Abstract

Coupled mode devices are fabricated in transparent glasses by nonlinear materials processing with femtosecond laser pulses. Using the direct output of an extended cavity femtosecond laser, without the need for a laser amplifier, single mode waveguides can be rapidly fabricated with well controlled parameters. A variety of photonic waveguide devices are demonstrated. Directional couplers with various interaction lengths and coupling coefficients are fabricated and their coupling properties are characterized. Measurements demonstrate coupled mode behavior consistent with theory. An unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is also fabricated and demonstrated as a spectral filter.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K.M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A.L. Gaeta, N.F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposes to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P.G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 646-648 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E.N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R.J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J.P.Callan, and E. Mazur, "Threedimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Sikorski, A.A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K.A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Waehmer, and E.E.B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E.N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, K. Itoh, "Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 1669-1671 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A.M. Streltsov and N.F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C.B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J.F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S.H. Cho, F.X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, E. P. Ippen, J.G. Fujimoto, J.E. Cunningham, W.H. Knox, "Generation of 90-nJ pulses with a 4 MHz repetition-rate Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser operating with net positive and negative intracavity dispersion," Opt. Lett. 26, 560-562, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B.E.A. Saleh and M.C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics, (JohnWiley & Sons, 1991); A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, (Oxford University Press, 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Morgner, F.X. Kärtner, S.H. Cho, Y. Chen, H.A. Haus, J.G. Fujimoto, E.P. Ippen, V. Scheurer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, "Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 411-413 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Waehmer, and E.E.B. Campbell, "Micromachining of quartz with ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 65, 367-373 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E.N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Sikorski, A.A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K.A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

U. Morgner, F.X. Kärtner, S.H. Cho, Y. Chen, H.A. Haus, J.G. Fujimoto, E.P. Ippen, V. Scheurer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, "Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 411-413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P.G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 646-648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A.L. Gaeta, N.F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposes to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K.M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R.J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J.P.Callan, and E. Mazur, "Threedimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, K. Itoh, "Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 1669-1671 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A.M. Streltsov and N.F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J.F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.H. Cho, F.X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, E. P. Ippen, J.G. Fujimoto, J.E. Cunningham, W.H. Knox, "Generation of 90-nJ pulses with a 4 MHz repetition-rate Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 laser operating with net positive and negative intracavity dispersion," Opt. Lett. 26, 560-562, (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B.E.A. Saleh and M.C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics, (JohnWiley & Sons, 1991); A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, (Oxford University Press, 1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Phase contrast microscopic image of one of the directional couplers. The aspect ratio of the image is compressed by a factor of 5 in the horizontal direction in order to better visualize the directional coupler. The arrow in the image indicates the interaction region. (b) Schematic of the coupler. Separation, d, and interaction length, L, are varied with the fixed total length, 25 mm. He-Ne laser is guided into one of the input ports, and the output power at two ports is measured. The coupling ratio between the two waveguide ports, R, is obtained.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Interaction length dependence of the coupling ratio for waveguide separations d = 8 μm, (b) d = 10 μm, and (c) d = 12 μm. Experimental results (dots) and their best-fit results to sinusoidal curves (lines) are shown. The period of the oscillation increases from (a) 5, to (b) 9, to (c) 14 mm, which is consistent with the coupled mode theory.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wavelength dependence of the coupling ratio for the coupler with L=5 mm and d=2 μm. Experimental results (dots) and their best-fit results to sinusoidal curves (lines) are shown.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic representation of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with phase-contrast microscope images of waveguides; (b) Input (red line) and output (black line) spectra from broadband Ti:Al2O3 and, (c) Normalized output spectrum (black line) demonstrating the filtering effect of the interferometer compared to theoretical model (red line).

Equations (6)

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P 11 = P 0 g 1 b 1 2 ( 1 R ) ,
P 12 = P 0 g 1 b 1 2 b 2 2 R ,
P 21 = P 0 g 2 R ,
P 22 = P 0 g 2 b 2 2 ( 1 R ) .
R = P 2 ( L ) P 1 ( 0 ) = C 12 2 γ 2 sin 2 γ L ,
γ 2 = C 12 2 + ( β 1 β 2 2 ) 2 .

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