Abstract

We present several applications of microstructured optical fibers and study their modal characteristics by using Bragg gratings inscribed into photosensitive core regions designed into the air-silica microstructure. The unique characteristics revealed in these studies enable a number of functionalities including tunability and enhanced nonlinearity that provide a platform for fiber device applications. We discuss experimental and numerical tools that allow characterization of the modes of the fibers.

© Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. V. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, "Low-loss single-material fibers made from pure fused silica," The Bell System Technical Journal 53, 1021-1039 (1974).
  2. J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides," Optical Fiber Technology 5, 305-330, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549, (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. Sandro, "Photonic crystals as optical fibersphysics and applications," Optical Materials, 11, 143-151, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. S. Windeler, J. L. Wagener, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Silica-air microstructured fibers: Properties and applications," Optical Fiber Communications conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).
  6. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963, (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539, (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibres," Meas. Sci. and Tech. 12, 854-858, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Holzwarth, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hansch, P. Russbuldt, K. Gabel, R. Poprawe, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "White-light frequency comb generation with a diodepumped Cr:LiSAF laser," Opt. Lett. 17, 1376-1378, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. S. . Russell, "Dispersion Compensation Using Single-Material Fibers," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 674-676, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 796-798, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennet, "Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model," J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1093-1102, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27, (1998).
  14. T. Erdogan, "Fiber Grating Spectra," J. Lightwave Tech. 155, 1277-1294, (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg gratings, 1st ed. (Academic Press, 1999).
  16. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding mode resonances in air-silica microstructure fiber," J. Lightwave Tech. 18, 1084-1100, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in airsilica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, "Experimental and scalar beam propagation analysis of an air-silica microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 7, 113-123, (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/22997.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstrucutred Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 12, 495-497, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosin ski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, "Adiabatic Coupling in Tapered Air-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 13, 52-54, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, "Soliton self-frequency shift in a tapered air-silica microstructured fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 358-360, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, "Symmetry an degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 488-490, (2001).
    [CrossRef]

Other

P. V. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, "Low-loss single-material fibers made from pure fused silica," The Bell System Technical Journal 53, 1021-1039 (1974).

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides," Optical Fiber Technology 5, 305-330, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. Sandro, "Photonic crystals as optical fibersphysics and applications," Optical Materials, 11, 143-151, (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Windeler, J. L. Wagener, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Silica-air microstructured fibers: Properties and applications," Optical Fiber Communications conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963, (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibres," Meas. Sci. and Tech. 12, 854-858, (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, M. Zimmermann, Th. Udem, T. W. Hansch, P. Russbuldt, K. Gabel, R. Poprawe, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "White-light frequency comb generation with a diodepumped Cr:LiSAF laser," Opt. Lett. 17, 1376-1378, (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. S. . Russell, "Dispersion Compensation Using Single-Material Fibers," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 674-676, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 796-798, (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennet, "Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model," J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1093-1102, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, and J. P. Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27, (1998).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber Grating Spectra," J. Lightwave Tech. 155, 1277-1294, (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg gratings, 1st ed. (Academic Press, 1999).

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding mode resonances in air-silica microstructure fiber," J. Lightwave Tech. 18, 1084-1100, (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in airsilica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462, (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, "Experimental and scalar beam propagation analysis of an air-silica microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 7, 113-123, (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/22997.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-Mode Resonances in Hybrid Polymer-Silica Microstrucutred Optical Fiber Gratings," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 12, 495-497, (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, S. G. Kosin ski, X. Liu, and C. Xu, "Adiabatic Coupling in Tapered Air-Silica Microstructured Optical Fiber," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 13, 52-54, (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, and R. S. Windeler, "Soliton self-frequency shift in a tapered air-silica microstructured fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 358-360, (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193, (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, "Symmetry an degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 488-490, (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Historical outline of different MOFs (a) Air-silica MOF, Kaiser et al. (1974) (b) Photonic crystal MOF, Russell et al. (1996), (c) Photonic bandgap MOF, Cregan et al. (1999), and (d) Dispersion control MOF, Ranka et al. (1999). (e) Possible device applications based on MOFs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEMS and photographs of respective MOF (a) high delta MOF (b) photonic crystal MOF; (c) grapefruit MOF; (d) air-clad MOF.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

