Abstract

Abstract

10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on-off keyed (OOK) optical data packets are synchronized and time-multiplexed using a 26-ns tunable all-optical delay line. The delay element is based on wavelength conversion in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides, inter-channel chromatic dispersion in dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) and intra-channel dispersion compensation with a chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Delay reconfiguration time is measured to be less than 300 ps.

©2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical packet switching holds the promise of highly efficient use of the available bandwidth in an optical network. As with electronic packet switching, a key enabling technology is the ability to controllably delay/buffer a data packet so as to synchronize packets and rapidly resolve output port contention. Desirable characteristics of this delay include large tuning range, continuous tunability, and rapid reconfiguration [1]. Previously published results for optical delays used in packet switching have typically been chosen from a finite set of discrete optical path lengths. This methodology produces only a fixed set of delays, whether they are in fiber [2, 3], waveguides [4], or free-space [5]. However, a laudable goal for a truly flexible and efficient packet switch would be to generate any arbitrary delay value. Recently, tunable delays have been shown using wavelength conversion via self-phase modulation [7] or four wave mixing [8, 9] coupled with dispersive elements. In this method, a data stream was converted to a slower-propagating wavelength, followed by conversion back to the original wavelength. Note that proper dispersion compensation was necessary. The result is that a data bit arrives at the output, delayed in time relative to a data bit that had always resided at the original, faster-propagating wavelength. Bit-level delays were shown [10], but little was reported relating to using these delays for time manipulation and synchronization of full data packets. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate synchronizing and multiplexing of optical data packets using a 26-ns tunable optical delay based on wavelength conversion and inter-channel chromatic dispersion. We achieved tunability for 10-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on-off keyed (OOK) data packets, multiplexed two packet streams, and measured a 10-9 bit error rate (BER). The delay reconfiguration time from one delay value to another was measured to be <300 ps.

2. Concept of conversion/dispersion based delay module for packet synchronization

Shown in Fig. 1 is the packet-synchronizing scheme. Two packet streams on two different wavelengths are routed such that the packets requiring delay (packet-3 on λ1) pass through the delay module.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Packet 3 (P3) passes through the delay module which consists of periodically-poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) λ-converters, a dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) and a chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG).

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After a packet is delayed for synchronization, it is then multiplexed with the non-delayed stream (λ2) using a 3-dB optical coupler. As shown in Fig. 2, the delay module uses wavelength-dependent chromatic dispersion generated by a dispersive element, such as dispersion compensating fiber (DCF). Using sum frequency generation (SFG) followed by difference frequency generation (DFG) in PPLN-1 [11], we convert λ1 to the desired wavelength λc. The optical delay equals the total wavelength shift (λ1c) multiplied by the total dispersion (ps/nm) of the DCF [9, 10]. We use a second PPLN to convert the delayed signal back to the original wavelength, thereby preserving the original wavelength at the output. Since the DCF also causes data-degrading intra-channel dispersion, we use a chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG) centered at λ1 and with the opposite dispersion of the DCF in order to perform output dispersion compensation [12].

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. In the two scenarios, λ1 is converted to different λc’s, resulting in different group velocities due to inter-channel dispersion. The undesired intra-channel dispersion is compensated by a FBG. (PPLN : periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide)

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3. Two stage wavelength conversion in PPLN

The wavelength conversion process is shown in Fig. 3. SFG in Fig. 3(a) is produced by using two laser pumps that are spectrally equidistant from the quasi-phase-matched (QPM) PPLN wavelength. In PPLN-1, the two pumps are the input signal at λ1 and a local pump at λpump-1. These two pumps mix via the first χ 2 process of SFG to generate λp/2={(λ1pump-1)/2}/2. This λp/2 mixes with another input “dummy” wavelength λdummy-1 to produce a converted output at λc=2λpdummy-1 via the second χ 2 process of DFG. By tuning λdummy-1, we can tune our converted signal λc to almost any desired value within the PPLN bandwidth.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. a). λ1 (input signal) and λpump-1 constitute the pumps for PPLN-1. By tuning λdummy-1, the output λc can be tuned.

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 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. b). Spectral arrangement of PPLN-2. λc and λpump-2 are pumps, while λ1 is the output.

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At PPLN-2 in Fig. 3(b), λc and λpump-2 are both equidistant from the QPM of PPLN-2 and constitute the two pumps. By tuning λdummy-2, we can ensure that the output wavelength is equal to λ1 again, thus preserving the original signal wavelength. Although PPLN devices can have a bandwidth of more than 70 nm [11], our bandwidth is limited to ~25 nm since we use erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) to amplify the signals.

