Abstract

We report fluorescence imaging of colour centres in Lithium Fluoride (LiF) using an apertureless Scanning Near Field Optical Microscope (SNOM). The sample consists of periodically spaced submicrometric coloured areas F2 laser-active colour centres produced by low-energy electron beam lithography on the surface of a LiF thin film. A silicon Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) tip is used as an apertureless optical probe. AFM images show a uniform surface roughness with a RMS of 7.2 nm. The SNOM images of the red fluorescence of colour centres excited at λ=458 nm with an argon ion laser show that the local photon emission is unambiguously related to the coloured areas and that topographic artefacts can be excluded.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super-resolution fluorescence near-field scanning microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674–676 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, “Feasibility of molecular-resolution fluorescence near-field microscopy using multi-photon absorption and field enhacement near a sharp tip,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294–1301 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent field excitation and measurement of dye fluorescence in a metallic probe near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194, 472–476 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Azoulay, A. Debarre, A. Richard, and T. Tchenio, “Field enhancement and apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of single molecules,” J. Microscop. 194, 486–490 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P.M. Adam, S. Benrezzak, J.L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, “Localized surface plasmons on nanometric gold particles observed with an apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6919–6921 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269–275 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys.Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

P.M. Adam, S. Benrezzak, J.L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, “Localized surface plasmons on nanometric gold particles observed with an apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6919–6921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, J.L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the influence of the tip vibration in the formation of images in apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys.Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D.J. Nesbitt, “Near-field fluorescence imaging by localized field enhancement near a sharp probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1953–1955 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

E.J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X.S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, “Feasibility of molecular-resolution fluorescence near-field microscopy using multi-photon absorption and field enhacement near a sharp tip,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent field excitation and measurement of dye fluorescence in a metallic probe near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194, 472–476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Azoulay, A. Debarre, A. Richard, and T. Tchenio, “Field enhancement and apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of single molecules,” J. Microscop. 194, 486–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature (London) 399, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope using a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.P. Ambrose, P.M. Goodwin, J.C. Martin, and R.A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zenhausern, M.P. O’ Boyle, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. Betzig and R.J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

E. Betzig, J.K. Trautman, T.D. Harris, J.S. Weiner, and R.L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, and L.C. Scavarda do Carma, “LiF films : absorption and luminescence of colour centres,” Thin Film Solids 201, 106–108 (1991)
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T.T. Basiev, S.B. Mirov, and V.V. Osiko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1052 (1988)
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super-resolution fluorescence near-field scanning microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy : image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P.M.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, J.L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the influence of the tip vibration in the formation of images in apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, S. Benrezzak, J.L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, “Localized surface plasmons on nanometric gold particles observed with an apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6919–6921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, P. Royer, R. Laddada, and J.L. Bijeon, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: influence of the illumination conditions on the image contrast,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1814–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ambrose, W.P.

W.P. Ambrose, P.M. Goodwin, J.C. Martin, and R.A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azoulay, J.

J. Azoulay, A. Debarre, A. Richard, and T. Tchenio, “Field enhancement and apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of single molecules,” J. Microscop. 194, 486–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A.C. Boccara, “Near-field optical microscope based on local perturbation of a diffraction spot,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1924–1926 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldacchini, G.

R.M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, and L.C. Scavarda do Carma, “LiF films : absorption and luminescence of colour centres,” Thin Film Solids 201, 106–108 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

Basiev, T.T.

T.T. Basiev, S.B. Mirov, and V.V. Osiko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1052 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Belarouci, A.

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benrezzak, S.

P.M. Adam, S. Benrezzak, J.L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, “Localized surface plasmons on nanometric gold particles observed with an apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6919–6921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergossi, O.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and R.J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J.K. Trautman, T.D. Harris, J.S. Weiner, and R.L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super-resolution fluorescence near-field scanning microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bijeon, J.L.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, J.L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the influence of the tip vibration in the formation of images in apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, S. Benrezzak, J.L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, “Localized surface plasmons on nanometric gold particles observed with an apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6919–6921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, P. Royer, R. Laddada, and J.L. Bijeon, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: influence of the illumination conditions on the image contrast,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1814–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A.C.

Carminati, R.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cathelinaud, M.

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R.J.

E. Betzig and R.J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debarre, A.

J. Azoulay, A. Debarre, A. Richard, and T. Tchenio, “Field enhancement and apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of single molecules,” J. Microscop. 194, 486–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, “Feasibility of molecular-resolution fluorescence near-field microscopy using multi-photon absorption and field enhacement near a sharp tip,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy : image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

H.F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D.J. Nesbitt, “Near-field fluorescence imaging by localized field enhancement near a sharp probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1953–1955 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gleyzes, P.

Goodwin, P.M.

W.P. Ambrose, P.M. Goodwin, J.C. Martin, and R.A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greffet, J.J.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H.F.

H.F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D.J. Nesbitt, “Near-field fluorescence imaging by localized field enhancement near a sharp probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1953–1955 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harootunian, A.

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super-resolution fluorescence near-field scanning microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T.D.

E. Betzig, J.K. Trautman, T.D. Harris, J.S. Weiner, and R.L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayazawa, N.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent field excitation and measurement of dye fluorescence in a metallic probe near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194, 472–476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys.Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudlet, S.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent field excitation and measurement of dye fluorescence in a metallic probe near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194, 472–476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope using a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaacson, M.

