Abstract

Diffraction gratings written in films of nematic liquid crystals doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes were investigated by measurements of exponential beam-coupling coefficients. These phase gratings were induced by the interference modulation of two coherent optical beams, in conjunction with an externally applied dc field. Systematic and consistent results of the gain properties indicate that the observed coherent-beam amplification depends strongly on the pump-to-probe intensity ratio.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London1998).
  2. P. Photinos, “Physical Properties” in Liquid Crystals: Experimental Study of Physical Properties and Phase Transitions, S. Kumar, ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge2001), pp. 95–154.
  3. W. Lee and C.-S. Chiu, “Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 521–523 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Lee and S.-L. Yeh, “Optical amplification in nematics doped with carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(27), in press.
  5. W. Lee, H.-Y. Chen, and S.-L. Yeh, “Surface-sustained permanent gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes,” (unpublished).
  6. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York1993).
  7. N. V. Kukhtarev, “Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electrooptic crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1976).
  8. N. V. Kukhtarev, P. Buchhave, and S. F. Lyuksyutov, “Optical and electric properties of dynamic holographic gratings with arbitrary contrast,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3133–3136 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Brignon, I. Bongrand, B. Loiseaux, and J.-P. Huignard, “Signal-beam amplification by two-wave mixing in a liquid-crystal light valve,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1855–1857 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, “Theory and experiments on multiwave-mixing-mediated probe-beam amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036–4044 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and Min-Yi Shih, “Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1229–1231 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. See, for example, E. V. Degtiarev and M. A. Vorontsov, “Spatial filtering in nonlinear two-dimensional feedback systems: phase-distortion suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1238–1248 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  13. W. Lee and Y.-L. Wang, “Evidence for holographic image storage in a fullerene-doped liquid-crystal film,” Chin. J. Phys. 39, L295–L298 (2001).

2001 (2)

W. Lee and C.-S. Chiu, “Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 521–523 (2001).
[Crossref]

W. Lee and Y.-L. Wang, “Evidence for holographic image storage in a fullerene-doped liquid-crystal film,” Chin. J. Phys. 39, L295–L298 (2001).

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, “Theory and experiments on multiwave-mixing-mediated probe-beam amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036–4044 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, “Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electrooptic crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1976).

Bongrand, I.

Brignon, A.

Buchhave, P.

N. V. Kukhtarev, P. Buchhave, and S. F. Lyuksyutov, “Optical and electric properties of dynamic holographic gratings with arbitrary contrast,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3133–3136 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Y.

W. Lee, H.-Y. Chen, and S.-L. Yeh, “Surface-sustained permanent gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes,” (unpublished).

Chen, P.

Chiu, C.-S.

Degtiarev, E. V.

Dresselhaus, G.

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London1998).

Dresselhaus, M. S.

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London1998).

Guenther, B. D.

Huignard, J.-P.

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and Min-Yi Shih, “Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1229–1231 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, “Theory and experiments on multiwave-mixing-mediated probe-beam amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036–4044 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, P. Buchhave, and S. F. Lyuksyutov, “Optical and electric properties of dynamic holographic gratings with arbitrary contrast,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3133–3136 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kukhtarev, “Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electrooptic crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1976).

Lee, W.

W. Lee and C.-S. Chiu, “Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 521–523 (2001).
[Crossref]

W. Lee and Y.-L. Wang, “Evidence for holographic image storage in a fullerene-doped liquid-crystal film,” Chin. J. Phys. 39, L295–L298 (2001).

W. Lee and S.-L. Yeh, “Optical amplification in nematics doped with carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(27), in press.

W. Lee, H.-Y. Chen, and S.-L. Yeh, “Surface-sustained permanent gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes,” (unpublished).

Liu, T. H.

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, “Theory and experiments on multiwave-mixing-mediated probe-beam amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036–4044 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loiseaux, B.

Lyuksyutov, S. F.

N. V. Kukhtarev, P. Buchhave, and S. F. Lyuksyutov, “Optical and electric properties of dynamic holographic gratings with arbitrary contrast,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3133–3136 (1997).
[Crossref]

Photinos, P.

P. Photinos, “Physical Properties” in Liquid Crystals: Experimental Study of Physical Properties and Phase Transitions, S. Kumar, ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge2001), pp. 95–154.

Saito, R.

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London1998).

Shih, Min-Yi

Vorontsov, M. A.

Wang, Y.-L.

W. Lee and Y.-L. Wang, “Evidence for holographic image storage in a fullerene-doped liquid-crystal film,” Chin. J. Phys. 39, L295–L298 (2001).

Wood, M. V.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York1993).

Yeh, S.-L.

W. Lee and S.-L. Yeh, “Optical amplification in nematics doped with carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(27), in press.

W. Lee, H.-Y. Chen, and S.-L. Yeh, “Surface-sustained permanent gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes,” (unpublished).

Chin. J. Phys. (1)

W. Lee and Y.-L. Wang, “Evidence for holographic image storage in a fullerene-doped liquid-crystal film,” Chin. J. Phys. 39, L295–L298 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

N. V. Kukhtarev, P. Buchhave, and S. F. Lyuksyutov, “Optical and electric properties of dynamic holographic gratings with arbitrary contrast,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3133–3136 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Liu, “Theory and experiments on multiwave-mixing-mediated probe-beam amplification,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036–4044 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, “Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electrooptic crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1976).

Other (5)

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London1998).

P. Photinos, “Physical Properties” in Liquid Crystals: Experimental Study of Physical Properties and Phase Transitions, S. Kumar, ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge2001), pp. 95–154.

W. Lee and S.-L. Yeh, “Optical amplification in nematics doped with carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(27), in press.

W. Lee, H.-Y. Chen, and S.-L. Yeh, “Surface-sustained permanent gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes,” (unpublished).

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Energy exchange between two incident beams of 45 mW at V dc=3 V.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Net exponential gain coefficient of the 1-mW probe beam as a function of the applied voltage. The incident pump-beam power is fixed at ◈ 60 mW, ● 100 mW, △ 140 mW, and ▼ 200 mW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Voltage dependence of the gain coefficient for the 5-mW probe beam coupled with the input pump beam of various powers: ◈25 mW, ●75 mW, △125 mW, and ▼175 mW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between different total writing powers of identical pump-to-probe ratio. The incident pump and probe powers are ◈ 20 and 1 mW, ● 100 and 5 mW, △ 40 and 1 mW, and ▼ 200 and 5 mW, respectively.

Equations (1)

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Γ = ln [ g m / ( m g + 1 ) ] / L α ,

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