Abstract

We report the results of an investigation carried on Methyl Red-doped nematic liquid crystals with the aim of studying the basic mechanism of the extraordinarily large nonlinear response recently reported. We show that the experimental data can be explained as due to light-induced modifications of the anchoring conditions leading to director reorientation on the irradiated surface, which in turn gives rise to a bulk reorientation through the cell. We have called this phenomenon SINE (Surface Induced Nonlinear Effect) to remind that it occurs “without” (=sine in latin language) a direct optical or electric torque on the director in the bulk.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Simoni, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals and Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals, (World Scientific, Singapore1997)
    [Crossref]
  2. B.Ya. Zel’dovich, N.F. Pilipetskii, A.V. Sukhov, and N.V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 31, 264 (1980)
  3. I. Janossy, A.L. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in absorbing liquid crysta,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1 (1990)
  4. I.C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B.D. Guenther, M-Y. Shih, P.H. Chen, and W.V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photoexitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Comm 150, 195 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Ichimura, Y. Hayashi, T. Ikeda, H. Aikiyama, and N. Ishizuki, “Photo-optical liquid crystal cells driver by molecular rotors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 449 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  7. W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49 (1991)
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics - Sixth Ed., (Pergamon Press, Oxford1980)
  9. C. Umeton, A. Sgrò, and F. Simoni, “Optically induced phase shift in nematic liquid crystals with hybrid alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1938 (1987)
    [Crossref]
  10. O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  11. I. Janossy and L Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerisation,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  12. I.C. Khoo, R.G. Lindquist, R.R. Michael, R.J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser-induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991)
    [Crossref]

1999 (1)

O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

I. Janossy and L Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerisation,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598 (1998)
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B.D. Guenther, M-Y. Shih, P.H. Chen, and W.V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998)
[Crossref]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photoexitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Comm 150, 195 (1998)
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Ichimura, Y. Hayashi, T. Ikeda, H. Aikiyama, and N. Ishizuki, “Photo-optical liquid crystal cells driver by molecular rotors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 449 (1993)
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49 (1991)
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo, R.G. Lindquist, R.R. Michael, R.J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser-induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991)
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

I. Janossy, A.L. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in absorbing liquid crysta,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1 (1990)

1987 (1)

1980 (1)

B.Ya. Zel’dovich, N.F. Pilipetskii, A.V. Sukhov, and N.V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 31, 264 (1980)

Aikiyama, H.

K. Ichimura, Y. Hayashi, T. Ikeda, H. Aikiyama, and N. Ishizuki, “Photo-optical liquid crystal cells driver by molecular rotors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 449 (1993)
[Crossref]

Andrienko, D.

O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics - Sixth Ed., (Pergamon Press, Oxford1980)

Chen, P.H.

Chilaya, G.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photoexitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Comm 150, 195 (1998)
[Crossref]

Francescangeli, O.

O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
[Crossref]

Gibbons, W.M.

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49 (1991)
[Crossref]

Guenther, B.D.

Hayashi, Y.

K. Ichimura, Y. Hayashi, T. Ikeda, H. Aikiyama, and N. Ishizuki, “Photo-optical liquid crystal cells driver by molecular rotors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 449 (1993)
[Crossref]

Ichimura, K.

K. Ichimura, Y. Hayashi, T. Ikeda, H. Aikiyama, and N. Ishizuki, “Photo-optical liquid crystal cells driver by molecular rotors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 449 (1993)
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

K. Ichimura, Y. Hayashi, T. Ikeda, H. Aikiyama, and N. Ishizuki, “Photo-optical liquid crystal cells driver by molecular rotors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 449 (1993)
[Crossref]

Ishizuki, N.

K. Ichimura, Y. Hayashi, T. Ikeda, H. Aikiyama, and N. Ishizuki, “Photo-optical liquid crystal cells driver by molecular rotors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 449 (1993)
[Crossref]

Janossy, I.

I. Janossy and L Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerisation,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598 (1998)
[Crossref]

I. Janossy, A.L. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in absorbing liquid crysta,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1 (1990)

Khoo, I.C.

I.C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B.D. Guenther, M-Y. Shih, P.H. Chen, and W.V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998)
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo, R.G. Lindquist, R.R. Michael, R.J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser-induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991)
[Crossref]

Lindquist, R.G.

I.C. Khoo, R.G. Lindquist, R.R. Michael, R.J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser-induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991)
[Crossref]

Lloyd, A.L.

I. Janossy, A.L. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in absorbing liquid crysta,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1 (1990)

LoPresti, P.

I.C. Khoo, R.G. Lindquist, R.R. Michael, R.J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser-induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991)
[Crossref]

Macdonald, R.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photoexitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Comm 150, 195 (1998)
[Crossref]

Mansfield, R.J.

