Abstract

Laser-induced gas breakdown and ignition of atmospheric pressure NH3/O2 mixtures are investigated. The nanosecond-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser is used to create the cascade-type optical breakdown. The post-breakdown plasma and ignition are studied using spectroscopic techniques that include spontaneous emission and NH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). These time-resolved two-dimensional images provide not only radiative and gas dynamic information but also the space-time loci of the temperature and transient species concentrations. The results provide an understanding of the plasma kernel dynamics and the flame development that is essential to verify on-going simulation modeling of laser-ignition.

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  1. A. H. Lefebvre, Gas Turbine Combustion (Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1983), pp 221-256.
  2. B. Lewis and G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames, and Explosions of Gases, Third Edition, (Academic Press, Orlando, FL) pp 333 - 361.
  3. D. R. Ballal and A. H. Lefebvre, "The influence of flow parameters on minimum ignition energy and quenching distance," In 15th International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1974), pp.1473-1480.
  4. P. S. Tromans and R. M. Furzeland, "An analysis of Lewis number and flow effects on the ignition of premixed gases," in 21st International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1986), pp.1891-1897.
  5. G. G. DeSoete, "The influence of isotropic turbulence on the critical ignition energy," in 13th International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1970), pp. 735-743.
  6. F. J. Weinberg and J. R. Wilson, "Preliminary investigation of the use of focused laser beams for minimum ignition energy studies," Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Series A 321, 41-52, (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. F. Carrier, F. E. Fendell, and M. S. Chou, "Laser-initiated conical detonation wave for supersonic combustion. III," AIAA, 28th AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE joint propulsion Conference and exhibit, (Nashville, 1992), paper 92-3247.
  8. R. G. Kingdon and F. J. Weinberg, "Effect of plasma constitution on laser ignition energies," in 16th international Symposium on combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1976). pp. 747-756.
  9. J. A. Syage, E. W. Fournier, R. Rianda, and R. B. Chen, "Dynamics of flame propagation using laser-induced spark initiation: ignition energy measurements," J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1499-1507, (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Lee and R. Knystautas, "Laser spark ignition of chemically reactive gases," AIAA J. 7, 312-317, (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. M. Thompson, J. W. Daiber, and R. G. Rehm, "Two-dimensional growth of laser-driven waves in a hydrogen free jet," J. Appl. Phys., 47, 2427-2432, (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. F. Klimkin, R. I. Soloukhin and P. Wolansky, "Initial stages of a spherical detonation directly initiated by a laser spark," Combust. Flame, 28, 61-66, (1977).
  13. B. E. Forch, and A. W. Miziolek, "Ultraviolet laser ignition of premixed gases by efficient and resonant multiphoton photochemical formation of microplasma," Combust. Sci. Tech. 52, 151-159, (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. E. Forch, and A. W. Miziolek, "Laser-based ignition of H2/O2 and D2/O2 premixed gases through resonant multiphoton excitation of H and D atoms near 243 nm," Combust. Flame, 85, 254-262, (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M.-S. Chou, F. E. Fendell, and H. W. Behrens, "Theoretical and experimental studies of laser-initiated detonation waves for supersonic combustion," Proc. SPIE, 1862, 45-58 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. A. Hill, "Ignition-delay times in laser-initiated combustion," Appl. Opt. 20, 2239-2242, (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. H. Plemmons, "Laser-spark ignition and the NH radical," (PhD thesis, The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 1996)
  18. J. D. Few and J. W. L. Lewis, "Gas turbine engine photon ignition system," (U.S. Patent number 4,947,640, Aug. 14, 1990)
  19. J. D. Few and J. W. L. Lewis, "Laser-initiated non-linear fuel droplet ignition," U.S. Patent number 5,485,720, Jan. 23, 1993, Patent number 5,404,712, April 11, 1995, Patent number 5,497,612, March 12, 1996, Patent number 5,524,429, June 11, 1996.
  20. Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, and C. G. Parigger, "Spatial and Temporal Profiles of Pulsed Laser-Induced Air Plasma Emissions," J. Quant. Spectr. & Radiat. Trans. 67, 91-103, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, and C. G. Parigger, "Probability Distribution of Laser-Induced Breakdown and Ignition of Ammonia," J. Quant. Spectr. & Radiat. Trans. 66, 41-53 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. G.Dors, C. G.Parigger, and J. W. L.Lewis, "Fluid Dynamics Effects Following Laser-Induced Optical Breakdown," 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, paper AIAA 2000-0717, (Reno, NV 2000).
  23. R. J. Kee, J. F. Grcar, M. D. Smooke, and J. A. Miller, A FORTRAN program for modeling steady one dimensional flames (Technical Report SAND85-8240, Sandia National Laboratories, 1985).
  24. R. G. Root, "Modeling of the post breakdown phenomena," in L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, editors, "Laser-induced plasma and applications," (Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, 1989).
  25. D. H. Plemmons, C. Parigger, J. W. L. Lewis and J.O . Hornkohl "Analysis of Combined Spectra of NH and N2," Appl. Opt. 37, 2493-2498 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Sher, J. Ben-Ya'ish, and T. Kravchik, "On the birth of spark channels," Combust. Flame 89, 186-194, (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Kravchik and E. Sher, "Numerical modeling of spark ignition and flame initiation in a quiescent methane-air mixture," Combust. Flame 99, 635-643, (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. O. Hornkohl, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, "On the use of line strengths in applied diatomic spectroscopy," in Optical Society of America for presentation in the conference on Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, (March 1996).
  29. J. O. Hornkohl, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, "Computation of Synthetic diatomic spectra," in Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, OSA 1994 Technical Digest Series, 5: 234-237, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1994).

