Abstract

We have obtained thermoluminescence glow curves nondestructively from large, solid, ceramic samples by laser spot heating. Although the samples are brittle, laser thermoluminescence glow curves could be obtained with no visible damage to the samples. The experimental glow curves match with theory. By contrast, conventional thermoluminescence measurements require small samples to be removed from a ceramic and placed in a thermoluminescence machine. Laser-induced thermoluminescence glow curves from LiF, silica, and porcelain are presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

1 Introduction

Thermoluminescence emission from ceramics is very useful for both measuring radiation exposure and analyzing the material’s electronic structure.[1, 2] It is often acceptable for thermoluminescence analysis to be destructive, that is, to require the removal from the ceramic of a small sample which is ground up and placed in a thermoluminescence analysis machine. Thermoluminescence was first observed from ground-up pottery in 1960.[3]. However, thermoluminescence analysis is also a very important tool in situations, such as the dating of ancient vases, for which the removal of a sample, even a small sample, is highly undesirable. In this paper, we demonstrate a technique for nondestructive measurement of thermoluminescence emission by laser heating a spot on an intact in situ ceramic.

Thermoluminescence has been studied extensively with the first models of thermoluminescence emission having appeared over fifty years ago.[4, 5] When a ceramic is irradiated, electrons (or holes) can be excited and subsequently caught in metastable traps. If the ceramic is later heated, typically in an oven, the electrons are released from the traps and some of them will radiatively recombine. Light emitted in this way is called thermoluminescence. Recent work on thermoluminescence has been reviewed.[6–8] Thermoluminescence emission from many materials has been studied. Because of its practical importance in dosimeters, LiF has received the most study. In the form most commonly used for thermoluminescence studies (Harshaw TLD-100), Mg and Ti impurities are added to the LiF to increase the thermoluminescence intensity and many thermoluminescence peaks have been resolved and phenomena such as supra-linearity and sensitization have been studied.[9–16] The thermoluminescence emission from quartz, particularly its 110°C peak, has also been studied[17–22] as well as thermoluminescence emission from feldspars.[23, 24] Porcelain contains quartz and has similar thermoluminescence properties.[25] Thermoluminescence emission from various materials has been reviewed.[26]

 

Fig. 1. Schematic of laboratory apparatus for non-destructive laser-induced thermoluminescence measurements.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Laser-heated thermoluminescence dosimetry was first demonstrated on thin layers of powdered ceramic.[27] Laser heating of the sample is interesting for three reasons. First, because it can be extremely rapid, the peak intensity of the thermoluminescence signal can be much higher than from traditional heating methods.[28–30] Gasiot et al. [27]demonstrated heating rates of 104 K/s. Secondly, it is possible to selectively excite thermoluminescence emission from individual pixels in a two-dimensional array of powdered phosphors for purposes of dose-mapping.[31, 32] Thirdly, laser heating offers the potential of performing thermoluminescence measurements on a sample in situ. This latter feature is what this paper will focus on. This feature is particularly important for dating ancient ceramics: when great value is placed on the item’s aesthetics, drilling holes to remove a sample is highly undesirable. While the historical value of unblemished ceramics is not quantifiable, their commercial value is. As an example, in 1998, a Ming Dynasty white glazed porcelain from the imperial kiln, whose value Christie’s had estimated at $100,000 US, went unsold in a public auction because of the two drilled holes at the base each measured at about 0.5 cm in diameter. Obviously a porcelain in pristine condition is much more attractive. We demonstrate the observation of thermoluminescence emission from ceramics in situ. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of laser-heated thermoluminescence from large, unprepared (bulk), solid materials.

2 Experimental Apparatus

To demonstrate nondestructive thermoluminescence dosimetry, experimental apparatus was constructed as shown in Fig. 1. To heat the target, a CO2 laser (Synrad J48-2-7615) which was water cooled (Polyscience chiller), is directed by a mirror towards the sample which is placed on a holder. The light output from the sample is monitored by a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu 1P21). The PMT signal is amplified (Stanford Research Systems SRS-445) and then analyzed by a photon counter (Stanford Research Systems SR-430). The PMT voltage was maintained at 1000 V by a Beltran Associates Model 205B-03R high voltage power supply. The CO2 laser power was measured with a power meter (Molectron PM30). Because some samples react with oxygen when hot, the sample was in a chamber which could be purged with nitrogen before each shot. Samples were irradiated using a Sr-80 (beta) source.