(a) Typical transmission spectrum of FBG in standard fibers exhibiting short wavelength loss. Each dip in the transmission spectrum is associated with grating facilitated phase matching to a counter-propagating cladding mode. The inset shows a schematic of Bragg grating in the core of a conventional optical fiber. Fig. 3. (b) The corresponding transmission spectrum of LPG.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Launch mode field along MOF structure (a) the correlation function and (b) its Fourier transform revealing the effective indices of the modes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup used to characterize near field images for respective air-silica MOFs. Bragg grating selectively excited counter-propagating “cladding modes” which are imaged in the near field on the VIDECON camera.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Measured transmission spectrum of FBG written in photonic crystal MOF (solid line), calculated modal spectrum (dashed line). Light form the near field images reflected off FBG when the tunable laser wavelength is tuned to: (ab 1549.196nm, corresponding to the resonance labeled “LP03”; and (c) 1546.990nm corresponding to the resonance labeled “LP 04”.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Part of transmission spectrum of FBG written into the core of the grapefruit MOF (solid line) with the corresponding observed near field images of light reflected off FBG when the laser was tuned to (A) 1553.96nm (the LP01 mode); (B) 1552.39nm (LP 02); (C) 1550.84nm (LP03) mode; (D) 1547.82nm (LP04 mode); (E) 1547.36nm (LP05 mode); (F) 1535.82nm, and (b) calculated modal spectrum of the grapefruit MOF (dashed line) and its corresponding simulated modes.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Transmission spectrum of FBG written into the core of the MOF (b) photo of the inner region and (c) schematic diagram

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Schemaitc drawing of material (polymer) infused in the air-holes of the MOF. (b) Picture showing material in the air-holes of the fiber. (c) Refractive indices of the polymer and silica dependence on temperature.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Photo of hybrid polymer air-silica microstructured optical fiber and a schematic diagram (b) Spectrum of LPG in hybrid polymer-silica fiber at different temperatures

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Schematic of the tapered MOF to 10µm with calculated and observed cross-sectional intensity plots of the mode field at different points along the taper. (b) Packaged tapered MOF device.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) Dispersion and intensity plots along the taper calculated at wavelength 1.5 µm. (b) Group velocity dispersion as a function of wavelength for different diameters in the waist.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

(a) Schematic diagram of the all-fiber variable attenuator device based on tapered MOF and (b) mode profile evolution along the fiber.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Index cross-sectional profile in the waist of the fiber (a) with no polymer and with polymer of index (b) lower (np=1.42), (c) same as (np=1.44) and (d) higher (np=1.5) than that of silica. The corresponding calculated intensity cross sectional mode profile are shown at (1) z=0 cm, (2) z=1cm and (3) z=2 cm along the length of the waist.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Transmission (output) of the tapered microstructure fiber plotted in dB scale as a function of temperature and refractive index at 1550 nm.

Equations (8)

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λ FBG , i = ( n co + n clad , i ) Λ FBG
λ LPG , i = ( n co n clad , i ) Λ LPG
λ LPG , i Λ LPG = Δ λ i Λ FBG
T i = 1 tanh 2 ( κ i L )
E ( x , y , z ) = i α i E i ( x , y ) e i β i z
P ( z ) = E ( x , y , 0 ) E * ( x , y , z ) dx dy
E ( x , y , 0 ) = Δ n ( x , y ) E core ( x , y )
α i = E i ( x , y ) Δ n ( x , y ) E core ( x , y ) dxdy ( λ π ) κ i

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