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super-resolution fluorescence near-field scanning microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent field excitation and measurement of dye fluorescence in a metallic probe near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194, 472–476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, “Near-field scanning optical microscope using a metallic probe tip,” Opt. Lett. 19, 159–161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, “Feasibility of molecular-resolution fluorescence near-field microscopy using multi-photon absorption and field enhacement near a sharp tip,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys.Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature (London) 399, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R.A.

W.P. Ambrose, P.M. Goodwin, J.C. Martin, and R.A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature (London) 399, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R.L.

E. Betzig, J.K. Trautman, T.D. Harris, J.S. Weiner, and R.L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laddada, R.

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy : image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super-resolution fluorescence near-field scanning microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.C.

W.P. Ambrose, P.M. Goodwin, J.C. Martin, and R.A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, Y.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Menchini, F.

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, S.B.

T.T. Basiev, S.B. Mirov, and V.V. Osiko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1052 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Montereali, R.M.

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R.M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, and L.C. Scavarda do Carma, “LiF films : absorption and luminescence of colour centres,” Thin Film Solids 201, 106–108 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, D.J.

H.F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D.J. Nesbitt, “Near-field fluorescence imaging by localized field enhancement near a sharp probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1953–1955 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

E.J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X.S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’ Boyle, M.P.

F. Zenhausern, M.P. O’ Boyle, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V.V.

T.T. Basiev, S.B. Mirov, and V.V. Osiko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1052 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Pieralli, C.

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy : image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J.A.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richard, A.

J. Azoulay, A. Debarre, A. Richard, and T. Tchenio, “Field enhancement and apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of single molecules,” J. Microscop. 194, 486–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, J.L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the influence of the tip vibration in the formation of images in apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, S. Benrezzak, J.L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, “Localized surface plasmons on nanometric gold particles observed with an apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6919–6921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, P. Royer, R. Laddada, and J.L. Bijeon, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: influence of the illumination conditions on the image contrast,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1814–1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, E.J.

E.J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X.S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scavarda do Carma, L.C.

R.M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, and L.C. Scavarda do Carma, “LiF films : absorption and luminescence of colour centres,” Thin Film Solids 201, 106–108 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Somma, F.

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

Stashkevich, A.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tchenio, T.

J. Azoulay, A. Debarre, A. Richard, and T. Tchenio, “Field enhancement and apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of single molecules,” J. Microscop. 194, 486–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J.K.

E. Betzig, J.K. Trautman, T.D. Harris, J.S. Weiner, and R.L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viardot, G.

P.M. Adam, J.L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the influence of the tip vibration in the formation of images in apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walford, J.N.

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J.S.

E. Betzig, J.K. Trautman, T.D. Harris, J.S. Weiner, and R.L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickramasinghe, H.K.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M.P. O’ Boyle, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G.

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.S.

E.J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X.S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, “Feasibility of molecular-resolution fluorescence near-field microscopy using multi-photon absorption and field enhacement near a sharp tip,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M.P. O’ Boyle, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H.F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D.J. Nesbitt, “Near-field fluorescence imaging by localized field enhancement near a sharp probe tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1953–1955 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy : image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super-resolution fluorescence near-field scanning microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M.P. O’ Boyle, and H.K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T.T. Basiev, S.B. Mirov, and V.V. Osiko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1052 (1988)
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J.N. Walford, J.A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.J. Greffet, P.M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, and P. Royer, “Influence of tip modulation on image formation in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artefacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, “Feasibility of molecular-resolution fluorescence near-field microscopy using multi-photon absorption and field enhacement near a sharp tip,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294–1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Adam, S. Benrezzak, J.L. Bijeon, and P. Royer, “Localized surface plasmons on nanometric gold particles observed with an apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6919–6921 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “Evanescent field excitation and measurement of dye fluorescence in a metallic probe near-field scanning optical microscope,” J. Microsc. 194, 472–476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microscop. (1)

J. Azoulay, A. Debarre, A. Richard, and T. Tchenio, “Field enhancement and apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of single molecules,” J. Microscop. 194, 486–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature (London) 399, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P.M. Adam, J.L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the influence of the tip vibration in the formation of images in apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mat. (1)

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, P. Moretti, and M. Cathelinaud, “Control of F2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities,” Opt. Mat. 16, 63–67 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Optics Comm. (1)

A. Belarouci, F. Menchini, H. Rigneault, B. Jacquier, R.M. Montereali, F. Somma, and P. Moretti, “Spontaneous emission properties of color centers based optical microcavities,” Optics Comm. 189, 281–287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E.J. Sanchez, L. Novotny, and X.S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W.P. Ambrose, P.M. Goodwin, J.C. Martin, and R.A. Keller, “Single molecule detection and photochemistry on a surface using near-field optical excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 160–163 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys.Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys.Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Betzig and R.J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J.K. Trautman, T.D. Harris, J.S. Weiner, and R.L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on nanometric scale,” Science 251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Film Solids (1)

R.M. Montereali, G. Baldacchini, and L.C. Scavarda do Carma, “LiF films : absorption and luminescence of colour centres,” Thin Film Solids 201, 106–108 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Silicon-MDT Ltd., Zelenograd Research Institute of Physical Problems, 103460, Moscow, Russia.

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Figures (3)

FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SNOM experimental setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM image of the surface of a 2,4 µm thick LiF film thermally evaporated on a glass substrate

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SNOM image of the surface of a 2,4 µm thick LiF film thermally evaporated on a glass substrate

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