3 Results and Discussion

We began our experiments with the standard Harshaw LiF (TLD-100) pellets. A lens was placed in front of the laser beam to produce a spot size of 8 mm on the target. After exposure to beta radiation, a strong thermoluminescence signal was observed. A sample of thermoluminescence emissions is shown in Fig. 2. Two thermoluminescence peaks were observed. No damage was observed after eight pulses of 10 seconds duration at the maximum laser power of 38 W. To confirm that this signal was due to thermoluminescence, we ran the experiment again with a LiF pellet that was not exposed to beta radiation. This resulted in the data, labeled “0 Rads,” for which, as expected, no peak was observed.

 

Fig. 2. Laser-induced thermoluminescence emission is shown from a LiF (TLD-100) pellet. The circles are experimental results. The solid line is from theory.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

At smaller spot sizes, it was possible to damage the LiF pellet. With a beam size of about 3 mm, damage was observed for powers as low as 15 W after a few seconds of exposure. A notable feature was that, even at powers for which only slight damage to the pellet was apparent to the eye, significant changes to the thermoluminescence curve were observed. As an example, Fig. 3 shows thermoluminescence emission resulting from exposure to 11.2 W of CO2 radiation. Compared to Fig. 2, strong distortion of the thermoluminescence peak is observed.

Next, we exposed a 0.5 mm thick quartz slide to 172 Rads and then placed it on the sample holder. Because quartz exhibits weaker thermoluminescence than LiF, we exposed this sample to a higher dose of radiation and increased the laser power to obtain more signal. The slide was exposed to 38 W of CO2 laser radiation for 10 seconds. A single peak of thermoluminescence emission was observed as shown in Fig. 4.

Lastly, we tested the usefulness of this technique on a 3-cm diameter and 5-mm thick piece of a porcelain ceramic. This ceramic was taken from a “blue and white” soup can which is commonly available in Asian supermarkets. This sample was used to demonstrate the ability of laser-induced thermoluminescence to make measurements on uncontrolled materials in situ. After irradiation, a clear thermoluminescence signal in the form of a broad single peak was observed as shown in Fig. 5. No damage to the sample was observed. The peak is unusually broad because the temperature in the sample is nonuniform: we are looking at the emission integrated over the sample surface and different parts of the surface reach the peak emitting temperature at different times.

The theoretical curves shown in the plots were derived from a numerical solution of the unsteady three-dimensional heat conduction equation with adiabatic boundary conditions combined with first-order thermoluminescence kinetics. This was an extension of the unsteady 2-D numerical calculations that we described previously.[33] The calculations show that we have achieved heating rates as high as 200° C/s in our samples. For conventional thermoluminescence instruments, the temperature, T, rises linearly with time, t, and the peak thermoluminescence intensity is proportional to the heating rate, Ṫ = dT/dt. Under laser heating the temperature profiles are often nonlinear. In this case, for well-behaved temperature profiles, the peak thermoluminescence intensity scales as:[33]

Ipeak~ET˙kT2exp(11+(kTE)(2TT̈T˙2))
 

Fig. 3. Laser-induced Thermoluminescence emission is shown from a LiF (TLD-100) pellet exposed to 11.2 W of a 3 mm beam.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 

Fig. 4. A quartz slide exposed to CO2 laser heating shows strong thermoluminescence. The laser power 38 W and the beam size was 3 mm.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 

Fig. 5. The solid circles show thermoluminescence emission from a porcelain sample irradiated at 2150 Rad. The open circles show the signal from the same sample without irradiation. The solid line is theory.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

where E is the trap energy, k is Boltzmann’s constant, and T̈ = d 2 T/dt 2 where the temperature and its derivatives are all evaluated at the time of the peak intensity. For laser heating, T̈ is typically negative and Eq. (1) shows that this reduces the peak intensity although the Ṫ scaling still dominates. Laser heating is capable of producing very large Ṫ, and the resulting high intensity indicates a potential for laser-induced thermoluminescence to be not only nondestructive but also more sensitive.

In conclusion, nondestructive thermoluminescence testing has been demonstrated using CO2 laser heating. The technique permits the absorbed dose to be measured in selected locations on large objects without physically removing any samples. We particularly anticipate applications of this approach to thermoluminescence tests on antiquities.

Acknowledgements

This work is supported, in part, by Earmarked Research Grant No. CUHK4009/99H of the Government of Hong Kong SAR.