We note that the “continuous” delay range has small “gaps”, such that the converted wavelength cannot be spectrally located at the QPM or the local pump. However, since the QPM is temperature tunable [11], we can avoid this problem by slightly tuning the QPM and the local pump wavelengths such that the gaps can be removed. Furthermore, another inaccessible λ is the input signal λ1, and this corresponds to zero delay.

4. Experimental setup and results

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 4. The 196-bit, NRZ-OOK 10-Gbit/s data packets are 19.6-ns long, and the packet guard time of empty space is 8 bits (800 ps). Packets are generated electronically and drive Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators. We manually programmed the pulse pattern generator (PPG) in order to generate the stream of 196-bit data packets, and the BERs were measured by programming the PPG and error detector accordingly. The 19.74-km DCF has a total dispersion of -1742 ps/nm at 1550 nm, loss of 10.7 dB, and dispersion slope of -0.22 ps/nm2/km. The chirped FBG has a positive dispersion of +2020 ps/nm, a 0.456-nm bandwidth at 1546.4 nm, and peak reflectivity of 89%. PPLN-1 and PPLN-2 have QPM wavelengths of 1550.1 and 1554.7 nm, respectively, at 91.5 °C. Laser diode (LD) λpump-1 and LD λpump-2 are fixed at 1553.8 and 1562.8 nm, respectively. LD λdummy-1 and LD λdummy-2 are tuned according to the desired converted wavelength, λc. Polarization controllers (PCs) are inserted in the input path of each PPLN since the converters are polarization dependent [13]. The input powers are: (i) for PPLN-1, λ1 and λpump-1 are each 14 dBm and λdummy-1 is 10 dBm, and (ii) for PPLN-2, λpump-2 and λdummy-2 are each 12 dBm and λc is 5 dBm. The converted wavelength is -13 dBm for PPLN-1 and -19 dBm for PPLN-2. The filters at the output of PPLN-1 and PPLN-2 have 3-dB bandwidths of 0.8 and 1.2 nm, respectively. The receiver is a 10-Gbit/s p-i-n device.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Experimental setup: LD (laser diode), Mod (modulator), PPG (pulse pattern generator), PPLN (periodically-poled lithium-niobate), DCF (dispersion compensating fiber), FBG (fiber Bragg grating), PC (polarization controller), Circ (circulator), EDFA (erbium doped fiber amplifier) and Rx (receiver). Note that ovals are simple passive couplers.

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The packets on λ1 (1546.4 nm) are routed through the delay module. Figure 5 shows three example delay scenarios of 0, 10 and 26.4 ns, corresponding, respectively, to λc at 1556.7, 1551.92 and 1542.5 nm. The inset eye diagram is for the packet stream that has been delayed by 26.4 ns.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Packet delay shown at 10 and 26.4 ns. Final output signal is 1546.4 nm.

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 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Delay as a function of converted wavelength.

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The two packet streams at λ1 and λ2 are initially offset by more than a packet length. By changing λc from 1556.76 to 1542.5 nm, we introduce a delay of 26.4 ns that results in aligning the λ1 packet into the vacant slot between packets 1 and 2 on λ2 (1552 nm). Figure 7 shows the synchronized packets that are multiplexed together using a 3-dB optical coupler. The inset eye diagram of Fig. 7 shows that the delayed data packet is slightly more noisy than the non-delayed packet. We believe that this is due to the added ASE arising from the non-optimally-filtered high-power EDFAs that were needed to overcome the PPLNs conversion efficiency of -25 dB. Note that any distortion can be minimized by employing PPLNs with higher conversion efficiency, low noise EDFAs and matched dispersion compensation. Note that the maximum residual dispersion between the DCF and FBG is around 310 ps/nm when the converted wavelength is 1542.5 nm.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Packet streams λ2 (non-delayed) and λ1 (delayed by 26.4 ns) synchronized and multiplexed. MUX=multiplexer. Our multiplexer is a simple 3-dB passive coupler.

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We measured the BER of a manually-programmed bit sequence for the back-to-back (non-delayed) λ1 packet stream, delayed λ1 packet stream, and multiplexed λ12 packet stream. Figure 8 shows a ~2.5-dB power penalty at a BER=10-9 for the multiplexed signal. This penalty is due to the non-idealities of the delay module. Since higher bit rates are much more sensitive to residual chromatic dispersion, finer control on dispersion compensation would be required.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Measured bit error rate (BER) for back-to-back, delayed single packet stream and multiplexed data stream. Power penalty of 2.5 dB is observed.

