Abstract

This paper discusses the accuracy of the optical determination of the oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin content of human skin under the influence of a melanin layer for a multi-wavelengths imager. The relation between the nonlinear results by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and the modified Lambert Beer’s law (MLB) is also clarified, emphasizing the importance of the absolute values of skin pigments and their influence on the mean path-length used in MLB. The fitting procedure of the MCS data to the actual skin spectra is shown to obtain the absolute values. It is also shown that once the proper mean path-lengths have been determined, MLB can be used fairly well within an accuracy of 80% compared with MCS. Images of oxygenated hemoglobin with a newly-developed four-wavelength camera are presented to demonstrate the advantages of a multi-wavelength system.

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References

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  1. San Wan, R. Rox Anderson and John A. Parrish, "Analytical modeling for the optical properties of the skin with in vitro and in vivo applications," Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 493-499 (1981).
    [PubMed]
  2. R. Rox Anderson, B. S. and John A. Parrish M. D., "The optics of human skin," J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13-19 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. V. Meglinsky and S.J. Matcher, "Analysis of reflectance spectra for skin oxygenation measurements," in Controlling of the Optical Properties, V. V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, Editors, Proc. SPIE 4162, 46-53 (2000).
  4. I. V. Meglinsky and S.J. Matcher, "Modelling the sampling volume for skin blood oxygenation measurements," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 39, 44-50 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Shimada, Y. Masuda, M. Y. Yamada, M. Itoh, M. Takahashi and T. Yatagai, "Explanation of human skin color by multiple linear regression analysis based on the Modified Lambert-Beer law," Opt. Rev. 7, 348-352 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. C. Van Gemert, Steven L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, and W. M. Star, "SkinOptics," IEEE Transactions On Biomedical Engineering 36, 1146-1154 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. H. Frank, M. Kessler, K. Appelbaum andW. Dummler, "The Erlangen micro-lightguide spectrometer EMHO I," Phys.Med. Biol. 34, 1883-1900 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. B. Hanna, D. J. Newton, D. K. Harrison, J. J. F. Belch and P. T. McCollum, "Use of lightguide spectrophotometry to quantify skin oxygenation in a variable model of venous hypertension," Br. J. Surg. 82, 1352-1356 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Kakihana, M. Kessler, D. Alexandre, and A. Krug, "Stable and reliable measurement of intracapillary hemoglobin-oxygenation in human skin by EMPHO II," SPIE 2979, 378-389 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi and Y. Miyake, "Independent -component analysis of skin color image," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2169-2176 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi and Y. Miyake, "Independent component analysis of spectral absorbance image in human skin," Opt. Rev. 7, 479-482 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Tsumura, M. Kawabuchi, H. Haneishi and Y. Miyake, "Mapping pigmentation in human skin by multivisible-spectral imaging by inverse optical scattering technique," IS&T/ SID's 8th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Appl. 81-84 (2000).
  13. W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma andW. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest , "Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, de-oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin," Clin. Chem. 37, 1633-1638 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  14. B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, "A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue," Med. Phys. 10, 824-830 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Way and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Kobayashi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, I. Oda, I. Konishi, and Y. Tunazawa, "Optical imaging of hemoglobin distribution in human skin," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, Stefan Anderson-Engels, Michael Kaschke, Editor, Proc. SPIE 4431, (now printed).

Other

San Wan, R. Rox Anderson and John A. Parrish, "Analytical modeling for the optical properties of the skin with in vitro and in vivo applications," Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 493-499 (1981).
[PubMed]

R. Rox Anderson, B. S. and John A. Parrish M. D., "The optics of human skin," J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13-19 (1981).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Meglinsky and S.J. Matcher, "Analysis of reflectance spectra for skin oxygenation measurements," in Controlling of the Optical Properties, V. V. Tuchin, J. Lademann, Editors, Proc. SPIE 4162, 46-53 (2000).

