Abstract

We investigate dark-field imaging in the terahertz (THz) frequency regime with the intention to enhance image contrast through the analysis of scattering and diffraction signatures. A gold-on-TPX test structure and an archived biomedical tissue sample are examined in conventional and dark-field transmission geometry. In particular, the capability of the technique for tumor detection is addressed.

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References

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  1. R. M. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallance, D. D. Arnone, R. Pye, E. H. Linfield, M. Pepper, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz pulse imaging of in-vitro basal cell carcinoma samples," in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (TOPS) 56, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2001), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), 329-330.
  2. D. Arnone, C. Ciesla, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz imaging comes into view," in Issue April 2000 of Physics World, (Institute of Physics and IOP Publishing Limited 2000), 35-40.
  3. P. Knobloch, K. Schmalstieg, M. Koch, E. Rehberg, F. Vauti, and K. Donhuijsen, "THz imaging of histo-pathological samples," in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, Albert-Claude Boccara; Alexander A. Oraevsky, Eds., Proc. SPIE 4434, 239-245 (2001).
  4. P. Y. Han, G. C. Cho, and X.-C. Zhang, "Time-domain transillumination of biomedical tissue with terahertz pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 242-244 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. L�ffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, "All optoelectronic CW-THz imaging," submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.
  6. D. M. Mittleman, G. Gupta, B. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advance in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, "2D measurement and spatio-temporal coupling of few-cycle THz pulses," Opt. Express 5, 243-248 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/13775.htm.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, "Saturation Properties of Large-Aperture Potoconducting Antennas," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607-1616 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

Other (8)

R. M. Woodward, B. Cole, V. P. Wallance, D. D. Arnone, R. Pye, E. H. Linfield, M. Pepper, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz pulse imaging of in-vitro basal cell carcinoma samples," in OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (TOPS) 56, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2001), Technical Digest, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), 329-330.

D. Arnone, C. Ciesla, and M. Pepper, "Terahertz imaging comes into view," in Issue April 2000 of Physics World, (Institute of Physics and IOP Publishing Limited 2000), 35-40.

P. Knobloch, K. Schmalstieg, M. Koch, E. Rehberg, F. Vauti, and K. Donhuijsen, "THz imaging of histo-pathological samples," in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, Albert-Claude Boccara; Alexander A. Oraevsky, Eds., Proc. SPIE 4434, 239-245 (2001).

P. Y. Han, G. C. Cho, and X.-C. Zhang, "Time-domain transillumination of biomedical tissue with terahertz pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 242-244 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. L�ffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, "All optoelectronic CW-THz imaging," submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. M. Mittleman, G. Gupta, B. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, "Recent advance in terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. B 68, 1085-1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, "2D measurement and spatio-temporal coupling of few-cycle THz pulses," Opt. Express 5, 243-248 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/13775.htm.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, "Saturation Properties of Large-Aperture Potoconducting Antennas," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607-1616 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup. Detected electric field without (b) and with (c) the beam stop placed into the beam. The thin lines show the signal enlarged by a factor of 100. (d) Power spectrum of the signal in (b). Absorption of water vapour is visible.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

THz power-transmittance (a) and deflected-power (b) images of the edge test structure for various frequencies. In the bottom panels the location of the gold (black region) and TPX (white region) are indicated. (c) and (d): the corresponding line functions (the curves are shifted for visibility). THz power transmittance of the grid test structure (e) and detected dark-field signal (f) for various frequencies. In the bottom panels the layout of the grid test structure is indicated. Additionally, the calculated angle for the first-order diffraction pattern is listed (g).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Optical image of the sample; (b) and (c): Total loss in transmission, (d) and (e): Loss induced by deflection; (f) and (g): Deflection coefficient. (h) Pulse duration (FWHM) of a low-frequency THz pulse. Click on Fig. 3(b,d,f) to see the data as a function of the frequency. (426 kB QuickTime movie)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical image of the sample (a) overlapped in (b) - (f) with a red mask generated by applying a threshold on various parameters derived from the THz data.

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