperfections in the locking electronics as well as mechanical vibrations and could be removed by improvements in locking electronics and mechanical isolation. Mechanical drift of the free space fiber coupling to the DMM device required occasional re-alignment, limiting the unattended operation of the fully stabilized system to about 30 minutes.

In conclusion, we have experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, a fully phase locked frequency comb centered at the 1 µm spectral region, using a Yb-fiber based laser system which is spectrally broadened by a DMM device. Furthermore we proved that carrier-envelope offset phase control is compatible with the power scalable cladding pumped chirped pulse amplification scheme. This will allow scaling of the average output power of fiber frequency comb lasers well beyond the few-watt limit of bulk Ti:Sapphire oscillator based comb systems. The concept of dispersion micromanagement has been integrated for the first time with a standard self-referencing scheme for self-referenced CEO phase slip detection. We expect that based on Yb-fiber technology frequency combs with GHz repetition rates at improved long-term stability with average powers of more than 10W can be realized. High power Yb-frequency combs will be an important tool for future frequency comb technology in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral regions using high harmonic generation within a passive enhancement cavity [25,26].

References and links

1. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000) [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002) [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. Jun Ye and Steven T. Cundiff eds., Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology,: Principle, Operation and Application (Springer New York, NY2005)

4. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29, 250–252. (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2467–2469 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. Holger Hundertmark, Dieter Wandt, Carsten Fallnich, Nils Haverkamp, and Harald R. Telle, “Phase-locked carrier-envelope-offset frequency at 1560 nm,” Opt. Express 12, 770–775 (2004) [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems,” Opt. Express 13, 904–909 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, and G. Grosche, “Frequency Metrology using Fiber-Based fs-Frequency Combs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Long Beach, Ca, 2006), paper CTuH1.

9. W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with subhertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046–3048 (2006) [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. S. A. Diddams, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, and C. W. Oates, “Standards of time and frequency at the outset of the 21st century,” Science 306, 1318–1324. (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” CLEO (2004), Paper CThG1

12. F. Röser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “131 W 220 fs fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2754 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999) [CrossRef]  

14. I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni,“Integrated Fiber-Frequency Comb Using a PPLN Waveguide for Spectral Broadening and CEO Phase Detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CtuH5.

15. F. Lu and W. H. Knox, “Generation, characterization, and application of broadband coherent, femtosecond visible pulses in dispersion micromanaged holey fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B , 23, 1221–1227 (2006) [CrossRef]  

16. Yujun Deng, Fei Lu, and Wayne H. Knox, “Fiber-laser-based difference frequency generation scheme for carrier-envelope-offset phase stabilization applications,” Opt. Express 13, 4589–4593 (2005) [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001) [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003) [CrossRef]  

19. John M. Dudley, Goery Genty, and Stephane Coen,” Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006) [CrossRef]  

20. Tara M. Fortier, Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff, and Robert S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett 27, 445–447 (2002) [CrossRef]  

21. I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

22. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001)

23. N. R. Newbury and B. R. Washburn, “Theory of the Frequency Comb Output From a Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005). [CrossRef]  

24. N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756–1770 (2007). [CrossRef]  

25. R. Jason Jones, Kevin D. Moll, Michael J. Thorpe, and Jun Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Jun Ye and Steven T. Cundiff eds., Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology,: Principle, Operation and Application (Springer New York, NY2005)
  4. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29, 250–252. (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2467–2469 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Holger Hundertmark, Dieter Wandt, Carsten Fallnich, Nils Haverkamp, and Harald R. Telle, “Phase-locked carrier-envelope-offset frequency at 1560 nm,” Opt. Express 12, 770–775 (2004)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems,” Opt. Express 13, 904–909 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, and G. Grosche, “Frequency Metrology using Fiber-Based fs-Frequency Combs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Long Beach, Ca, 2006), paper CTuH1.
  9. W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with subhertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046–3048 (2006)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. A. Diddams, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, and C. W. Oates, “Standards of time and frequency at the outset of the 21st century,” Science 306, 1318–1324. (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” CLEO (2004), Paper CThG1
  12. F. Röser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “131 W 220 fs fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2754 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  14. I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni,“Integrated Fiber-Frequency Comb Using a PPLN Waveguide for Spectral Broadening and CEO Phase Detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CtuH5.
  15. F. Lu and W. H. Knox, “Generation, characterization, and application of broadband coherent, femtosecond visible pulses in dispersion micromanaged holey fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  23, 1221–1227 (2006)
    [Crossref]
  16. Yujun Deng, Fei Lu, and Wayne H. Knox, “Fiber-laser-based difference frequency generation scheme for carrier-envelope-offset phase stabilization applications,” Opt. Express 13, 4589–4593 (2005)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  19. John M. Dudley, Goery Genty, and Stephane Coen,” Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006)
    [Crossref]
  20. Tara M. Fortier, Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff, and Robert S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett 27, 445–447 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  21. I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4
  22. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001)
  23. N. R. Newbury and B. R. Washburn, “Theory of the Frequency Comb Output From a Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756–1770 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Jason Jones, Kevin D. Moll, Michael J. Thorpe, and Jun Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (6)