I. V. Meglinsky and S.J. Matcher, "Modelling the sampling volume for skin blood oxygenation measurements," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 39, 44-50 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shimada, Y. Masuda, M. Y. Yamada, M. Itoh, M. Takahashi and T. Yatagai, "Explanation of human skin color by multiple linear regression analysis based on the Modified Lambert-Beer law," Opt. Rev. 7, 348-352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. C. Van Gemert, Steven L. Jacques, H. J. C. M. Sternborg, and W. M. Star, "SkinOptics," IEEE Transactions On Biomedical Engineering 36, 1146-1154 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Frank, M. Kessler, K. Appelbaum andW. Dummler, "The Erlangen micro-lightguide spectrometer EMHO I," Phys.Med. Biol. 34, 1883-1900 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Hanna, D. J. Newton, D. K. Harrison, J. J. F. Belch and P. T. McCollum, "Use of lightguide spectrophotometry to quantify skin oxygenation in a variable model of venous hypertension," Br. J. Surg. 82, 1352-1356 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kakihana, M. Kessler, D. Alexandre, and A. Krug, "Stable and reliable measurement of intracapillary hemoglobin-oxygenation in human skin by EMPHO II," SPIE 2979, 378-389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi and Y. Miyake, "Independent -component analysis of skin color image," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2169-2176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsumura, H. Haneishi and Y. Miyake, "Independent component analysis of spectral absorbance image in human skin," Opt. Rev. 7, 479-482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsumura, M. Kawabuchi, H. Haneishi and Y. Miyake, "Mapping pigmentation in human skin by multivisible-spectral imaging by inverse optical scattering technique," IS&T/ SID's 8th Color Imaging Conference, Color Science, Systems and Appl. 81-84 (2000).

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma andW. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest , "Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, de-oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin," Clin. Chem. 37, 1633-1638 (1991).
[PubMed]

B. C. Wilson and G. Adam, "A Monte Carlo model for the absorption and flux distributions of light in tissue," Med. Phys. 10, 824-830 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Way and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, Y. Ito, N. Sakauchi, I. Oda, I. Konishi, and Y. Tunazawa, "Optical imaging of hemoglobin distribution in human skin," in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, Stefan Anderson-Engels, Michael Kaschke, Editor, Proc. SPIE 4431, (now printed).

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Figures (6)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Skin spectra of human forearm to be used for fitting. The curved lines are the measured spectra and the six points on each spectrum represent the absorbance points obtained by fitting. (a): Skin spectra of volunteer No.1 with varied states of hemoglobin. 1: at rest, 2: after heating, 3: after occlusion, 4: after release. (b): Skin spectra of three volunteers. 1: volunteer No.1 at rest, same as 1in Fig.1.(a), 5: volunteer No.2 at rest , 6: volunteer No.3 at rest.

Fig.2.
Fig.2.

Skin model with three layers used in the MCS.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

Absorptivities of oxyHb and deoxyHb (mM-1·cm-1) after four times multiplied from the report of W. G. Zijlstra et al. 13) and absorptivities of melanin ((mg/mL)-1·cm-1)

Fig.4
Fig.4

Nonlinear relation obtained by MCS to be used for fitting at four wavelengths The dependence of the absorbance (Z-axis) on the absorption coefficient µa of the layer 2 (X-axis: mm-1) and on the concentration of melanin (Y-axis: mg/mL) for 512 nm, 557 nm, 581 nm and 619 nm. The scale of the X-axis for 619 nm is 1/10 of that for the other three wavelengths due to the weak absorption of hemoglobin at 619 nm. Points 1 to 6 on the figure correspond to the actual skin spectra by fitting; points 1 to 4: volunteer No.1, 1 (at rest), 2 (after heating), 3 (after occlusion), 4 (after release), point 5: volunteer No2 (at rest), point 6: volunteer No2 (at rest)

Fig.5.
Fig.5.

Distribution of Δ[oxyHb] in foot obtained with a new four-wavelength imager Six successive images of Δ[oxyHb] starting from just before the release of occlusion. Distribution of [oxyHb] just before occlusion is taken to be zero (green) as the reference A: just before the release of occlusion (at the end of occlusion period of 5 minutes), B: 6 sec after the release, C: after 13 sec, D: after 26 sec, E: after 40 sec, F: after 105 sec.

Fig.6.
Fig.6.

