Abstract

We discuss the importance of distributed amplification for high-speed soliton communication systems through numerical simulations by considering the distributed gain provided by stimulated Raman scattering or erbium dopants. Hybrid amplification schemes are also considered. At a bit rate of 40 Gb/s, the use of distributed amplification is found to improve the transmission distance (deduced from the Q parameter) by a factor of up to three for Raman amplification and >5 for erbium dopants, compared with the case of lumped amplifiers. The increase in transmission distance is by a factor of about two for 80-Gb/s soliton systems when dense dispersion management is used.

©2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  6. Z. M. Liao and G. P. Agrawal, “High-bit-rate soliton transmission using distributed amplification and dispersion management,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11818–820 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Dispersion-management in fiber communication lines using Raman amplification,” Opt. Commun. 17023–27 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. H. Liang, H. Toda, and A. Hasegawa, “High-speed soliton transmission in dense periodic fibers,” Opt. Lett. 24799–801 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  11. T. I. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, “Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 997–998 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. I. Morita, K. Tanaka, and N. Edagawa, “Benefit of Raman amplification in ultra-long-distance 40 Gbit/s-based WDM transmission using dispersion-flattened fibre span,” Electron. Lett. 37, 507–509 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2001 (1)

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, and N. Edagawa, “Benefit of Raman amplification in ultra-long-distance 40 Gbit/s-based WDM transmission using dispersion-flattened fibre span,” Electron. Lett. 37, 507–509 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, “Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 997–998 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. M. Liao and G. P. Agrawal, “High-bit-rate soliton transmission using distributed amplification and dispersion management,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11818–820 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Dispersion-management in fiber communication lines using Raman amplification,” Opt. Commun. 17023–27 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. H. Liang, H. Toda, and A. Hasegawa, “High-speed soliton transmission in dense periodic fibers,” Opt. Lett. 24799–801 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, and M. Suzuki, “40 Gbit/s single-channel soliton transmission over 8600 km using periodic dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1863–1865 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. S. Govan, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Long-distance 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission over standard fiber by use of dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 231523–1525 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Rottwitt, J. H. Povlsen, and A. Bajarklev, “Long-distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 112105–2115 (1993).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

Z. M. Liao and G. P. Agrawal, “High-bit-rate soliton transmission using distributed amplification and dispersion management,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11818–820 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1997).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

Bajarklev, A.

K. Rottwitt, J. H. Povlsen, and A. Bajarklev, “Long-distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 112105–2115 (1993).
[Crossref]

Doran, N. J.

S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Dispersion-management in fiber communication lines using Raman amplification,” Opt. Commun. 17023–27 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. S. Govan, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Long-distance 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission over standard fiber by use of dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 231523–1525 (1998).
[Crossref]

Edagawa, N.

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, and N. Edagawa, “Benefit of Raman amplification in ultra-long-distance 40 Gbit/s-based WDM transmission using dispersion-flattened fibre span,” Electron. Lett. 37, 507–509 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, and M. Suzuki, “40 Gbit/s single-channel soliton transmission over 8600 km using periodic dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1863–1865 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fedoruk, M. P.

S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Dispersion-management in fiber communication lines using Raman amplification,” Opt. Commun. 17023–27 (1999).
[Crossref]

Forysiak, W.

S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Dispersion-management in fiber communication lines using Raman amplification,” Opt. Commun. 17023–27 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. S. Govan, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Long-distance 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission over standard fiber by use of dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 231523–1525 (1998).
[Crossref]

Govan, D. S.

Hasegawa, A.

Kaup, D. J.

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kidorf, H. D.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, “Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 997–998 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lakoba, T. I.

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liang, A. H.

Liao, Z. M.

Z. M. Liao and G. P. Agrawal, “High-bit-rate soliton transmission using distributed amplification and dispersion management,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11818–820 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ma, M. X.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, “Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 997–998 (1999).
[Crossref]

Malomed, B. A.

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Morita, I.

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, and N. Edagawa, “Benefit of Raman amplification in ultra-long-distance 40 Gbit/s-based WDM transmission using dispersion-flattened fibre span,” Electron. Lett. 37, 507–509 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, and M. Suzuki, “40 Gbit/s single-channel soliton transmission over 8600 km using periodic dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1863–1865 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nissov, M.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, “Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 997–998 (1999).
[Crossref]

Povlsen, J. H.

K. Rottwitt, J. H. Povlsen, and A. Bajarklev, “Long-distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 112105–2115 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rottwitt, K.

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, “Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 997–998 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Rottwitt, J. H. Povlsen, and A. Bajarklev, “Long-distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 112105–2115 (1993).
[Crossref]

Smith, K.

Suzuki, M.

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, and M. Suzuki, “40 Gbit/s single-channel soliton transmission over 8600 km using periodic dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1863–1865 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, and N. Edagawa, “Benefit of Raman amplification in ultra-long-distance 40 Gbit/s-based WDM transmission using dispersion-flattened fibre span,” Electron. Lett. 37, 507–509 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, and M. Suzuki, “40 Gbit/s single-channel soliton transmission over 8600 km using periodic dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1863–1865 (1998).
[Crossref]

Toda, H.

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Dispersion-management in fiber communication lines using Raman amplification,” Opt. Commun. 17023–27 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, and M. Suzuki, “40 Gbit/s single-channel soliton transmission over 8600 km using periodic dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1863–1865 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, and M. Suzuki, “40 Gbit/s single-channel soliton transmission over 8600 km using periodic dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1863–1865 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, and M. X. Ma, “Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 35, 997–998 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. Morita, K. Tanaka, and N. Edagawa, “Benefit of Raman amplification in ultra-long-distance 40 Gbit/s-based WDM transmission using dispersion-flattened fibre span,” Electron. Lett. 37, 507–509 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. M. Liao and G. P. Agrawal, “High-bit-rate soliton transmission using distributed amplification and dispersion management,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11818–820 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Rottwitt, J. H. Povlsen, and A. Bajarklev, “Long-distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 112105–2115 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “Dispersion-management in fiber communication lines using Raman amplification,” Opt. Commun. 17023–27 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yang, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Net gain G(z) versus distance for hybrid (top), distributed Raman (middle), and d-EDFA schemes (bottom).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. System performance of the 40-Gb/s soliton system for the four amplification schemes. Horizontal line corresponds to a bit-error rate of 10-9
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Eye diagrams at a distance of 2000 km for the 40-Gb/s soliton system for the four amplification schemes.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. System performance of a 80-Gb/s system for the four amplification schemes.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Pulse-to-pulse interaction for a 80-Gb/s soliton system for (a) lumped, (b) hybrid, (c) distributed-Raman, and (d) d-EDFA schemes.

Equations (2)

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i A z β 2 2 2 A t 2 + γ A 2 A = i 2 ( g α ) A + T R A A 2 t ,
G ( L A ) = 0 L A [ g ( z ) α ( z ) ] d z = 0 .

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