F. Röser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “131 W 220 fs fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2754 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yujun Deng, Fei Lu, and Wayne H. Knox, “Fiber-laser-based difference frequency generation scheme for carrier-envelope-offset phase stabilization applications,” Opt. Express 13, 4589–4593 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems,” Opt. Express 13, 904–909 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Jason Jones, Kevin D. Moll, Michael J. Thorpe, and Jun Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Newbury and B. R. Washburn, “Theory of the Frequency Comb Output From a Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Tara M. Fortier, Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff, and Robert S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett 27, 445–447 (2002)
[Crossref]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
[Crossref]

Adel, P.

Adler, F.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001)

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, and C. W. Oates, “Standards of time and frequency at the outset of the 21st century,” Science 306, 1318–1324. (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, G. C.

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” CLEO (2004), Paper CThG1

Coddington, I.

Coen, S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

Coen, Stephane

John M. Dudley, Goery Genty, and Stephane Coen,” Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006)
[Crossref]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cundiff, Steven T.

Tara M. Fortier, Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff, and Robert S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett 27, 445–447 (2002)
[Crossref]

Deng, Yujun

Diddams, S. A.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29, 250–252. (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, and C. W. Oates, “Standards of time and frequency at the outset of the 21st century,” Science 306, 1318–1324. (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni,“Integrated Fiber-Frequency Comb Using a PPLN Waveguide for Spectral Broadening and CEO Phase Detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CtuH5.

Dong, L.

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” CLEO (2004), Paper CThG1

Dudley, J. M.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

Dudley, John M.

John M. Dudley, Goery Genty, and Stephane Coen,” Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006)
[Crossref]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
[Crossref]

Fallnich, Carsten

Feder, K. S.

Fejer, M. M.

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with subhertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046–3048 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni,“Integrated Fiber-Frequency Comb Using a PPLN Waveguide for Spectral Broadening and CEO Phase Detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CtuH5.

Fermann, M. E.

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with subhertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046–3048 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2467–2469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” CLEO (2004), Paper CThG1

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni,“Integrated Fiber-Frequency Comb Using a PPLN Waveguide for Spectral Broadening and CEO Phase Detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CtuH5.

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

Fortier, Tara M.

Tara M. Fortier, Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff, and Robert S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett 27, 445–447 (2002)
[Crossref]

Genty, Goery

John M. Dudley, Goery Genty, and Stephane Coen,” Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006)
[Crossref]

Gohle, Christoph

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosche, G.

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems,” Opt. Express 13, 904–909 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, and G. Grosche, “Frequency Metrology using Fiber-Based fs-Frequency Combs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Long Beach, Ca, 2006), paper CTuH1.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hänsch, Theodor W.

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with subhertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046–3048 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2467–2469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” CLEO (2004), Paper CThG1

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni,“Integrated Fiber-Frequency Comb Using a PPLN Waveguide for Spectral Broadening and CEO Phase Detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CtuH5.

Haverkamp, Nils

Herrmann, J.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrmann, Maximilian

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Holzwarth, Ronald

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

Hudson, D. D.

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

Hundertmark, Holger

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imeshev, G.

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” CLEO (2004), Paper CThG1

Inaba, H.

Jefferts, S. R.

S. A. Diddams, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, and C. W. Oates, “Standards of time and frequency at the outset of the 21st century,” Science 306, 1318–1324. (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

Jones, R. Jason

R. Jason Jones, Kevin D. Moll, Michael J. Thorpe, and Jun Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jorgensen, C. G.

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
[Crossref]

Knox, W. H.

Knox, Wayne H.

Krausz, Ferenc

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubina, P.

Langrock, C.

W. C. Swann, J. J. McFerran, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, P. S. Westbrook, J. W. Nicholson, K. S. Feder, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, “Fiber-laser frequency combs with subhertz relative linewidths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3046–3048 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni,“Integrated Fiber-Frequency Comb Using a PPLN Waveguide for Spectral Broadening and CEO Phase Detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CtuH5.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Lipphardt, B.