Comparison of MCS and MLB with two different mean path-lengths MLB result with the path-length for volunteer No.1 is referred to as MLB(1), and that with volunteer No.3 is referred to as MLB(2), since the MLB results depend on the path-length for respective subjects. The graphs A, B, C and D show the difference of three methods MCS, MLB(1) and MLB(2) in the changes in [oxyHb], [deoxyHb], [totalHb], and [melanin] respectively, calculated for the same original data. The numbers attached on the abscissa; 1:volunteer No.1 (at rest), 2: after heat, 3: after occlusion, 4: after release, 5: volunteer No.2, 6: volunteer No.3. The values at number 1 are zero, since the values of the volunteer No.1 (at rest) are taken as the reference.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coefficients of a cubic function AX 3+BX 2 Y+CXY 2+DY 3+EX 2+FXY+GY 2+HX+IY+J

Tables Icon

Table 2 Concentration of oxyHb, deoxyHb and melanin obtained by fitting. Related values (offset, totalHb and SO2) are also shown.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mean path-length of layer1 (d melanin) and layer2 (d oxyHb, d deoxyHb) (a) Determined mean path-length (mm) of volunteer No.1

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ a = ln 10 · ( ε oxyHb · [ oxyHb ] + ε deoxyHb · [ deoxyHb ] ) 10 ,
Z = AX 3 + BX 2 Y + CXY 2 + DY 3 + EX 2 + FXY + GY 2 + HX + IY + J ,
S = i = 1 6 [ abs ( i ) Z ( i ) ] 2 ,
Δ Z = d oxyHb · ε oxyHb · Δ [ oxyHb ] + d deoxyHb · ε deoxyHb · Δ [ deoxyHb ] + d melanin · ε melanin · Δ [ melanin ] + Δ J ,
Δ Z = Z [ oxyHb ] Δ [ oxyHb ] + Z [ deoxyHb ] Δ [ deoxyHb ] + Z [ melanin ] Δ [ melanin ] + Δ J ,
Z [ oxyHb ] = Z X · X [ oxyHb ] = Z X · ln 10 10 ε oxyHb ,
Z [ deoxyHb ] = Z X · X [ deoxyHb ] = Z X · ln 10 10 ε deoxyHb ,
Z [ melanin ] = Z Y ,
d oxyHb = ( Z X ln 10 10 ) , d deoxyHb = ( Z X ln 10 10 ) , d melanin = ( Z Y 1 ε melanin ) .
Z X = 3 AX 2 + 2 BXY + CY 2 + 2 EX + FY + H ,
Z Y = BX 2 + 2 CXY + 3 DY 2 + FX + 2 GY + I .
( Δ Z ( 512 nm ) Δ Z ( 557 nm ) Δ Z ( 581 nm ) Δ Z ( 619 nm ) ) = ( 2.2581 2.2485 0.2763 1 2.7706 3.8677 0.1984 1 3.7557 2.6657 0.1717 1 0.4444 2.1528 0.1465 1 ) · ( Δ [ oxyHb ] Δ [ deoxyHb ] Δ [ melanin ] Δ J ) ,
( Δ [ oxyHb ] Δ [ deoxyHb ] Δ [ melanin ] Δ J ) = ( 0.0306 0.1185 0.4021 0.2529 0.2090 0.7097 0.3840 0.1166 8.2882 1.1331 5.3358 4.0855 0.7509 1.6411 1.4300 1.9621 ) · ( Δ Z ( 512 nm ) Δ Z ( 557 nm ) Δ Z ( 581 nm ) Δ Z ( 619 nm ) ) .
( Δ Z ( 512 nm ) Δ Z ( 557 nm ) Δ Z ( 581 nm ) Δ Z ( 619 nm ) ) = ( 1.7883 1.7807 0.2376 1 2.1802 3.0435 0.1707 1 3.0513 2.1657 0.1485 1 0.3695 1.7897 0.1315 1 ) · ( Δ [ oxyHb ] Δ [ deoxyHb ] Δ [ melanin ] Δ J ) ,
( Δ [ oxyHb ] Δ [ deoxyHb ] Δ [ melanin ] Δ J ) = ( 0.0236 0.1451 0.4834 0.3146 0.2694 0.9441 0.4949 0.1798 9.7175 2.0209 6.5057 5.2327 0.7871 1.9019 1.5627 2.1262 ) · ( Δ Z ( 512 nm ) Δ Z ( 557 nm ) Δ Z ( 581 nm ) Δ Z ( 619 nm ) ) .

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