I.C. Khoo, R.G. Lindquist, R.R. Michael, R.J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser-induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991)
[Crossref]

Meindl, P.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photoexitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Comm 150, 195 (1998)
[Crossref]

Michael, R.R.

I.C. Khoo, R.G. Lindquist, R.R. Michael, R.J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser-induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991)
[Crossref]

Pilipetskii, N.F.

B.Ya. Zel’dovich, N.F. Pilipetskii, A.V. Sukhov, and N.V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 31, 264 (1980)

Reshetnyak, V.

O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
[Crossref]

Reznikov, Y.

O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
[Crossref]

Sgrò, A.

Shannon, P.J.

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49 (1991)
[Crossref]

Shih, M-Y.

Sikharulidze, D.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photoexitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Comm 150, 195 (1998)
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
[Crossref]

C. Umeton, A. Sgrò, and F. Simoni, “Optically induced phase shift in nematic liquid crystals with hybrid alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1938 (1987)
[Crossref]

F. Simoni, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals and Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals, (World Scientific, Singapore1997)
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
[Crossref]

I.C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B.D. Guenther, M-Y. Shih, P.H. Chen, and W.V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998)
[Crossref]

Sukhov, A.V.

B.Ya. Zel’dovich, N.F. Pilipetskii, A.V. Sukhov, and N.V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 31, 264 (1980)

Sun, S.T.

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49 (1991)
[Crossref]

Swetlin, B.J.

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49 (1991)
[Crossref]

Szabados, L

I. Janossy and L Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerisation,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598 (1998)
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N.V.

B.Ya. Zel’dovich, N.F. Pilipetskii, A.V. Sukhov, and N.V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 31, 264 (1980)

Umeton, C.

Wherret, B.S.

I. Janossy, A.L. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in absorbing liquid crysta,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1 (1990)

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics - Sixth Ed., (Pergamon Press, Oxford1980)

Wood, W.V.

Zel’dovich, B.Ya.

B.Ya. Zel’dovich, N.F. Pilipetskii, A.V. Sukhov, and N.V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 31, 264 (1980)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Ichimura, Y. Hayashi, T. Ikeda, H. Aikiyama, and N. Ishizuki, “Photo-optical liquid crystal cells driver by molecular rotors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 449 (1993)
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I.C. Khoo, R.G. Lindquist, R.R. Michael, R.J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, “Dynamics of picosecond laser-induced density, temperature and flow-reorientation effects in the mesophases of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP Lett. (1)

B.Ya. Zel’dovich, N.F. Pilipetskii, A.V. Sukhov, and N.V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity of a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 31, 264 (1980)

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

I. Janossy, A.L. Lloyd, and B.S. Wherret, “Anomalous optical Freedericksz transition in absorbing liquid crysta,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 179, 1 (1990)

Nature (1)

W.M. Gibbons, P.J. Shannon, S.T. Sun, and B.J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351, 49 (1991)
[Crossref]

Opt. Comm (1)

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photoexitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Comm 150, 195 (1998)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. Janossy and L Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerisation,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598 (1998)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, D. Andrienko, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, “Light-induced surface sliding of the nematic director in liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1855 (1999)
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. Simoni, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals and Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals, (World Scientific, Singapore1997)
[Crossref]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics - Sixth Ed., (Pergamon Press, Oxford1980)

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Figures (3)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Signal vs time in case of cw excitation. The incident pump intensity is 56 mW/cm2 and the cell thickness is 23 µm. Signal oscillations are visible both during rising and relaxation (see text). Inset: Signal rise under cw irradiation at lower intensity (I=5.6 mW/cm2). The initial slope can be fitted by assuming S∝Eγ with γ=4.8, as shown by the dashed line.

Fig.2.
Fig.2.

Signal vs time in case of pulsed excitation. The impinging energy density is E=10 mJ/cm2 in curves a and c and E=6 mJ/cm2 in curve b. In case of curve c a dc voltage V=12 V is applied across the cell thus creating a field perpendicular to the glass plates. Cell thickness=23 µm. All the curves decay to zero for a longer time.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

Phase shift δ vs d. The experimental data (symbols) are satisfactory fitted by assuming a linear dependence of δ on the thickness d (full line). The value δ=3π corresponding to d=23 µm may be overestimated.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S C · e α d sin 2 ( 2 ϕ ) sin 2 ( δ 2 )
d θ d z = c
L 1 c = 1 2 sin ( 2 θ 1 2 θ 1 * )
θ 1 = H E 1 + L 1 d H E and θ = H E ( z d 1 )
δ n = 1 6 ε ε Δ ε ( H E ) 2

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