References and links

1. M. J. Aitken, Thermoluminescence Dating (Academic Press, London, 1985).

2. S. W. S. McKeever, Thermoluminescence of Solids (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985). [CrossRef]  

3. G. Kennedy and L. Knopff, Archeology 113, 147 (1960).

4. E. A. Randall and M. H. F. Wilkins, “Phosphorescence and Electron Traps II” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A , 184, 390 (1945). [CrossRef]  

5. G. F. J. Garlick and A. F. Gibson, “The Electron Trap Mechanism of Luminescence in Sulphide and Silicate Phosphors,” Proc. Roy. Soc. London A60, 574 (1948).

6. S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence Models,” Radiation Measurements 27, 625 (1997). [CrossRef]  

7. Y. Kirsh, “Kinetic Analysis of Thermoluminescence,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 129, 15 (1992). [CrossRef]  

8. M. Martini and F. Meinardi, “Thermally Stimulated Luminescence: New Perspectives in The Study of Defects in Solids,” Rivista Del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997). [CrossRef]  

9. A. G. Mahmoud, D. E. Arafah, and H. Sharabati, “Characterization of Thermoluminescence-Glow Curves Resulting from Sensitized TLD-100,” J. Phys. D 31, 224 (1998). [CrossRef]  

10. S. W. S. McKeever, “5.5 Ev Optical-Absorption, Supralinearity, and Sensitization of Thermoluminescence in LiF TLD-100,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 724 (1990). [CrossRef]  

11. S. W. S. McKeever and Y. S. Horowitz, “Charge Trapping Mechanisms and Microdosimetric Processes in Lithium-Fluoride,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry 36, 35 (1990).

12. D. Yossian and Y. S. Horowitz, “Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution Applied To The Analysis of The Kinetics of Peak 5 in LiF-Mg,Ti (TLD-100),” J. Phys. D 28, 1495 (1995). [CrossRef]  

13. A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, D. J. Wilkinson, and J. D. Comins, “Defect Clusters and Thermoluminescence in LiF Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1410 (1999). [CrossRef]  

14. L. A. R. da Rosa and L. V. E. Caldas, “On The Thermoluminescence of LiF from 83 To 320 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6841 (1998). [CrossRef]  

15. F. Boganiet al., “A Comparative Study of The Thermoluminescent Response To Beta Irradiation of CVD Diamond and LiF Dosimeters,” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A 388, 427 (1997). [CrossRef]  

16. S. Mahajna and Y. S. Horowitz, “The Unified Interaction Model Applied To The Gamma Ray Induced Supralinearity and Sensitization of Peak 5 in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100),” J. Phys. D 30, 2603 (1997). [CrossRef]  

17. J. Zimmerman, “Radiation Induced Increase of the 100C TL sensitivity of Fired Quartz,” J. Phys. C 4, 3265 (1971). [CrossRef]  

18. D. Stoneham and S. Stokes, “An Investigation of the Relationship between the 110C TL peak and optically stimulated luminescence in Sedimentary Quartz,” Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas. 23, 647 (1991).

19. W. F. Hornyak, R. Chen, and A. Franklin, “Thermoluminescence Characteristics of The 375-Degrees-C Electron Trap in Quartz,” Physical Review B 46, 8036 (1992). [CrossRef]  

20. M. J. Aitken and B. W. Smith, “Optical Dating: Recuperation after Bleaching,” Quarternary Sci. Rev. 7, 387 (1998). [CrossRef]  

21. A. Halperin, “The Nature of The Electron Traps in Quartz Associated with the Thermoluminescence Peaks in The Range 70-700K,” Annales De Chimie-Science Des Materiaux 22, 595 (1997).

22. G. Chen and S. H. Li, “Studies of Quartz 110 Degrees C Thermoluminescence Peak Sensitivity Change and Its Relevance To Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating,” J. Phys. D 33, 437 (2000). [CrossRef]  

23. H. M. Rendellet al., “Spectral-Analysis of Thermoluminescence in The Dating of Potassium Feldspars,” Physica Status Solidi A 138, 335 (1993). [CrossRef]  

24. J. R. Prescott, P. J. Fox, G. B. Robertson, and J. T. Hutton, “3-Dimensional Spectral Studies of The Bleaching of The Thermoluminescence of Feldspars,” Radiation Measurements 23, 367 (1994). [CrossRef]  

25. H. Y. Goksu, D. Stoneham, I. K. Bailiff, and G. Adamiec, “A New Technique in Retrospective Thermoluminescence Dosimetry: Pre-Dose Effect in The 230 Degrees C Thermoluminescence Glow Peak of Porcelain,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 49, 99 (1998). [CrossRef]  

