Abstract

The success of transparent optical transport networks depends on the availability of optical cross-connect nodes (OXNs) that induce minimal impairments on the signals they cross-connect. This should extend the possible coverage and flexibility of path restoration within a meshed network topology by raising the upper bound on the achievable optical hop (traversable OXNs) number. We provide a brief survey and categorization of the currently proposed OXNs. Furthermore, the possible limits they impose on the number of hops are established by a series of transmission performance simulations. Microoptic and all-fiber OXNs are identified to be suitable for networks with a low connectivity and channel count. In case larger OXNs are needed, then microoptic and integrated OXNs provide a better option. The results obtained are applicable as guidelines for the deployment of future optical ring topologies.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  29. J. Skinner and C. H. R. Lane, “A low crosstalk microoptic liquid crystal switch,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1178–1185 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Laughlin and T. Hazelton, “Frustrated total internal reflection an alternative for optical cross-connect architecture,” Proc. 11th IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting. 2, 171–172 (1998).
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  34. N. Riza, “High-optical-isolation low-loss moderate-switching-speed nemetic liquid-crystal optical switch,” Optics Lett. 19, 1780–1782 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. Kim, J. Jung, S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Reconfigurable optical cross-connect usingWDM MUX/DEMUX pair and tunable fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1470–1472 (1990).
  36. T. A. Birks, D. O. Culverhouse, S. G. Farwell, and P. S. J. Russell, “2×2 single-mode fiber routing switch,” Optics Lett. 10, 722–724 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  37. A. E. Fatatry, S. P. Shipley, and R. Tyson, “4×4 all-fiber optical switching matrix,” Electron. Lett. 24, 339–340 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. Nagaoka, “Compact latching-type single-mode-fiber switches fabricated by a fiber-micromachining technique and their practical applications,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 36–45 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  39. A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  40. E. Mutafungwa, “Circulating loop simulations for transmission performance comparison of various node architectures,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 255–261 (2001).
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  41. D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  42. Y. Pan, C. Qiao, and Y. Yang, “Optical mulstistage interconnection networks: New chanllenges and approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50–56 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  43. R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  44. A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, “Recent progress on arrayed waveguide gratings for DWDM applications,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 860–868 (2000).
  45. A. Carballer, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: An improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694–696 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  46. N. Goto and Y. Miyazaki, “Wavelength-division-multiplexing photonic switching system using integrated acoustooptic switches,” Japan. J. Appl. Phy.: Part 1 39, 3078–3082 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  47. D. O. Culverhouse, R. I. Laming, S. G. Farwell, T. A. Birks, and M. N. Zervas, “All Fiber 2×2 Polarization Insensitive Switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 455–457 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  48. E. Ciaramella, “Introducing wavelength granularity to reduce the complexity of optical cross-connects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 699–701 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2001 (2)

D. Tanis, “Carriers can maximize their dark-fiber returns,” FiberSystems Europe 5, 41–44 (2001).

E. Mutafungwa, “Circulating loop simulations for transmission performance comparison of various node architectures,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 255–261 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (6)

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, “Recent progress on arrayed waveguide gratings for DWDM applications,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 860–868 (2000).

N. Goto and Y. Miyazaki, “Wavelength-division-multiplexing photonic switching system using integrated acoustooptic switches,” Japan. J. Appl. Phy.: Part 1 39, 3078–3082 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Ciaramella, “Introducing wavelength granularity to reduce the complexity of optical cross-connects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 699–701 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Chandrasekhar, H. K. Kim, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “All-optical dual ring internetworking with wavelength selective 2×2 cross-connect,” Electron. Lett. 36, 238–239 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (15)

S. Nagaoka, “Compact latching-type single-mode-fiber switches fabricated by a fiber-micromachining technique and their practical applications,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 36–45 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. -H. Kim, S. -W. Kwon, J. -W. Park, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. Choi, “Anewall-fiber bidirectional optical cross-connect with tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 261–263 (1999).

C. Marxer and N. F. de Rooij, “Micro-opto-mechanical 2×2 switch for single-mode fiber based on plasma-etched silicon mirror and electrostatic actuation,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, R. J. Gibbons, and S. K. Korotky, “Analysis and design of resilient multifiber wavelength-routed optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 743–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Sinclair, “Minimum cost wavelength-path routing and wavelength allocation using a genetic-algorithm/ heuristic hybrid approach,” IEE Proc. Commun. 146, 1–7 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshimura, K. I. Sato, and N. Takachio, “Future photonic transport networks based on WDM technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 74–81 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and R. W. Tkach, “Multiwavelength opaque optical-crossconnect networks,” IEICE Trans. Electron E82-C, 1361–1370 (1999).

N. A. Jackman, S. H. Patel, B. P. Mikkelsen, and S. K. Korotky, “Optical cross connects for optical networking,” Bell Labs Technol. J. 4, 246–261 (1999).