Other

A. H. Lefebvre, Gas Turbine Combustion (Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1983), pp 221-256.

B. Lewis and G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames, and Explosions of Gases, Third Edition, (Academic Press, Orlando, FL) pp 333 - 361.

D. R. Ballal and A. H. Lefebvre, "The influence of flow parameters on minimum ignition energy and quenching distance," In 15th International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1974), pp.1473-1480.

P. S. Tromans and R. M. Furzeland, "An analysis of Lewis number and flow effects on the ignition of premixed gases," in 21st International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1986), pp.1891-1897.

G. G. DeSoete, "The influence of isotropic turbulence on the critical ignition energy," in 13th International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1970), pp. 735-743.

F. J. Weinberg and J. R. Wilson, "Preliminary investigation of the use of focused laser beams for minimum ignition energy studies," Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Series A 321, 41-52, (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Carrier, F. E. Fendell, and M. S. Chou, "Laser-initiated conical detonation wave for supersonic combustion. III," AIAA, 28th AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE joint propulsion Conference and exhibit, (Nashville, 1992), paper 92-3247.

R. G. Kingdon and F. J. Weinberg, "Effect of plasma constitution on laser ignition energies," in 16th international Symposium on combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1976). pp. 747-756.

J. A. Syage, E. W. Fournier, R. Rianda, and R. B. Chen, "Dynamics of flame propagation using laser-induced spark initiation: ignition energy measurements," J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1499-1507, (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee and R. Knystautas, "Laser spark ignition of chemically reactive gases," AIAA J. 7, 312-317, (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Thompson, J. W. Daiber, and R. G. Rehm, "Two-dimensional growth of laser-driven waves in a hydrogen free jet," J. Appl. Phys., 47, 2427-2432, (1976).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Klimkin, R. I. Soloukhin and P. Wolansky, "Initial stages of a spherical detonation directly initiated by a laser spark," Combust. Flame, 28, 61-66, (1977).

B. E. Forch, and A. W. Miziolek, "Ultraviolet laser ignition of premixed gases by efficient and resonant multiphoton photochemical formation of microplasma," Combust. Sci. Tech. 52, 151-159, (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Forch, and A. W. Miziolek, "Laser-based ignition of H2/O2 and D2/O2 premixed gases through resonant multiphoton excitation of H and D atoms near 243 nm," Combust. Flame, 85, 254-262, (1991).
[CrossRef]

M.-S. Chou, F. E. Fendell, and H. W. Behrens, "Theoretical and experimental studies of laser-initiated detonation waves for supersonic combustion," Proc. SPIE, 1862, 45-58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hill, "Ignition-delay times in laser-initiated combustion," Appl. Opt. 20, 2239-2242, (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Plemmons, "Laser-spark ignition and the NH radical," (PhD thesis, The University of Tennessee Space Institute, 1996)

J. D. Few and J. W. L. Lewis, "Gas turbine engine photon ignition system," (U.S. Patent number 4,947,640, Aug. 14, 1990)

J. D. Few and J. W. L. Lewis, "Laser-initiated non-linear fuel droplet ignition," U.S. Patent number 5,485,720, Jan. 23, 1993, Patent number 5,404,712, April 11, 1995, Patent number 5,497,612, March 12, 1996, Patent number 5,524,429, June 11, 1996.