26. M. R. Krbetschek, J. Gotze, A. Dietrich, and T. Trautmann, “Spectral Information from Minerals Relevant for Luminescence Dating,” Radiation Measurements 27, 695 (1997). [CrossRef]  

27. J. Gasiot, P. Bräunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser Heating in Thermoluminescence Dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5200 (1982). [CrossRef]  

28. A. Abtahim, P. Bräunlich, P. Kelly, and J. Gasiot, “Laser Stimulated Thermoluminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1626 (1985). [CrossRef]  

29. P. Kelly, A. Abtahi, and P. Bräunlich, “Laser Stimulated Thermoluminescence II,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 738 (1986). [CrossRef]  

30. K. Kearfottet al., “Numerical Simulation of a TLD Pulsed Laser-heating Scheme for Determination of Shallow Dose and Deep Dose in Low-LET Radiation Fields,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 52, 1419 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. M. Grupen and K. Kearfott, “Numerical Analysis of Infrared Laser Heating in Thermoluminescent Material Layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1044 (1988). [CrossRef]  

32. D. L. Fehlet al., “Characterization of a Two-Dimensional, Thermoluminescence, Dose-Mapping System: Uniformity, Reproducibility, and Calibrations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3243 (1994). [CrossRef]  

33. J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for Nonlinear Heating Profiles with Application to Laser Heated Emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6145 (2001). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. M. J. Aitken, Thermoluminescence Dating (Academic Press, London, 1985).
  2. S. W. S. McKeever, Thermoluminescence of Solids (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Kennedy and L. Knopff, Archeology 113, 147 (1960).
  4. E. A. Randall and M. H. F. Wilkins, �Phosphorescence and Electron Traps II� Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 184, 390 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. F. J. Garlick and A. F. Gibson, �The Electron Trap Mechanism of Luminescence in Sulphide and Silicate Phosphors,� Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 60, 574 (1948).
  6. S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, �Luminescence Models,� Radiation Measurements 27, 625 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Kirsh, �Kinetic Analysis of Thermoluminescence,� Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 129, 15 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Martini and F. Meinardi, �Thermally Stimulated Luminescence: New Perspectives in The Study of Defects in Solids,� Rivista Del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. G. Mahmoud, D. E. Arafah, and H. Sharabati, �Characterization of Thermoluminescence-Glow Curves Resulting from Sensitized TLD-100,� J. Phys. D 31, 224 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. W. S. McKeever, �5.5 Ev Optical-Absorption, Supralinearity, and Sensitization of Thermoluminescence in LiF TLD-100,� J. Appl. Phys. 68, 724 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. W. S. McKeever and Y. S. Horowitz, �Charge Trapping Mechanisms and Microdosimetric Processes in Lithium-Fluoride,� Radiation Physics and Chemistry 36, 35 (1990).
  12. D. Yossian and Y. S. Horowitz, �Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution Applied To The Analysis of The Kinetics of Peak 5 in LiF-Mg,Ti (TLD-100),� J. Phys. D 28, 1495 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, D. J. Wilkinson, and J. D. Comins, �Defect Clusters and Thermoluminescence in LiF Crystals,� J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1410 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. A. R. da Rosa and L. V. E. Caldas, �On The Thermoluminescence of LiF from 83 To 320 K,� J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6841 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Bogani et al., �A Comparative Study of The Thermoluminescent Response To Beta Irradiation of CVD Diamond and LiF Dosimeters,� Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A 388, 427 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Mahajna and Y. S. Horowitz, �The Unified Interaction Model Applied To The Gamma Ray Induced Supralinearity and Sensitization of Peak 5 in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100),� J. Phys. D 30, 2603 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Zimmerman, �Radiation Induced Increase of the 100C TL sensitivity of Fired Quartz,� J. Phys. C 4, 3265 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Stoneham and S. Stokes, �An Investigation of the Relationship between the 110C TL peak and optically stimulated luminescence in Sedimentary Quartz,� Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas. 23, 647 (1991).
  19. W. F. Hornyak, R. Chen, and A. Franklin, �Thermoluminescence Characteristics of The 375-Degrees-C Electron Trap in Quartz,� Phys. Rev. B 46, 8036 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. J. Aitken and B. W. Smith, �Optical Dating: Recuperation after Bleaching,� Quarternary Sci. Rev. 7, 387 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Halperin, �The Nature of The Electron Traps in Quartz Associated with the Thermoluminescence Peaks in The Range 70-700K,� Annales De Chimie-Science Des Materiaux 22, 595 (1997).
  22. G. Chen and S. H. Li, �Studies of Quartz 110 Degrees C Thermoluminescence Peak Sensitivity Change and Its Relevance To Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating,� J. Phys. D 33, 437 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. M. Rendell et al., �Spectral-Analysis of Thermoluminescence in The Dating of Potassium Feldspars,� Physica Status Solidi A 138, 335 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. R. Prescott, P. J. Fox, G. B. Robertson, and J. T. Hutton, �3-Dimensional Spectral Studies of The Bleaching of The Thermoluminescence of Feldspars,� Radiation Measurements 23, 367 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Y. Goksu, D. Stoneham, I. K. Bailiff, and G. Adamiec, �A New Technique in Retrospective Thermoluminescence Dosimetry: Pre-Dose Effect in The 230 Degrees C Thermoluminescence Glow Peak of Porcelain,� Appl. Radiat. Isot. 49, 99 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. R. Krbetschek, J. Gotze, A. Dietrich, and T. Trautmann, �Spectral Information from Minerals Relevant for Luminescence Dating,� Radiation Measurements 27, 695 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Gasiot, P. Br�aunlich, and J. P. Fillard, �Laser Heating in Thermoluminescence Dosimetry,� J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5200 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Abtahim, P. Braunlich, P. Kelly, and J. Gasiot, �Laser Stimulated Thermoluminescence,� J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1626 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Kelly, A. Abtahi, and P. Braunlich, �Laser Stimulated Thermoluminescence II,� J. Appl. Phys. 61, 738 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Kearfott et al., �Numerical Simulation of a TLD Pulsed Laser-heating Scheme for Determination of Shallow Dose and Deep Dose in Low-LET Radiation Fields,� Appl. Radiat. Isot. 52, 1419 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Grupen and K. Kearfott, �Numerical Analysis of Infrared Laser Heating in Thermoluminescent Material Layers,� J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1044 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. L. Fehl et al., �Characterization of a Two-Dimensional, Thermoluminescence, Dose-Mapping System: Uniformity, Reproducibility, and Calibrations,� Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3243 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, �Thermoluminescence for Nonlinear Heating Profiles with Application to Laser Heated Emissions,� J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6145 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

