Abstract

The aim of our study was to explore the possibility of detecting hemodynamic changes in the brain using the phase of the intensity modulated optical signal. To obtain optical signals with the highest possible signal-to-noise ratio, we performed a series of simultaneous NIRS-fMRI measurements, with subsequent correlation of the time courses of both measurements. The cognitive paradigm used arithmetic calculations, with optical signals acquired with sensors placed on the forehead. Measurements were done on seven healthy subjects. In five subjects we demonstrated correlation between the hemodynamic signals obtained using NIRS and BOLD fMRI. In four subjects correlation was found for the hemodynamic signal obtained using the phase of the intensity modulated signal.

© Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. E. Gratton, W. W. Mantulin, vande M. J. Ven, J. B. Fishkin, M. B. Maris, and B. Chance, "The possibility of a near-infrared imaging system using frequency-domain methods," Proc. Third Intl. Conf.: Peace through Mind/ Brain Science, 183-189, Hamamatsu City, Japan (1990)
  2. M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson , "Frequency-domain reflectance for the determination of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue," Appl. Opt. 30, 4474-4476 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, R. C. Haskell, "Properties of photon density waves in multiple-scattering media," Appl. Opt. 32, 607-616 (1993)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, "A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses," Neuroimage 8, 69-78 (1998)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, "Separation of absorption and scattering heterogeneities in NIR tomographic imaging of tissue," in Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2000), pp.339-341
  6. B. Chance, Z. Zhuang, C. Unah, C. Alter, L. Lipton, "Cognition-activated low-frequency modulation of light absorption in human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 90, 3770-4 (1993)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti and R. Thomas, "A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, non-invasively, with light," Opt. Express 2, 411-423 (1998) http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/4445.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Villringer, B. Chance, Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-42 (1997)
  9. V. Toronov, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, "Analysis of cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations measured simultaneously by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy," WA5, Proc. OSA Technical Digest, Biomedical Topical Meeting (2000)
  10. V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton E., and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527(2001)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Wray, M. Cope, D.T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini and E. Gratton., "Semi-infinite geometry boundary problem for light migration in highly scattering media: a frequency-domain study in the diffusion approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2128-2138 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Durduran, A.G. Yodh, B. Chance, and D.A. Boas, "Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3358-3365 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Durian, "The diffusion coefficient depends on absorption," Opt. Lett. 23, 1502-1504 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Bassani, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, and D. Contini, "Independence of the diffusion coefficient from absorption: experimental and numerical evidence," Opt. Lett. 22, 853-855 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. Toronov, M. A. Franceschini, M. Filiaci, S. Fantini, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, "Near-infrared study of fluctuations in cerebral hemodynamics during rest and motor stimulation: temporal analysis and spatial mapping," Med. Phys. 27, 801-15 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayangi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using non-invasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, J. H. Choi, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and E. Gratton, "In vitro correlation between reduced scattering coefficient and hemoglobin concentration of human blood determined by near-infrared spectroscopy," Proceedings of SPIE 4050, 319-325 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Miller and J. E. Freund, Probability and Statistics for Engineers, Prentice-Hall, (1977).
  21. K. J. Friston, P. Jezzard, and R. Turner, "Analysis of Functional MRI Time-Series," Human Brain Mapping 1, 153-171 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

Other (21)

E. Gratton, W. W. Mantulin, vande M. J. Ven, J. B. Fishkin, M. B. Maris, and B. Chance, "The possibility of a near-infrared imaging system using frequency-domain methods," Proc. Third Intl. Conf.: Peace through Mind/ Brain Science, 183-189, Hamamatsu City, Japan (1990)

M. S. Patterson, J. D. Moulton, B. C. Wilson , "Frequency-domain reflectance for the determination of the scattering and absorption properties of tissue," Appl. Opt. 30, 4474-4476 (1991)
[CrossRef]

B. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, R. C. Haskell, "Properties of photon density waves in multiple-scattering media," Appl. Opt. 32, 607-616 (1993)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, "A theoretical study of the signal contribution of regions of the adult head to near-infrared spectroscopy studies of visual evoked responses," Neuroimage 8, 69-78 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, "Separation of absorption and scattering heterogeneities in NIR tomographic imaging of tissue," in Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2000), pp.339-341