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5. Reconfiguration time of optical delay

The delay can be tuned by either changing the input wavelength or the converted wavelength. For our demonstration to dynamically reconfigure the optical delay, we keep λc constant and change λ1 between the two values of 1548.5 and 1551.76 nm. We use this approach for this section because we want to remove from our measurement the additional frequency-dependent time-of-flight of different wavelengths inside the DCF. The modified approach and experimental setup is shown in Figs. 9 and 10.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. (a) Output spectra of the two PPLNs when the switch is in the OFF position. (b) Output spectra when the 2x2 switch is turned ON.

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 figure: Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. Experimental setup for measuring the reconfiguration time of the delay scheme. The inset shows that the reconfiguration time is 276 ps, which is the time when one delayed signal vanishes (blue-colored) and the new delayed signal (pink-colored) appears. Ovals are passive couplers.

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Two input lasers (1548.5 and 1551.76 nm) that are equidistant from the QPM of PPLN-1 are input to a multi-GHz 2×2 prism-based electro-optic switch. The output port-1 of the switch is connected to a 3-dB coupler. The continuous-wave signal on one output of the coupler is fed to PPLN-1 as λpump-1, while the other coupler output becomes λdummy-2 of PPLN-2. Output from port-2 of the switch is routed through the modulator and input to PPLN-1 as λ1. We keep λdummy-1 and λpump-2 fixed at 1553.8 and 1562.8 nm, respectively. The final output from PPLN-2 is at two different wavelengths, 1560.2 and 1557.5 nm, depending on whether the case is the “switch-off” or “switch-on” position (see Fig. 9). We split the output of PPLN-2, put optical filters with center wavelengths located at the two possible final output values, and observed both of the outputs on a dual-channel optical oscilloscope. The path lengths for both of these outputs are kept equal. As shown in the inset of Fig. 10, the observed elapsed reconfiguration time is ~276 ps.

We note that the reconfiguration time in our experiment includes the inherent delay of the switch. Furthermore, we chose the values of the switched lasers at 1548.5 nm and 1551.76 nm due to the particular QPM settings of the available PPLNs.

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge Professor A.L. Gaeta for insightful discussions. This work was supported by the DARPA DSO Slow-Light Program, the DARPA UPR Opto-electronic Materials Research Center, and the National Science Foundation.

References and links

1. Pei-Cheng Chang-Hasnain, R.S. Ku, and Tucker, “Slow-Light Optical Buffers: Capabilities and Fundamental Limitations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046–4066 (2005). [CrossRef]  

2. David K. Hunter, W. David Cornwell, Tim H. Gilfedder, André Franzen, and Ivan Andonovic, “SLOB: A Switch with Large Optical Buffers for Packet Switching,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1725–1736 (1998). [CrossRef]  

3. Wen De Zhong and R.S. Tucker, “A New Wavelength-Routed Photonic Packet Buffer combining Traveling Delay Lines with Delay-Line Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1085–1092 (2001). [CrossRef]  

4. Koichi Takiguchi, Mikitaka Itoh, and Tomohiro Shibata, “Optical-Signal-Processing Device Based on Waveguide-Type Variable Delay Lines and Optical Gates,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2593–2601 (2006). [CrossRef]  

5. Carolyn M. Warnky, Rashmi Mital, and Betty Lise Anderson, “Demonstration of a Quartic Cell, a Free-Space True-Time-Delay Device Based on the White Cell,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3849–3855 (2006). [CrossRef]  

6. Henry K. Y. Cheung, Rebecca W. L. Fung, C. H. Kwok, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong, “All-Optical Packet Switching by Pulsed-Pump Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (2007).