Annales De Chimie-Science Des Materiaux (1)

A. Halperin, �The Nature of The Electron Traps in Quartz Associated with the Thermoluminescence Peaks in The Range 70-700K,� Annales De Chimie-Science Des Materiaux 22, 595 (1997).

Appl. Radiat. Isot. (2)

H. Y. Goksu, D. Stoneham, I. K. Bailiff, and G. Adamiec, �A New Technique in Retrospective Thermoluminescence Dosimetry: Pre-Dose Effect in The 230 Degrees C Thermoluminescence Glow Peak of Porcelain,� Appl. Radiat. Isot. 49, 99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kearfott et al., �Numerical Simulation of a TLD Pulsed Laser-heating Scheme for Determination of Shallow Dose and Deep Dose in Low-LET Radiation Fields,� Appl. Radiat. Isot. 52, 1419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Archeology (1)

G. Kennedy and L. Knopff, Archeology 113, 147 (1960).

J. Appl. Phys. (8)

S. W. S. McKeever, �5.5 Ev Optical-Absorption, Supralinearity, and Sensitization of Thermoluminescence in LiF TLD-100,� J. Appl. Phys. 68, 724 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Grupen and K. Kearfott, �Numerical Analysis of Infrared Laser Heating in Thermoluminescent Material Layers,� J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1044 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Gasiot, P. Br�aunlich, and J. P. Fillard, �Laser Heating in Thermoluminescence Dosimetry,� J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5200 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Abtahim, P. Braunlich, P. Kelly, and J. Gasiot, �Laser Stimulated Thermoluminescence,� J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1626 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Kelly, A. Abtahi, and P. Braunlich, �Laser Stimulated Thermoluminescence II,� J. Appl. Phys. 61, 738 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, �Thermoluminescence for Nonlinear Heating Profiles with Application to Laser Heated Emissions,� J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Davidson, A. G. Kozakiewicz, D. J. Wilkinson, and J. D. Comins, �Defect Clusters and Thermoluminescence in LiF Crystals,� J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1410 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. R. da Rosa and L. V. E. Caldas, �On The Thermoluminescence of LiF from 83 To 320 K,� J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6841 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