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, and B. Murkherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1713–1723 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, “WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1732–1741 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. G. Limberger, A. Iocco, R.P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, and I. Bennion, “Wideband tunable fibre Bragg grating filters,” Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. 1, 156–159 (1999).

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “Polarization independent dilatedWDM cross-connect on InP,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 11, 1599–1601 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Carballer, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: An improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694–696 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Pan, C. Qiao, and Y. Yang, “Optical mulstistage interconnection networks: New chanllenges and approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (9)

A. Himeno, K. Kato, and T. Miya, “Silicon-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913–924 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Sabella, E. Iannone, M. Listanti, M. Berdusco, and S. Binetti, “Impact of transmission performance on path routing in all-optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1965–1972 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Skinner and C. H. R. Lane, “A low crosstalk microoptic liquid crystal switch,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1178–1185 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Laughlin and T. Hazelton, “Frustrated total internal reflection an alternative for optical cross-connect architecture,” Proc. 11th IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting. 2, 171–172 (1998).

S. -K Park, J. -W. Park, S. -R. Lee, H. Yoon, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. ChoMultiwavelength Bidirectional Optical Crossconnect Using Fiber {B}ragg Gratings and Polarization Beam Splitter,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 10, 531–533 (1998).

D. Hjelme, H. Storoy, and J. Skaar, “Reconfigurable all-fiber all-optical cross-connect node using synthesized fiber Bragg gratings for both demultiplexing and switching,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 65–66 (1998).

Y. K. Chen and C. C. Lee, “Fiber Bragg grating-based large nonblocking multiwavelength cross-connects,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1746–1756 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. McGreer, “Arrayed waveguide for wavelength routing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 62–68 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

M. Sato, M. Makihara, F. Shimokawa, and Y. Nishida, “Self-latching waveguide optical switch basd on thermo-capillarity,” Proc. 23rd European Conf. Optic. Commun. 2, 73–76 (1997).

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Tech. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Nakajima, “Development on guided-wave switch arrays,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 1263–1276 (1997).

D. O. Culverhouse, R. I. Laming, S. G. Farwell, T. A. Birks, and M. N. Zervas, “All Fiber 2×2 Polarization Insensitive Switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 455–457 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (6)

D. A. Smith, A. D’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, D. J. Fritz, J. L. Jackel, and R. S. Chakravarthy, “Multiwavelength performance of an apodized acoustic-optic switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2044–2051 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Pennings, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, and T. Staring, “Integrated-optic versus microoptic devices for fiber-optic telecommunications systems: A comparison,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 151–164 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Iannone and R. Sabella, “Optical path technologies: A comparison among different crossconnect architectures”, J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2184–2196 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K. I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system architecture suitable for large scale expansion,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2162–2172 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, D. O. Culverhouse, S. G. Farwell, and P. S. J. Russell, “2×2 single-mode fiber routing switch,” Optics Lett. 10, 722–724 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. E. Fatatry, S. P. Shipley, and R. Tyson, “4×4 all-fiber optical switching matrix,” Electron. Lett. 24, 339–340 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. Riza, “High-optical-isolation low-loss moderate-switching-speed nemetic liquid-crystal optical switch,” Optics Lett. 19, 1780–1782 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

J. Kim, J. Jung, S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Reconfigurable optical cross-connect usingWDM MUX/DEMUX pair and tunable fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1470–1472 (1990).

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Bistable optical switching using electromagnetically generating bubbles,” Optics Lett. 15, 1470–1472 (1990).
[Crossref]

Aers, G. C.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Azana, J.

A. Carballer, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: An improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694–696 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bala, K.

T. Stern and K. Bala, “Multiwavelength optical networks: A layered approach,” Addisson-Wesley, Reading (1999).

Baran, J. E.

D. A. Smith, A. D’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, D. J. Fritz, J. L. Jackel, and R. S. Chakravarthy, “Multiwavelength performance of an apodized acoustic-optic switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2044–2051 (1996).
[Crossref]

Baroni, S.

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, R. J. Gibbons, and S. K. Korotky, “Analysis and design of resilient multifiber wavelength-routed optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 743–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bayvel, P.

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, R. J. Gibbons, and S. K. Korotky, “Analysis and design of resilient multifiber wavelength-routed optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 743–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

H. G. Limberger, A. Iocco, R.P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, and I. Bennion, “Wideband tunable fibre Bragg grating filters,” Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. 1, 156–159 (1999).

Berdusco, M.

R. Sabella, E. Iannone, M. Listanti, M. Berdusco, and S. Binetti, “Impact of transmission performance on path routing in all-optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1965–1972 (1998).
[Crossref]

Binetti, S.