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems,” Opt. Express 13, 904–909 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, and G. Grosche, “Frequency Metrology using Fiber-Based fs-Frequency Combs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Long Beach, Ca, 2006), paper CTuH1.

Lu, F.

Lu, Fei

Matsumoto, H.

McFerran, J. J.

Minoshima, K.

Moll, Kevin D.

R. Jason Jones, Kevin D. Moll, Michael J. Thorpe, and Jun Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, and C. W. Oates, “Standards of time and frequency at the outset of the 21st century,” Science 306, 1318–1324. (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onae, A.

Ortac, B.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, Jens

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Röser, F.

Rothhard, J.

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2467–2469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

Schmidt, O.

Schnatz, H.

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems,” Opt. Express 13, 904–909 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, and G. Grosche, “Frequency Metrology using Fiber-Based fs-Frequency Combs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Long Beach, Ca, 2006), paper CTuH1.

Schreiber, T.

Schuessler, Hans A.

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
[Crossref]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
[Crossref]

Telle, Harald R.

Thorpe, M. J.

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

Thorpe, Michael J.

R. Jason Jones, Kevin D. Moll, Michael J. Thorpe, and Jun Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Udem, Thomas

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wandt, Dieter

Washburn, B. R.

N. R. Newbury and B. R. Washburn, “Theory of the Frequency Comb Output From a Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29, 250–252. (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, Robert S.

Tara M. Fortier, Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff, and Robert S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett 27, 445–447 (2002)
[Crossref]

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

Ye, Jun

R. Jason Jones, Kevin D. Moll, Michael J. Thorpe, and Jun Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tara M. Fortier, Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff, and Robert S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett 27, 445–447 (2002)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys B (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler,“Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys B 77, 269–277 (2003)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. R. Newbury and B. R. Washburn, “Theory of the Frequency Comb Output From a Femtosecond Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (2)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical Frequency Metrology,” Nature 416, 233–237 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christoph Gohle, Thomas Udem, Maximilian Herrmann, Jens Rauschenberger, Ronald Holzwarth, Hans A. Schuessler, Ferenc Krausz, and Theodor W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett (1)

Tara M. Fortier, Jun Ye, Steven T. Cundiff, and Robert S. Windeler, “Nonlinear phase noise generated in air-silica microstructure fiber and its effect on carier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett 27, 445–447 (2002)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Jason Jones, Kevin D. Moll, Michael J. Thorpe, and Jun Ye, “Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

John M. Dudley, Goery Genty, and Stephane Coen,” Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006)
[Crossref]

Science (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrierenvelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, J. C. Bergquist, S. R. Jefferts, and C. W. Oates, “Standards of time and frequency at the outset of the 21st century,” Science 306, 1318–1324. (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers,” CLEO (2004), Paper CThG1

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, and G. Grosche, “Frequency Metrology using Fiber-Based fs-Frequency Combs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Long Beach, Ca, 2006), paper CTuH1.

Jun Ye and Steven T. Cundiff eds., Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology,: Principle, Operation and Application (Springer New York, NY2005)

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni,“Integrated Fiber-Frequency Comb Using a PPLN Waveguide for Spectral Broadening and CEO Phase Detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CtuH5.

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, D. D. Hudson, M. J. Thorpe, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Passive cavity enhancement of a femtosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system to 204W average power,” Advanced Solid State Photonics (2007), Paper WA4

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimental set-up. SA: saturable absorber; PZT: piezo actuator; FBG: fiber-Bragg grating; ISO: isolator; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; DMM PCF: dispersion micromanaged photonic crystal fiber; LBO: Lithium triborate; BS: beam-splitter. (b) Autocorrelation measurement of the compressed laser output. For comparison a 117fs FWHM sech2 function is shown.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Dispersion profiles for the dispersion micromanaged holey fiber’s (DMM HF) initial and final core diameters of 3.3µm and 2.7µm respectively. (b) Spectrum generated by launching ~7 nJ, 130fs pulses into the 18mm long DMM HF. For qualitative comparison a spectrum generated in a 25 mm non-tapered HF as well as the launched laser spectrum is shown.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. a) Free running beat signal. b) Mixing product of f CEO and f rep at 125 MHz (phase locked with low gain). c) At higher gain phase locked operation a coherent peak (instrument limited bandwidth) as well as 60Hz pick-off can be observed.
Fig 4.
Fig 4. Frequency counter measurement of f CEO (a) and f rep (b). The low frequency oscillatory noise is correlated and might be related to cross talk or various environmental noise sources.

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