7. Yoshitomo Okawachi, Jay E. Sharping, Chris Xu, and Alexander L. Gaeta, “Large Tunable Optical Delays via Self-Phase Modulation and Dispersion,” Opt. Express 14, 12022–12027 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. Jay Sharping, Yoshitomo Okawachi, James van Howe, Chris Xu, Yan Wang, Alan Willner, and Alexander Gaeta, “All-Optical, Wavelength and Bandwidth Preserving, Pulse Delay based on Parametric Wavelength Conversion and Dispersion,” Opt. Express 13, 7872–7877 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

10. Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007). [CrossRef]  

11. C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J.E. McGeehan, A.E. Willner, and M.M. Fejer, “All-Optical Signal Processing using χ(2) Nonlinearities in Guided-Wave Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579–2592 (2006). [CrossRef]  

12. W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995). [CrossRef]  

13. I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. Pei-Cheng Chang-Hasnain, R.S. Ku, and Tucker, “Slow-Light Optical Buffers: Capabilities and Fundamental Limitations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046–4066 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. David K. Hunter, W. David Cornwell, Tim H. Gilfedder, André Franzen, and Ivan Andonovic, “SLOB: A Switch with Large Optical Buffers for Packet Switching,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1725–1736 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. Wen De Zhong and R.S. Tucker, “A New Wavelength-Routed Photonic Packet Buffer combining Traveling Delay Lines with Delay-Line Loops,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1085–1092 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. Koichi Takiguchi, Mikitaka Itoh, and Tomohiro Shibata, “Optical-Signal-Processing Device Based on Waveguide-Type Variable Delay Lines and Optical Gates,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2593–2601 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. Carolyn M. Warnky, Rashmi Mital, and Betty Lise Anderson, “Demonstration of a Quartic Cell, a Free-Space True-Time-Delay Device Based on the White Cell,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3849–3855 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. Henry K. Y. Cheung, Rebecca W. L. Fung, C. H. Kwok, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong, “All-Optical Packet Switching by Pulsed-Pump Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (2007).
  7. Yoshitomo Okawachi, Jay E. Sharping, Chris Xu, and Alexander L. Gaeta, “Large Tunable Optical Delays via Self-Phase Modulation and Dispersion,” Opt. Express 14, 12022–12027 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Jay Sharping, Yoshitomo Okawachi, James van Howe, Chris Xu, Yan Wang, Alan Willner, and Alexander Gaeta, “All-Optical, Wavelength and Bandwidth Preserving, Pulse Delay based on Parametric Wavelength Conversion and Dispersion,” Opt. Express 13, 7872–7877 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).
  10. Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J.E. McGeehan, A.E. Willner, and M.M. Fejer, “All-Optical Signal Processing using χ(2) Nonlinearities in Guided-Wave Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579–2592 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  13. I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2007 (2)

Henry K. Y. Cheung, Rebecca W. L. Fung, C. H. Kwok, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong, “All-Optical Packet Switching by Pulsed-Pump Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (2007).

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Anderson, Betty Lise

Andonovic, Ivan

Andrekson, P.A.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Chang-Hasnain, Pei-Cheng

Cheung, Henry K. Y.

Henry K. Y. Cheung, Rebecca W. L. Fung, C. H. Kwok, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong, “All-Optical Packet Switching by Pulsed-Pump Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (2007).

Christen, L.

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cole, M.J.

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

David Cornwell, W.

Ellis, A.D.

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I.

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M.M.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J.E. McGeehan, A.E. Willner, and M.M. Fejer, “All-Optical Signal Processing using χ(2) Nonlinearities in Guided-Wave Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579–2592 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Franzen, André

Fung, Rebecca W. L.

Henry K. Y. Cheung, Rebecca W. L. Fung, C. H. Kwok, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong, “All-Optical Packet Switching by Pulsed-Pump Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (2007).

Gaeta, A.L.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, Alexander

Gaeta, Alexander L.

Gilfedder, Tim H.

Gnauck, A.H.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Gu, X.

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hunter, David K.

Itoh, Mikitaka

Koichi Takiguchi, Mikitaka Itoh, and Tomohiro Shibata, “Optical-Signal-Processing Device Based on Waveguide-Type Variable Delay Lines and Optical Gates,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2593–2601 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jopson, R. M.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Ku, R.S.

Kumar, S.

C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J.E. McGeehan, A.E. Willner, and M.M. Fejer, “All-Optical Signal Processing using χ(2) Nonlinearities in Guided-Wave Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579–2592 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kwok, C. H.

Henry K. Y. Cheung, Rebecca W. L. Fung, C. H. Kwok, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong, “All-Optical Packet Switching by Pulsed-Pump Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (2007).

Laming, R.I.

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

Langrock, C.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J.E. McGeehan, A.E. Willner, and M.M. Fejer, “All-Optical Signal Processing using χ(2) Nonlinearities in Guided-Wave Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579–2592 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Loh, W.H.

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

McGeehan, J.E.

McKinstrie, C. J.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Mital, Rashmi

Myslivets, E.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Okawachi, Yoshitomo

Radic, S.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Ren, J.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Roussev, R.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saghari, P.