R. Sabella, E. Iannone, M. Listanti, M. Berdusco, and S. Binetti, “Impact of transmission performance on path routing in all-optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1965–1972 (1998).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

D. O. Culverhouse, R. I. Laming, S. G. Farwell, T. A. Birks, and M. N. Zervas, “All Fiber 2×2 Polarization Insensitive Switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 455–457 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, D. O. Culverhouse, S. G. Farwell, and P. S. J. Russell, “2×2 single-mode fiber routing switch,” Optics Lett. 10, 722–724 (1996).
[Crossref]

Breuer, D.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Buchanan, M.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

S. Chandrasekhar, H. K. Kim, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “All-optical dual ring internetworking with wavelength selective 2×2 cross-connect,” Electron. Lett. 36, 238–239 (2000).
[Crossref]

Carballer, A.

A. Carballer, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: An improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694–696 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chakravarthy, R. S.

D. A. Smith, A. D’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, D. J. Fritz, J. L. Jackel, and R. S. Chakravarthy, “Multiwavelength performance of an apodized acoustic-optic switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2044–2051 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, H. K. Kim, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “All-optical dual ring internetworking with wavelength selective 2×2 cross-connect,” Electron. Lett. 36, 238–239 (2000).
[Crossref]

Charbonneau, S.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. K.

Y. K. Chen and C. C. Lee, “Fiber Bragg grating-based large nonblocking multiwavelength cross-connects,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1746–1756 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chisholm, K. E.

H. G. Limberger, A. Iocco, R.P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, and I. Bennion, “Wideband tunable fibre Bragg grating filters,” Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. 1, 156–159 (1999).

Cho, S. -S.

S. -K Park, J. -W. Park, S. -R. Lee, H. Yoon, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. ChoMultiwavelength Bidirectional Optical Crossconnect Using Fiber {B}ragg Gratings and Polarization Beam Splitter,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 10, 531–533 (1998).

Choi, S. -S.

K. -H. Kim, S. -W. Kwon, J. -W. Park, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. Choi, “Anewall-fiber bidirectional optical cross-connect with tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 261–263 (1999).

Ciaramella, E.

E. Ciaramella, “Introducing wavelength granularity to reduce the complexity of optical cross-connects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 699–701 (2000).
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Culverhouse, D. O.

D. O. Culverhouse, R. I. Laming, S. G. Farwell, T. A. Birks, and M. N. Zervas, “All Fiber 2×2 Polarization Insensitive Switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 455–457 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, D. O. Culverhouse, S. G. Farwell, and P. S. J. Russell, “2×2 single-mode fiber routing switch,” Optics Lett. 10, 722–724 (1996).
[Crossref]

D’Alessandro, A.

D. A. Smith, A. D’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, D. J. Fritz, J. L. Jackel, and R. S. Chakravarthy, “Multiwavelength performance of an apodized acoustic-optic switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2044–2051 (1996).
[Crossref]

Datta, D.

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, and B. Murkherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1713–1723 (1999).
[Crossref]

Davies, M.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

de Rooij, N. F.

C. Marxer and N. F. de Rooij, “Micro-opto-mechanical 2×2 switch for single-mode fiber based on plasma-etched silicon mirror and electrostatic actuation,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Delage, A.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C.

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, “WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1732–1741 (1999).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

S. Chandrasekhar, H. K. Kim, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “All-optical dual ring internetworking with wavelength selective 2×2 cross-connect,” Electron. Lett. 36, 238–239 (2000).
[Crossref]

Everall, L. A.

H. G. Limberger, A. Iocco, R.P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, and I. Bennion, “Wideband tunable fibre Bragg grating filters,” Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. 1, 156–159 (1999).

Farwell, S. G.

D. O. Culverhouse, R. I. Laming, S. G. Farwell, T. A. Birks, and M. N. Zervas, “All Fiber 2×2 Polarization Insensitive Switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 455–457 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, D. O. Culverhouse, S. G. Farwell, and P. S. J. Russell, “2×2 single-mode fiber routing switch,” Optics Lett. 10, 722–724 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fatatry, A. E.

A. E. Fatatry, S. P. Shipley, and R. Tyson, “4×4 all-fiber optical switching matrix,” Electron. Lett. 24, 339–340 (1996).
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Feng, H.

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, and B. Murkherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1713–1723 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fouquet, J. E.

J. E. Fouquet, “Compact optical cross-connect switch based on total internal reflection in a fluid-containing planar lighwave circuit,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf.1, TuM1-1 (2000).

Frankena, H. J.

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
[Crossref]

Freund, R.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fritz, D. J.

D. A. Smith, A. D’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, D. J. Fritz, J. L. Jackel, and R. S. Chakravarthy, “Multiwavelength performance of an apodized acoustic-optic switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2044–2051 (1996).
[Crossref]

Georgi, S.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gibbons, R. J.

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, R. J. Gibbons, and S. K. Korotky, “Analysis and design of resilient multifiber wavelength-routed optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 743–758 (1999).
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Goh, T.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, R. D.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, E. L.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and R. W. Tkach, “Multiwavelength opaque optical-crossconnect networks,” IEICE Trans. Electron E82-C, 1361–1370 (1999).