B. Chance, Z. Zhuang, C. Unah, C. Alter, L. Lipton, "Cognition-activated low-frequency modulation of light absorption in human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 90, 3770-4 (1993)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti and R. Thomas, "A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, non-invasively, with light," Opt. Express 2, 411-423 (1998) http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/4445.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villringer, B. Chance, Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-42 (1997)

V. Toronov, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, "Analysis of cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations measured simultaneously by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy," WA5, Proc. OSA Technical Digest, Biomedical Topical Meeting (2000)

V. Toronov, A. Webb, J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, E. Gratton E., and D. Hueber, "Investigation of human brain hemodynamics by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging," Med. Phys. 28, 521-527(2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D.T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, "Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini and E. Gratton., "Semi-infinite geometry boundary problem for light migration in highly scattering media: a frequency-domain study in the diffusion approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2128-2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, A.G. Yodh, B. Chance, and D.A. Boas, "Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3358-3365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Durian, "The diffusion coefficient depends on absorption," Opt. Lett. 23, 1502-1504 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bassani, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, and D. Contini, "Independence of the diffusion coefficient from absorption: experimental and numerical evidence," Opt. Lett. 22, 853-855 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Toronov, M. A. Franceschini, M. Filiaci, S. Fantini, M. Wolf, A. Michalos, and E. Gratton, "Near-infrared study of fluctuations in cerebral hemodynamics during rest and motor stimulation: temporal analysis and spatial mapping," Med. Phys. 27, 801-15 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayangi, and H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using non-invasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Paunescu, A. Michalos, J. H. Choi, U. Wolf, M. Wolf, and E. Gratton, "In vitro correlation between reduced scattering coefficient and hemoglobin concentration of human blood determined by near-infrared spectroscopy," Proceedings of SPIE 4050, 319-325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Miller and J. E. Freund, Probability and Statistics for Engineers, Prentice-Hall, (1977).

K. J. Friston, P. Jezzard, and R. Turner, "Analysis of Functional MRI Time-Series," Human Brain Mapping 1, 153-171 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The optical sensor. At each location marked by numbers 1–8 there are two light sources, at 830 nm and 758 nm

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Correlation maps obtained by temporal correlation of BOLD fMRI signal with — Δ[HHb] signal calculated using (a) AC of optical signals at 758 and 830 nm (b) phase at 758 nm and 830 nm; (c) functional activation map produced by correlation with a stimulus-locked boxcar function. In all subfigures arrows point at the location of the center of the optical sensor. The yellow color corresponds to the highest z-score and the red color corresponds to the z-score equal to 4.8. Letters ‘L’ and ‘R’ indicate left and right sides of the head, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time course of changes in (a)-Ln(AC) at 758 nm; (b) phase at 758 nm; (c)[HHb] signal calculated using AC data and correction procedure; (d) [HHb] signal calculated using phase data and correction procedure. Green rectangles show activation periods.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Correlation maps for a subject who did not exhibit activation near the optical sensor. Correlation maps obtained by temporal correlation of BOLD fMRI signal with -[HHb] signal calculated using (a) AC at 758 and 830 nm (b) phase; (c) functional activation map. Critical z-score value is 4.5.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ μ a λ = Δ [ O 2 H b ] ε [ O 2 H b ] λ + Δ [ H H b ] ε [ H H b ] λ ,
ϕ = r ( μ a 2 D ) 1 2 [ ( 1 + x 2 ) 1 2 1 ] 1 2 ,
ln ( r U D C ) = r ( μ a D ) 1 2 + ln ( S 0 4 π c D ) ,
ln ( r U A C ) = r ( μ a 2 D ) 1 2 [ ( 1 + x 2 ) 1 2 + 1 ] 1 2 + ln ( S 0 A 4 π c D ) ,
μ a
1 μ a
Δ ln ( r U A C ) = σ A C Δ μ a ,
Δ ln ( r U D C ) = σ D C Δ μ a ,
Δ φ = σ ϕ Δ μ a ,
Δ [ O 2 Hb ] = Δ μ a λ 1 ε Hb λ 2 Δ μ a λ 2 ε Hb λ 1 ε Hb O 2 λ 1 ε Hb λ 2 ε Hb λ 1 ε Hb O 2 λ 2 ,
Δ [ HHb ] = Δ μ a λ 2 ε Hb O 2 λ 1 Δ μ a λ 1 ε Hb O 2 λ 2 ε Hb O 2 λ 1 ε Hb λ 2 ε Hb λ 1 ε Hb O 2 λ 2 .

Metrics