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, and C. G. Parigger, "Spatial and Temporal Profiles of Pulsed Laser-Induced Air Plasma Emissions," J. Quant. Spectr. & Radiat. Trans. 67, 91-103, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, and C. G. Parigger, "Probability Distribution of Laser-Induced Breakdown and Ignition of Ammonia," J. Quant. Spectr. & Radiat. Trans. 66, 41-53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. G.Dors, C. G.Parigger, and J. W. L.Lewis, "Fluid Dynamics Effects Following Laser-Induced Optical Breakdown," 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, paper AIAA 2000-0717, (Reno, NV 2000).

R. J. Kee, J. F. Grcar, M. D. Smooke, and J. A. Miller, A FORTRAN program for modeling steady one dimensional flames (Technical Report SAND85-8240, Sandia National Laboratories, 1985).

R. G. Root, "Modeling of the post breakdown phenomena," in L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, editors, "Laser-induced plasma and applications," (Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, 1989).

D. H. Plemmons, C. Parigger, J. W. L. Lewis and J.O . Hornkohl "Analysis of Combined Spectra of NH and N2," Appl. Opt. 37, 2493-2498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Sher, J. Ben-Ya'ish, and T. Kravchik, "On the birth of spark channels," Combust. Flame 89, 186-194, (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Kravchik and E. Sher, "Numerical modeling of spark ignition and flame initiation in a quiescent methane-air mixture," Combust. Flame 99, 635-643, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Hornkohl, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, "On the use of line strengths in applied diatomic spectroscopy," in Optical Society of America for presentation in the conference on Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, (March 1996).

J. O. Hornkohl, C. Parigger, and J. W. L. Lewis, "Computation of Synthetic diatomic spectra," in Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, OSA 1994 Technical Digest Series, 5: 234-237, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1994).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

mole fractions of species across the flame front of ammonia/oxygen combustion. Calculation were performed using Sandia Chemkin code [23]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

calculation results of the 1-dimensional free propagate ammonia/oxygen flame (a): flame temperature (×1000 K), mass density (×3×10-4g/cm3), and NH mole fraction (×10-3) across the stoichiometric NH3/O2 flame-front. (b): flame speed vs. fuel/oxidant equivalence ratio of premixed ammonia/oxygen flame

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experiment geometry of PLIF, B.S.=beam splitter, E1 and E2=energy meter, M=mirror, Pol.=polarizer, B.E.=beam expander, L=lens, C.L.=cylindrical lens

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Synthetic spectra of NH(A-X), OH(A-X) and N2 (2nd positive), and relative transmissions of narrow band-pass filter for NH(A-X) PLIF experiment, broad band-pass filter for NH temperature experiment, and 1-D OMA for excitation-scan experiment

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Images of NH (A-X) spontaneous emission in laser-induced ammonia breakdown. Nd:YAG laser was incident from the left of each image. Each time-resolved image size: 4 mm×4 mm

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Images of NH (A-X) planar laser-induced fluorescence in (a) laser-induced ammonia breakdown, (b) laser-induced ammonia/oxygen ignition, images scale: 4 mm×4 mm for all except the last 2 images, 4 mm×6 mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

NH excitation spectra in atmospheric-pressure laser-induced ammonia breakdown

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

. Images of laser-induced breakdown recorded at 3, 5, 10 and 20 µsec after breakdowns were initialed. Nd:YAG laser pulse energy=32 mJ, (a) time-resolved temperature images, (b) NH concentration images, dotted contour lines show the location where NH concentration equals to 50 % of the peak value. Image side: 4.42 mm by 4.42 mm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The Boltzmann plot of a single pixel in 2-dimmensional temperature measurement

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters used in the laser-induced fluorescence thermometry

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