Goto, N.

N. Goto and Y. Miyazaki, “Wavelength-division-multiplexing photonic switching system using integrated acoustooptic switches,” Japan. J. Appl. Phy.: Part 1 39, 3078–3082 (2000).
[Crossref]

Groen, F. H.

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gustavsson, M.

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hamster, H.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Haysom, J.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hazelton, T.

R. Laughlin and T. Hazelton, “Frustrated total internal reflection an alternative for optical cross-connect architecture,” Proc. 11th IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting. 2, 171–172 (1998).

He, J. J.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Herben, C. G. P.

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “Polarization independent dilatedWDM cross-connect on InP,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 11, 1599–1601 (1999).
[Crossref]

Heritage, J. P.

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, and B. Murkherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1713–1723 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Tech. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[Crossref]

Himeno, A.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Himeno, K. Kato, and T. Miya, “Silicon-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913–924 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hjelme, D.

D. Hjelme, H. Storoy, and J. Skaar, “Reconfigurable all-fiber all-optical cross-connect node using synthesized fiber Bragg gratings for both demultiplexing and switching,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 65–66 (1998).

Iannone, E.

R. Sabella, E. Iannone, M. Listanti, M. Berdusco, and S. Binetti, “Impact of transmission performance on path routing in all-optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1965–1972 (1998).
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E. Iannone and R. Sabella, “Optical path technologies: A comparison among different crossconnect architectures”, J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2184–2196 (1996).
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Iocco, A.

H. G. Limberger, A. Iocco, R.P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, and I. Bennion, “Wideband tunable fibre Bragg grating filters,” Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. 1, 156–159 (1999).

Jackel, J. L.

D. A. Smith, A. D’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, D. J. Fritz, J. L. Jackel, and R. S. Chakravarthy, “Multiwavelength performance of an apodized acoustic-optic switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2044–2051 (1996).
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J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Bistable optical switching using electromagnetically generating bubbles,” Optics Lett. 15, 1470–1472 (1990).
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Jackman, N. A.

N. A. Jackman, S. H. Patel, B. P. Mikkelsen, and S. K. Korotky, “Optical cross connects for optical networking,” Bell Labs Technol. J. 4, 246–261 (1999).

Janson, M

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
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Johnson, J. J.

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Bistable optical switching using electromagnetically generating bubbles,” Optics Lett. 15, 1470–1472 (1990).
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Jung, J.

J. Kim, J. Jung, S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Reconfigurable optical cross-connect usingWDM MUX/DEMUX pair and tunable fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1470–1472 (1990).

Kaneko, A.

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, “Recent progress on arrayed waveguide gratings for DWDM applications,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 860–868 (2000).

Kasahara, R.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

A. Himeno, K. Kato, and T. Miya, “Silicon-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913–924 (1998).
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Khoe, G. D.

E. Pennings, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, and T. Staring, “Integrated-optic versus microoptic devices for fiber-optic telecommunications systems: A comparison,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 151–164 (1996).
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Kim, H. K.

S. Chandrasekhar, H. K. Kim, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “All-optical dual ring internetworking with wavelength selective 2×2 cross-connect,” Electron. Lett. 36, 238–239 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. Jung, S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Reconfigurable optical cross-connect usingWDM MUX/DEMUX pair and tunable fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1470–1472 (1990).

Kim, K. -H.

K. -H. Kim, S. -W. Kwon, J. -W. Park, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. Choi, “Anewall-fiber bidirectional optical cross-connect with tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 261–263 (1999).

Kim, S.

J. Kim, J. Jung, S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Reconfigurable optical cross-connect usingWDM MUX/DEMUX pair and tunable fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1470–1472 (1990).

Koltchanov, I.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Korotky, S. K.

N. A. Jackman, S. H. Patel, B. P. Mikkelsen, and S. K. Korotky, “Optical cross connects for optical networking,” Bell Labs Technol. J. 4, 246–261 (1999).

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, R. J. Gibbons, and S. K. Korotky, “Analysis and design of resilient multifiber wavelength-routed optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 743–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koteles, E. S.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S. -W.

K. -H. Kim, S. -W. Kwon, J. -W. Park, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. Choi, “Anewall-fiber bidirectional optical cross-connect with tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 261–263 (1999).

Laming, R. I.

D. O. Culverhouse, R. I. Laming, S. G. Farwell, T. A. Birks, and M. N. Zervas, “All Fiber 2×2 Polarization Insensitive Switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 455–457 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lane, C. H. R.

J. Skinner and C. H. R. Lane, “A low crosstalk microoptic liquid crystal switch,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1178–1185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Laughlin, R.

R. Laughlin and T. Hazelton, “Frustrated total internal reflection an alternative for optical cross-connect architecture,” Proc. 11th IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting. 2, 171–172 (1998).

Lee, B.

J. Kim, J. Jung, S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Reconfigurable optical cross-connect usingWDM MUX/DEMUX pair and tunable fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1470–1472 (1990).