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saperstein, R.E.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

Sharping, J.E.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharping, Jay

Sharping, Jay E.

Shibata, Tomohiro

Koichi Takiguchi, Mikitaka Itoh, and Tomohiro Shibata, “Optical-Signal-Processing Device Based on Waveguide-Type Variable Delay Lines and Optical Gates,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2593–2601 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takiguchi, Koichi

Koichi Takiguchi, Mikitaka Itoh, and Tomohiro Shibata, “Optical-Signal-Processing Device Based on Waveguide-Type Variable Delay Lines and Optical Gates,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2593–2601 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tucker,

Tucker, R.S.

van Howe, James

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Yan

Warnky, Carolyn M.

Widdowson, T.

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

Willner, A.E.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Langrock, S. Kumar, J.E. McGeehan, A.E. Willner, and M.M. Fejer, “All-Optical Signal Processing using χ(2) Nonlinearities in Guided-Wave Devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2579–2592 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Willner, Alan

Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

Henry K. Y. Cheung, Rebecca W. L. Fung, C. H. Kwok, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong, “All-Optical Packet Switching by Pulsed-Pump Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (2007).

Xu, Chris

Yan, L.-S.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M.N.

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zhong, Wen De

Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (1)

Henry K. Y. Cheung, Rebecca W. L. Fung, C. H. Kwok, and Kenneth K. Y. Wong, “All-Optical Packet Switching by Pulsed-Pump Wavelength Exchange in a Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communications, paper OTuB4 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

W.H. Loh, R.I. Laming, X. Gu, M.N. Zervas, M.J. Cole, T. Widdowson, and A.D. Ellis, “10 cm Chirped Fibre Bragg Grating for Dispersion Compensation at 10 Gbit/s over 400 km of Non-Dispersion Shifted Fibre,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2203–2204 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Tech. (1)

Koichi Takiguchi, Mikitaka Itoh, and Tomohiro Shibata, “Optical-Signal-Processing Device Based on Waveguide-Type Variable Delay Lines and Optical Gates,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 2593–2601 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (2)

Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, “44-ns Continuously Tunable Dispersionless Optical Delay Element Using a PPLN Waveguide with Two-Pump Configuration, DCF, and a Dispersion Compensator,” Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 861–863 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

I. Fazal, S. Kumar, P. Saghari, L. Christen, Y. Li, A.E. Willner, C. Langrock, R. Roussev, and M.M. Fejer, “Data-Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion in a PPLN Waveguide by Cross-Polarization-Modulation of the Pump using an SOA,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OThB4 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R.E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A.H. Gnauck, P.A. Andrekson, and S. Radic, “12.47 ns Continuously-Tunable Two-Pump Parametric Delay,” European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th4.4.3 (2006).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Packet 3 (P3) passes through the delay module which consists of periodically-poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) λ-converters, a dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) and a chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. In the two scenarios, λ1 is converted to different λc’s, resulting in different group velocities due to inter-channel dispersion. The undesired intra-channel dispersion is compensated by a FBG. (PPLN : periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide)
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. a). λ1 (input signal) and λpump-1 constitute the pumps for PPLN-1. By tuning λdummy-1, the output λc can be tuned.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. b). Spectral arrangement of PPLN-2. λc and λpump-2 are pumps, while λ1 is the output.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental setup: LD (laser diode), Mod (modulator), PPG (pulse pattern generator), PPLN (periodically-poled lithium-niobate), DCF (dispersion compensating fiber), FBG (fiber Bragg grating), PC (polarization controller), Circ (circulator), EDFA (erbium doped fiber amplifier) and Rx (receiver). Note that ovals are simple passive couplers.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Packet delay shown at 10 and 26.4 ns. Final output signal is 1546.4 nm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Delay as a function of converted wavelength.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Packet streams λ2 (non-delayed) and λ1 (delayed by 26.4 ns) synchronized and multiplexed. MUX=multiplexer. Our multiplexer is a simple 3-dB passive coupler.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measured bit error rate (BER) for back-to-back, delayed single packet stream and multiplexed data stream. Power penalty of 2.5 dB is observed.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Output spectra of the two PPLNs when the switch is in the OFF position. (b) Output spectra when the 2x2 switch is turned ON.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Experimental setup for measuring the reconfiguration time of the delay scheme. The inset shows that the reconfiguration time is 276 ps, which is the time when one delayed signal vanishes (blue-colored) and the new delayed signal (pink-colored) appears. Ovals are passive couplers.

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