Abstract

By means of two-photon excited photoluminescence, we demonstrate the influence of self-absorption on the emission properties of thin (1.5 µm) film CdS formed by laser ablation. The excitation of the sample is performed with 200 fs pulses at 804 nm (1.54 eV). The photoluminescence spectrum takes the form of a single peak centered at 510 nm (2.43 eV) at 300 K. The spectrum is shifted about 45 meV to lower energies with respect to the photoluminescence excited by one photon absorption. By fitting the photoluminescence spectra with the Roosbroeck-Shockley relation and Urbach’s rule, it is shown by Beer’s law that the shift is caused by self-absorption. The results further provide evidence of low impurity concentration and excellent surface quality. They also confirm the outstanding optical properties of thin film CdS formed by pulsed-laser deposition and suggest the application of the films for effective up-conversation materials in ultra-fast experiments.

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References

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  1. A. V. Nabok, A. K. Ray, A. K. Hassan, "Electron beam stimulated formation of CdS nanoparticles within calixarene Langmuir-Blodgett films," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1333-1338 (2000) and refs. therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Bouchenaki, B. Ullrich, J. P. Zielinger, "Luminescence investigations performed on differently prepared thin CdS layers," J. Lum. 48/49, 649-654 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Zelaya-Angel, A. E. Esparza-Garcia, C. Falcony, R. Lozada-Morales, "Photoluminescence effects associated with thermally induced crystalline structure changes in CdS films," Solid State Commun. 94, 81-85 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Mej�a-Garc�a, A. Escamilla-Esquivel, G. Contreras-Puente, M. Tufi�o-Vel�zquez, M. L. Albor-Aguilera, O. Vigil, L. Vaillant, "Photoluminescence studies of CdS films grown by close-spaced vapor transport hot walls," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3171-3174 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Ullrich, D. M. Bagnall, H. Sakai, and Y. Segawa, "Photoluminescence properties of thin CdS films on glass formed by laser ablation," Solid State Commun. 109, 757-760 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Ullrich, H. Sakai, and Y. Segawa, "Optoelectronic properties of thin film CdS formed by ultraviolet and infrared pulsed-laser deposition," Thin Solid Films 385, 220-224 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. M. Bagnall, B. Ullrich, X. G. Qiu, Y. Segawa, and H. Sakai, "Microcavity lasing of optically excited cadmium sulfide thin films at room temperature," Opt. Lett. 24, 1278-1280 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Ullrich, D. M. Bagnall, H. Sakai, and Y. Segawa, "Photoluminescence and lasing of thin CdS films on glass formed by pulsed-laser deposition," J. Lum. 87-89, 1162-1164 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, New York, 1971).
  10. R. Braunstein and N. Ockman, "Optical douple-photon absorption in CdS," Phys. Rev. 134, A499-A507 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.-F. Lami and C. Hirlimann, "Two-photon excited room-temperature luminescence of CdS in the femtosecond regime," Phys. Rev. B 60, 4763-4770 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Ullrich and C. Bouchenaki, "Bistable optical thin CdS film devices: All-optical and optoelectronic features," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1285-L1288 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Van Roosbroeck and W. Shockley, "Photon-radiative recombination of electrons and holes in germanium," Phys. Rev. 94, 1558-1560 (1954).
    [CrossRef]

Other

A. V. Nabok, A. K. Ray, A. K. Hassan, "Electron beam stimulated formation of CdS nanoparticles within calixarene Langmuir-Blodgett films," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1333-1338 (2000) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

C. Bouchenaki, B. Ullrich, J. P. Zielinger, "Luminescence investigations performed on differently prepared thin CdS layers," J. Lum. 48/49, 649-654 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Zelaya-Angel, A. E. Esparza-Garcia, C. Falcony, R. Lozada-Morales, "Photoluminescence effects associated with thermally induced crystalline structure changes in CdS films," Solid State Commun. 94, 81-85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Mej�a-Garc�a, A. Escamilla-Esquivel, G. Contreras-Puente, M. Tufi�o-Vel�zquez, M. L. Albor-Aguilera, O. Vigil, L. Vaillant, "Photoluminescence studies of CdS films grown by close-spaced vapor transport hot walls," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 3171-3174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Ullrich, D. M. Bagnall, H. Sakai, and Y. Segawa, "Photoluminescence properties of thin CdS films on glass formed by laser ablation," Solid State Commun. 109, 757-760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Ullrich, H. Sakai, and Y. Segawa, "Optoelectronic properties of thin film CdS formed by ultraviolet and infrared pulsed-laser deposition," Thin Solid Films 385, 220-224 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, B. Ullrich, X. G. Qiu, Y. Segawa, and H. Sakai, "Microcavity lasing of optically excited cadmium sulfide thin films at room temperature," Opt. Lett. 24, 1278-1280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Ullrich, D. M. Bagnall, H. Sakai, and Y. Segawa, "Photoluminescence and lasing of thin CdS films on glass formed by pulsed-laser deposition," J. Lum. 87-89, 1162-1164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, New York, 1971).

R. Braunstein and N. Ockman, "Optical douple-photon absorption in CdS," Phys. Rev. 134, A499-A507 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Lami and C. Hirlimann, "Two-photon excited room-temperature luminescence of CdS in the femtosecond regime," Phys. Rev. B 60, 4763-4770 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Ullrich and C. Bouchenaki, "Bistable optical thin CdS film devices: All-optical and optoelectronic features," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1285-L1288 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Van Roosbroeck and W. Shockley, "Photon-radiative recombination of electrons and holes in germanium," Phys. Rev. 94, 1558-1560 (1954).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig.1:
Fig.1:

Two-photon photoluminescence intensity vs. incident intensity. The line represents the power law I outIin2 .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two-photon photoluminescence spectrum at an excitation intensity of 80 GW cm-2.,

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two-photon photoluminescence spectrum at an excitation intensity of 34 GW cm-2 (green squares) and theory (red line).

Fig.4:
Fig.4:

(a) Two-photon photoluminescence spectrum in Fig.2; (b) corrected two-photon photoluminescence spectrum; (c) single-photon photoluminescence spectrum.

Equations (4)

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α ( E ) = A 0 E E g for E E cr
a ( E ) = A 0 kT 2 σ exp ( σ kT ( E E cr ) ) for E E cr ,
I ( E ) E 2 α ( E ) ( exp ( E / kT c 1 ) ,
I 0 ( E ) = α ( E ) tI ( E ) ( 1 R ) ( 1 exp [ α ( E ) t ) ] ,

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