J. Zimmerman, �Radiation Induced Increase of the 100C TL sensitivity of Fired Quartz,� J. Phys. C 4, 3265 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (4)

A. G. Mahmoud, D. E. Arafah, and H. Sharabati, �Characterization of Thermoluminescence-Glow Curves Resulting from Sensitized TLD-100,� J. Phys. D 31, 224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Yossian and Y. S. Horowitz, �Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution Applied To The Analysis of The Kinetics of Peak 5 in LiF-Mg,Ti (TLD-100),� J. Phys. D 28, 1495 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen and S. H. Li, �Studies of Quartz 110 Degrees C Thermoluminescence Peak Sensitivity Change and Its Relevance To Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dating,� J. Phys. D 33, 437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Mahajna and Y. S. Horowitz, �The Unified Interaction Model Applied To The Gamma Ray Induced Supralinearity and Sensitization of Peak 5 in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100),� J. Phys. D 30, 2603 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas. (1)

D. Stoneham and S. Stokes, �An Investigation of the Relationship between the 110C TL peak and optically stimulated luminescence in Sedimentary Quartz,� Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas. 23, 647 (1991).

Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics (1)

F. Bogani et al., �A Comparative Study of The Thermoluminescent Response To Beta Irradiation of CVD Diamond and LiF Dosimeters,� Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A 388, 427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

W. F. Hornyak, R. Chen, and A. Franklin, �Thermoluminescence Characteristics of The 375-Degrees-C Electron Trap in Quartz,� Phys. Rev. B 46, 8036 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

Y. Kirsh, �Kinetic Analysis of Thermoluminescence,� Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 129, 15 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Physica Status Solidi A (1)

H. M. Rendell et al., �Spectral-Analysis of Thermoluminescence in The Dating of Potassium Feldspars,� Physica Status Solidi A 138, 335 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

E. A. Randall and M. H. F. Wilkins, �Phosphorescence and Electron Traps II� Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 184, 390 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. London A (1)

G. F. J. Garlick and A. F. Gibson, �The Electron Trap Mechanism of Luminescence in Sulphide and Silicate Phosphors,� Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 60, 574 (1948).

Quarternary Sci. Rev. (1)

M. J. Aitken and B. W. Smith, �Optical Dating: Recuperation after Bleaching,� Quarternary Sci. Rev. 7, 387 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Radiation Measurements (3)

S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, �Luminescence Models,� Radiation Measurements 27, 625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Prescott, P. J. Fox, G. B. Robertson, and J. T. Hutton, �3-Dimensional Spectral Studies of The Bleaching of The Thermoluminescence of Feldspars,� Radiation Measurements 23, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krbetschek, J. Gotze, A. Dietrich, and T. Trautmann, �Spectral Information from Minerals Relevant for Luminescence Dating,� Radiation Measurements 27, 695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radiation Physics and Chemistry (1)

S. W. S. McKeever and Y. S. Horowitz, �Charge Trapping Mechanisms and Microdosimetric Processes in Lithium-Fluoride,� Radiation Physics and Chemistry 36, 35 (1990).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. L. Fehl et al., �Characterization of a Two-Dimensional, Thermoluminescence, Dose-Mapping System: Uniformity, Reproducibility, and Calibrations,� Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rivista Del Nuovo Cimento (1)

M. Martini and F. Meinardi, �Thermally Stimulated Luminescence: New Perspectives in The Study of Defects in Solids,� Rivista Del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. J. Aitken, Thermoluminescence Dating (Academic Press, London, 1985).

S. W. S. McKeever, Thermoluminescence of Solids (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of laboratory apparatus for non-destructive laser-induced thermoluminescence measurements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Laser-induced thermoluminescence emission is shown from a LiF (TLD-100) pellet. The circles are experimental results. The solid line is from theory.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Laser-induced Thermoluminescence emission is shown from a LiF (TLD-100) pellet exposed to 11.2 W of a 3 mm beam.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A quartz slide exposed to CO2 laser heating shows strong thermoluminescence. The laser power 38 W and the beam size was 3 mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The solid circles show thermoluminescence emission from a porcelain sample irradiated at 2150 Rad. The open circles show the signal from the same sample without irradiation. The solid line is theory.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I peak ~ E T ˙ k T 2 exp ( 1 1 + ( k T E ) ( 2 T T ̈ T ˙ 2 ) )

Metrics