Lee, C. C.

Y. K. Chen and C. C. Lee, “Fiber Bragg grating-based large nonblocking multiwavelength cross-connects,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1746–1756 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. -B.

K. -H. Kim, S. -W. Kwon, J. -W. Park, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. Choi, “Anewall-fiber bidirectional optical cross-connect with tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 261–263 (1999).

S. -K Park, J. -W. Park, S. -R. Lee, H. Yoon, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. ChoMultiwavelength Bidirectional Optical Crossconnect Using Fiber {B}ragg Gratings and Polarization Beam Splitter,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 10, 531–533 (1998).

Lee, S. -R.

S. -K Park, J. -W. Park, S. -R. Lee, H. Yoon, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. ChoMultiwavelength Bidirectional Optical Crossconnect Using Fiber {B}ragg Gratings and Polarization Beam Splitter,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 10, 531–533 (1998).

Leijtens, X. J. M.

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “Polarization independent dilatedWDM cross-connect on InP,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 11, 1599–1601 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lenzmann, O.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Leys, M. R.

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “Polarization independent dilatedWDM cross-connect on InP,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 11, 1599–1601 (1999).
[Crossref]

Limberger, H. G.

H. G. Limberger, A. Iocco, R.P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, and I. Bennion, “Wideband tunable fibre Bragg grating filters,” Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. 1, 156–159 (1999).

Lin, L. Y.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and R. W. Tkach, “Multiwavelength opaque optical-crossconnect networks,” IEICE Trans. Electron E82-C, 1361–1370 (1999).

Listanti, M.

R. Sabella, E. Iannone, M. Listanti, M. Berdusco, and S. Binetti, “Impact of transmission performance on path routing in all-optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1965–1972 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lowery, A.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lundgren, L.

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Maat, D. H. P.

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “Polarization independent dilatedWDM cross-connect on InP,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 11, 1599–1601 (1999).
[Crossref]

Makihara, M.

M. Sato, M. Makihara, F. Shimokawa, and Y. Nishida, “Self-latching waveguide optical switch basd on thermo-capillarity,” Proc. 23rd European Conf. Optic. Commun. 2, 73–76 (1997).

Marxer, C.

C. Marxer and N. F. de Rooij, “Micro-opto-mechanical 2×2 switch for single-mode fiber based on plasma-etched silicon mirror and electrostatic actuation,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Matsui, S.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

McGreer, K.

K. McGreer, “Arrayed waveguide for wavelength routing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 62–68 (1998).
[Crossref]

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Tech. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, B.

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, “WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1732–1741 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, B. P.

N. A. Jackman, S. H. Patel, B. P. Mikkelsen, and S. K. Korotky, “Optical cross connects for optical networking,” Bell Labs Technol. J. 4, 246–261 (1999).

Mitchell, I. V.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miya, T.

A. Himeno, K. Kato, and T. Miya, “Silicon-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913–924 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, Y.

N. Goto and Y. Miyazaki, “Wavelength-division-multiplexing photonic switching system using integrated acoustooptic switches,” Japan. J. Appl. Phy.: Part 1 39, 3078–3082 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moosburger, R.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mörner, A. -C.

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Muriel, M. A.

A. Carballer, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: An improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694–696 (1999).
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Murkherjee, B.

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, and B. Murkherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1713–1723 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mutafungwa, E.

E. Mutafungwa, “Circulating loop simulations for transmission performance comparison of various node architectures,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 255–261 (2001).
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Nagaoka, S.

S. Nagaoka, “Compact latching-type single-mode-fiber switches fabricated by a fiber-micromachining technique and their practical applications,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 36–45 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, “Development on guided-wave switch arrays,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 1263–1276 (1997).

Nishida, Y.

M. Sato, M. Makihara, F. Shimokawa, and Y. Nishida, “Self-latching waveguide optical switch basd on thermo-capillarity,” Proc. 23rd European Conf. Optic. Commun. 2, 73–76 (1997).

Oei, Y. S.

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “Polarization independent dilatedWDM cross-connect on InP,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 11, 1599–1601 (1999).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, “Recent progress on arrayed waveguide gratings for DWDM applications,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 860–868 (2000).

Okamoto, S.

A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K. I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system architecture suitable for large scale expansion,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2162–2172 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan, C. Qiao, and Y. Yang, “Optical mulstistage interconnection networks: New chanllenges and approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

Park, J. -W.

K. -H. Kim, S. -W. Kwon, J. -W. Park, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. Choi, “Anewall-fiber bidirectional optical cross-connect with tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 261–263 (1999).

S. -K Park, J. -W. Park, S. -R. Lee, H. Yoon, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. ChoMultiwavelength Bidirectional Optical Crossconnect Using Fiber {B}ragg Gratings and Polarization Beam Splitter,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 10, 531–533 (1998).

