Abstract

A low-loss and highly birefringent polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber has been fabricated. The fiber loss and modal birefringence at 1550 nm were 1.3 dB/km and 1.4×10-3, respectively.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett.,  17, 530–531 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. D. Birch, D. N. Payne, and M. P. Varnham, “Fabrication of polarisation-maintaining fibres using gas-phase etching,” Electron. Lett.,  18, 1036–1038 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. Russel, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett.,  21, 1547–1549 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.,  25, 796–798 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2 km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) CPD3.
  6. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Kawanishi and K. Okamoto, “Polarization maintaining holey optical fiber,” IEICE Soc. Conf. 2000, 2000, B-10-153 (in Japanese).
  8. S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simomsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), TuM2.
  9. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, “Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.,  26, 488–490 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-18, 477–488 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “The MIT Photonic-Bands Package,” http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb/

2001 (2)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, “Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.,  26, 488–490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1996 (1)

1982 (2)

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-18, 477–488 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Birch, D. N. Payne, and M. P. Varnham, “Fabrication of polarisation-maintaining fibres using gas-phase etching,” Electron. Lett.,  18, 1036–1038 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett.,  17, 530–531 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

Atkin, D. M.

Barlow, A. J.

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-18, 477–488 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Birch, R. D.

R. D. Birch, D. N. Payne, and M. P. Varnham, “Fabrication of polarisation-maintaining fibres using gas-phase etching,” Electron. Lett.,  18, 1036–1038 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simomsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), TuM2.

Botten, L. C.

Broeng, J.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simomsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), TuM2.

Edahiro, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett.,  17, 530–531 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2 km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) CPD3.

Hansen, J. J. R.

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-18, 477–488 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett.,  17, 530–531 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “The MIT Photonic-Bands Package,” http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb/

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “The MIT Photonic-Bands Package,” http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb/

Kawanishi, S.

H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2 km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) CPD3.

S. Kawanishi and K. Okamoto, “Polarization maintaining holey optical fiber,” IEICE Soc. Conf. 2000, 2000, B-10-153 (in Japanese).

Knight, J. C.

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simomsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), TuM2.

Kubota, H.

H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2 km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) CPD3.

Libori, E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Libori, S. B.

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simomsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), TuM2.

Mangan, B. J.

Martijn de Sterke, C.

McPhedran, R. C.

Miya, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett.,  17, 530–531 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2 km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) CPD3.

Okamoto, K.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett.,  17, 530–531 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawanishi and K. Okamoto, “Polarization maintaining holey optical fiber,” IEICE Soc. Conf. 2000, 2000, B-10-153 (in Japanese).

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Payne, D. N.

R. D. Birch, D. N. Payne, and M. P. Varnham, “Fabrication of polarisation-maintaining fibres using gas-phase etching,” Electron. Lett.,  18, 1036–1038 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-18, 477–488 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Russel, P. St.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sasaki, Y.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett.,  17, 530–531 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Simomsen, H. R.

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simomsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), TuM2.

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Stentz, A. J.

Suzuki, K.

H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2 km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) CPD3.

Tanaka, M.

H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2 km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) CPD3.

Varnham, M. P.

R. D. Birch, D. N. Payne, and M. P. Varnham, “Fabrication of polarisation-maintaining fibres using gas-phase etching,” Electron. Lett.,  18, 1036–1038 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

White, T. P.

Windeler, R. S.

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, T. Miya, Y. Sasaki, and T. Edahiro, “Low-loss single polarisation fibres with asymmetrical strain birefringence,” Electron. Lett.,  17, 530–531 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Birch, D. N. Payne, and M. P. Varnham, “Fabrication of polarisation-maintaining fibres using gas-phase etching,” Electron. Lett.,  18, 1036–1038 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. N. Payne, A. J. Barlow, and J. J. R. Hansen, “Development of low- and high-birefringence optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  QE-18, 477–488 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.,  13, 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (4)

H. Kubota, K. Suzuki, S. Kawanishi, M. Nakazawa, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, “Low-loss, 2 km-long photonic crystal fiber with zero GVD in the near IR suitable for picosecond pulse propagation at the 800 nm band,” in Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001) CPD3.

S. Kawanishi and K. Okamoto, “Polarization maintaining holey optical fiber,” IEICE Soc. Conf. 2000, 2000, B-10-153 (in Japanese).

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simomsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), TuM2.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “The MIT Photonic-Bands Package,” http://ab-initio.mit.edu/mpb/

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view (a) and SEM photograph (b) of a polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Loss spectrum and (b) OTDR waveform of a PM-PCF

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

Wavelength dependence of PM-PCF birefringence. The solid curve shows the calculated results.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength dependence of PM-PCF polarization mode dispersion.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

GVD characteristics for both polarization modes. Measured and calculated results are shown.

Equations (3)

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L B = 2 π β x β y = λ n x n y = λ B ,
σ = 1 c 1 λ k d 2 β dk 2 ,
δ σ = σ x σ y = 1 c 1 λ ( k d 2 β x dk 2 k d 2 β y dk 2 ) .

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