Park, S. -K

S. -K Park, J. -W. Park, S. -R. Lee, H. Yoon, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. ChoMultiwavelength Bidirectional Optical Crossconnect Using Fiber {B}ragg Gratings and Polarization Beam Splitter,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 10, 531–533 (1998).

Patel, S. H.

N. A. Jackman, S. H. Patel, B. P. Mikkelsen, and S. K. Korotky, “Optical cross connects for optical networking,” Bell Labs Technol. J. 4, 246–261 (1999).

Pennings, E.

E. Pennings, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, and T. Staring, “Integrated-optic versus microoptic devices for fiber-optic telecommunications systems: A comparison,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 151–164 (1996).
[Crossref]

Piva, P. G.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Poole, P. J.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Qiao, C.

Y. Pan, C. Qiao, and Y. Yang, “Optical mulstistage interconnection networks: New chanllenges and approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ramamurthy, B.

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, and B. Murkherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1713–1723 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rask, M.

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Richter, A.

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

Riza, N.

N. Riza, “High-optical-isolation low-loss moderate-switching-speed nemetic liquid-crystal optical switch,” Optics Lett. 19, 1780–1782 (1994).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S. J.

T. A. Birks, D. O. Culverhouse, S. G. Farwell, and P. S. J. Russell, “2×2 single-mode fiber routing switch,” Optics Lett. 10, 722–724 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sabella, R.

R. Sabella, E. Iannone, M. Listanti, M. Berdusco, and S. Binetti, “Impact of transmission performance on path routing in all-optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1965–1972 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Iannone and R. Sabella, “Optical path technologies: A comparison among different crossconnect architectures”, J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2184–2196 (1996).
[Crossref]

Salathe, R.P.

H. G. Limberger, A. Iocco, R.P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, and I. Bennion, “Wideband tunable fibre Bragg grating filters,” Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. 1, 156–159 (1999).

Sato, K. I.

H. Yoshimura, K. I. Sato, and N. Takachio, “Future photonic transport networks based on WDM technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 74–81 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K. I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system architecture suitable for large scale expansion,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2162–2172 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sato, M.

M. Sato, M. Makihara, F. Shimokawa, and Y. Nishida, “Self-latching waveguide optical switch basd on thermo-capillarity,” Proc. 23rd European Conf. Optic. Commun. 2, 73–76 (1997).

Shimokawa, F.

M. Sato, M. Makihara, F. Shimokawa, and Y. Nishida, “Self-latching waveguide optical switch basd on thermo-capillarity,” Proc. 23rd European Conf. Optic. Commun. 2, 73–76 (1997).

Shipley, S. P.

A. E. Fatatry, S. P. Shipley, and R. Tyson, “4×4 all-fiber optical switching matrix,” Electron. Lett. 24, 339–340 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, M.

M. Sinclair, “Minimum cost wavelength-path routing and wavelength allocation using a genetic-algorithm/ heuristic hybrid approach,” IEE Proc. Commun. 146, 1–7 (1999).
[Crossref]

Skaar, J.

D. Hjelme, H. Storoy, and J. Skaar, “Reconfigurable all-fiber all-optical cross-connect node using synthesized fiber Bragg gratings for both demultiplexing and switching,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 65–66 (1998).

Skinner, J.

J. Skinner and C. H. R. Lane, “A low crosstalk microoptic liquid crystal switch,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1178–1185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smit, M. K.

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “Polarization independent dilatedWDM cross-connect on InP,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 11, 1599–1601 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Pennings, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, and T. Staring, “Integrated-optic versus microoptic devices for fiber-optic telecommunications systems: A comparison,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 151–164 (1996).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, A. D’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, D. J. Fritz, J. L. Jackel, and R. S. Chakravarthy, “Multiwavelength performance of an apodized acoustic-optic switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2044–2051 (1996).
[Crossref]

Staring, T.

E. Pennings, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, and T. Staring, “Integrated-optic versus microoptic devices for fiber-optic telecommunications systems: A comparison,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 151–164 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stern, T.

T. Stern and K. Bala, “Multiwavelength optical networks: A layered approach,” Addisson-Wesley, Reading (1999).

Stoltz, B.

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Storoy, H.

D. Hjelme, H. Storoy, and J. Skaar, “Reconfigurable all-fiber all-optical cross-connect node using synthesized fiber Bragg gratings for both demultiplexing and switching,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 65–66 (1998).

Stulz, L. W.

S. Chandrasekhar, H. K. Kim, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “All-optical dual ring internetworking with wavelength selective 2×2 cross-connect,” Electron. Lett. 36, 238–239 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sugita, A.

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, “Recent progress on arrayed waveguide gratings for DWDM applications,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 860–868 (2000).

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takachio, N.

H. Yoshimura, K. I. Sato, and N. Takachio, “Future photonic transport networks based on WDM technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 74–81 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tanis, D.

D. Tanis, “Carriers can maximize their dark-fiber returns,” FiberSystems Europe 5, 41–44 (2001).

Thylen, L.

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tkach, R. W.

E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and R. W. Tkach, “Multiwavelength opaque optical-crossconnect networks,” IEICE Trans. Electron E82-C, 1361–1370 (1999).

Tomlinson, W. J.

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Bistable optical switching using electromagnetically generating bubbles,” Optics Lett. 15, 1470–1472 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tyson, R.

A. E. Fatatry, S. P. Shipley, and R. Tyson, “4×4 all-fiber optical switching matrix,” Electron. Lett. 24, 339–340 (1996).
[Crossref]

van Brug, H.

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, A.

A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K. I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system architecture suitable for large scale expansion,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2162–2172 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wilfong, G.

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, “WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1732–1741 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yanagisawa, M.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Pan, C. Qiao, and Y. Yang, “Optical mulstistage interconnection networks: New chanllenges and approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yasu, M.

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoon, H.

S. -K Park, J. -W. Park, S. -R. Lee, H. Yoon, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. ChoMultiwavelength Bidirectional Optical Crossconnect Using Fiber {B}ragg Gratings and Polarization Beam Splitter,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 10, 531–533 (1998).

Yoshimura, H.

H. Yoshimura, K. I. Sato, and N. Takachio, “Future photonic transport networks based on WDM technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 74–81 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

D. O. Culverhouse, R. I. Laming, S. G. Farwell, T. A. Birks, and M. N. Zervas, “All Fiber 2×2 Polarization Insensitive Switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 455–457 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y. C.

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zirngibl, M.

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, “WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1732–1741 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bell Labs Technol. J. (1)

N. A. Jackman, S. H. Patel, B. P. Mikkelsen, and S. K. Korotky, “Optical cross connects for optical networking,” Bell Labs Technol. J. 4, 246–261 (1999).

Electron. Lett. (4)

S. Chandrasekhar, H. K. Kim, C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “All-optical dual ring internetworking with wavelength selective 2×2 cross-connect,” Electron. Lett. 36, 238–239 (2000).
[Crossref]

M Janson, L. Lundgren, A. -C. Mörner, M. Rask, B. Stoltz, M. Gustavsson, and L. Thylen, “Monolithically integrated 2×2 {InGaAs/InP} laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett. 28, 776–778 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. E. Fatatry, S. P. Shipley, and R. Tyson, “4×4 all-fiber optical switching matrix,” Electron. Lett. 24, 339–340 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. Jung, S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Reconfigurable optical cross-connect usingWDM MUX/DEMUX pair and tunable fibre Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1470–1472 (1990).

FiberSystems Europe (1)

D. Tanis, “Carriers can maximize their dark-fiber returns,” FiberSystems Europe 5, 41–44 (2001).

IEE Proc. Commun. (1)

M. Sinclair, “Minimum cost wavelength-path routing and wavelength allocation using a genetic-algorithm/ heuristic hybrid approach,” IEE Proc. Commun. 146, 1–7 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

K. McGreer, “Arrayed waveguide for wavelength routing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 62–68 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshimura, K. I. Sato, and N. Takachio, “Future photonic transport networks based on WDM technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 74–81 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Pan, C. Qiao, and Y. Yang, “Optical mulstistage interconnection networks: New chanllenges and approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 50–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. (1)

J. Skinner and C. H. R. Lane, “A low crosstalk microoptic liquid crystal switch,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1178–1185 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (5)

S. Nagaoka, “Compact latching-type single-mode-fiber switches fabricated by a fiber-micromachining technique and their practical applications,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 36–45 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter, S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Respresentation Simulation of Photonic Devices, System and Networks,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 282–296 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Pennings, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, and T. Staring, “Integrated-optic versus microoptic devices for fiber-optic telecommunications systems: A comparison,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 151–164 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Himeno, K. Kato, and T. Miya, “Silicon-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913–924 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, “Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 772–793 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. (2)

C. G. P. Herben, D. H. P. Maat, X. J. M. Leijtens, M. R. Leys, Y. S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “Polarization independent dilatedWDM cross-connect on InP,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 11, 1599–1601 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. -K Park, J. -W. Park, S. -R. Lee, H. Yoon, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. ChoMultiwavelength Bidirectional Optical Crossconnect Using Fiber {B}ragg Gratings and Polarization Beam Splitter,” IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 10, 531–533 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, and S. Matsui, “Low-power consumption silica-based 2×2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132–1134 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Carballer, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, “Fiber grating filter for WDM systems: An improved design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694–696 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. O. Culverhouse, R. I. Laming, S. G. Farwell, T. A. Birks, and M. N. Zervas, “All Fiber 2×2 Polarization Insensitive Switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 455–457 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Ciaramella, “Introducing wavelength granularity to reduce the complexity of optical cross-connects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 699–701 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. H. P. Maat, Y. C. Zhu, F. H. Groen, H. van Brug, H. J. Frankena, and X. J. M. LeijtensPolarization-independent dilated InP-based space switch with low crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 284–286 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. Electron (1)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and R. W. Tkach, “Multiwavelength opaque optical-crossconnect networks,” IEICE Trans. Electron E82-C, 1361–1370 (1999).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (2)

H. Nakajima, “Development on guided-wave switch arrays,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E82-C, 1263–1276 (1997).

A. Kaneko, A. Sugita, and K. Okamoto, “Recent progress on arrayed waveguide gratings for DWDM applications,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 860–868 (2000).

J. Lightwave Tech. (10)

A. Watanabe, S. Okamoto, and K. I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect system architecture suitable for large scale expansion,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2162–2172 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Chen and C. C. Lee, “Fiber Bragg grating-based large nonblocking multiwavelength cross-connects,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1746–1756 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Marxer and N. F. de Rooij, “Micro-opto-mechanical 2×2 switch for single-mode fiber based on plasma-etched silicon mirror and electrostatic actuation,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 2–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Iannone and R. Sabella, “Optical path technologies: A comparison among different crossconnect architectures”, J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2184–2196 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, R. J. Gibbons, and S. K. Korotky, “Analysis and design of resilient multifiber wavelength-routed optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 743–758 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, and B. Murkherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1713–1723 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr, and M. Zirngibl, “WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity,” J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1732–1741 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. A. Smith, A. D’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, D. J. Fritz, J. L. Jackel, and R. S. Chakravarthy, “Multiwavelength performance of an apodized acoustic-optic switch,” J. Lightwave Tech. 14, 2044–2051 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Sabella, E. Iannone, M. Listanti, M. Berdusco, and S. Binetti, “Impact of transmission performance on path routing in all-optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Tech. 16, 1965–1972 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Tech. 15, 1263–1276 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. Mutafungwa, “Circulating loop simulations for transmission performance comparison of various node architectures,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 255–261 (2001).
[Crossref]

Japan. J. Appl. Phy.: Part 1 (1)

N. Goto and Y. Miyazaki, “Wavelength-division-multiplexing photonic switching system using integrated acoustooptic switches,” Japan. J. Appl. Phy.: Part 1 39, 3078–3082 (2000).
[Crossref]

Optics Lett. (3)

T. A. Birks, D. O. Culverhouse, S. G. Farwell, and P. S. J. Russell, “2×2 single-mode fiber routing switch,” Optics Lett. 10, 722–724 (1996).
[Crossref]

N. Riza, “High-optical-isolation low-loss moderate-switching-speed nemetic liquid-crystal optical switch,” Optics Lett. 19, 1780–1782 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Bistable optical switching using electromagnetically generating bubbles,” Optics Lett. 15, 1470–1472 (1990).
[Crossref]

Proc. 11th IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting. (1)

R. Laughlin and T. Hazelton, “Frustrated total internal reflection an alternative for optical cross-connect architecture,” Proc. 11th IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting. 2, 171–172 (1998).

Proc. 23rd European Conf. Optic. Commun. (1)

M. Sato, M. Makihara, F. Shimokawa, and Y. Nishida, “Self-latching waveguide optical switch basd on thermo-capillarity,” Proc. 23rd European Conf. Optic. Commun. 2, 73–76 (1997).

Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. (1)

H. G. Limberger, A. Iocco, R.P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, and I. Bennion, “Wideband tunable fibre Bragg grating filters,” Proc. 25th European Conf. Optic. Commun. 1, 156–159 (1999).

Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. (2)

K. -H. Kim, S. -W. Kwon, J. -W. Park, S. -B. Lee, and S. -S. Choi, “Anewall-fiber bidirectional optical cross-connect with tunable fiber Bragg gratings,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 261–263 (1999).

D. Hjelme, H. Storoy, and J. Skaar, “Reconfigurable all-fiber all-optical cross-connect node using synthesized fiber Bragg gratings for both demultiplexing and switching,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf. 1, 65–66 (1998).

Other (2)

J. E. Fouquet, “Compact optical cross-connect switch based on total internal reflection in a fluid-containing planar lighwave circuit,” Tech. Digest Optic. Commun. Conf.1, TuM1-1 (2000).

T. Stern and K. Bala, “Multiwavelength optical networks: A layered approach,” Addisson-Wesley, Reading (1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Excerpts of an (top) opaque optical network consisting of OXNs with in-built transponders and (bottom) transparent network with 5 optical hop path.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation configuration of OXN circulating loop captured in PTDS simulation environment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated Q factor of the f 2b signal and received via various (a) integrated (b) all-fiber (c) microoptic and (d) hybrid OXNs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Number of traversable OXNs assuming a Q factor requirement of 15.4 dB.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The list of OXNs considered in the study

Tables Icon

Table 2. The main modules and parameter values used in the simulations.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = I 1 I 0 σ 1 + σ 0 ,
BER = exp ( Q 2 2 ) Q 2 π .

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