Abstract

Optical devices in free-space laser communication systems are affected by their environment, particularly in relation to the effects of temperature while in orbit. The mutual alignment error between the transmitted and received optical axes is caused by deformation of the optics due to temperature variation in spite of the common optics used for transmission and reception of the optical beams. When a Gaussian beam wave for transmission is aligned at the center of a received plane wave, 3rd-order Coma aberrations have the most influence on the mutual alignment error, which is an inevitable open pointing error under only the Tip/Tilt tracking control. As an example, a mutual alignment error of less than 0.2 µrad is predicted for a laser communication terminal in orbit using the results from space chamber thermal vacuum tests. The relative power penalty due to aberration is estimated to be about 0.4 dB. The results will mitigate surface quality in an optical antenna and contribute to the design of free-space laser communication systems.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Nakagawa and A. Yamamoto, “Preliminary design of Laser Utilizing Communications Experiment (LUCE) installed on Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS),” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 14–25 (1995).
  2. K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, and Y. Suzuki, “OICETS optical link communications experiment in space,” in Semiconductor Laser II, S. Forouhar and Q. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2886, 172–183 (1996).
  3. K. Nakagawa and A. Yamamoto, “Engineering model test of LUCE (Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment),” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 114–120 (1996).
  4. Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, and A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).
  5. T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).
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    [Crossref]
  10. F. Roddier, Ed., Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Second Edition, (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996).
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  13. C. C. Chen and C. S. Gardner, “Impact of random pointing and tracking errors on the design of coherent and incoherent optical intersatellite communication links,” IEEE T COMMUN 37, 252–260 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Toyoshima, T. Jono, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Optimum divergence angle of a Gaussian beam wave in the presence of random jitter in free-space laser communication systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, (to be published).
  15. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, (Bellingham, Washington, SPIE Press, 1998).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  18. T. Jono, M. Toyoshima, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Design methodology for free-space laser communication terminal onboard a satellite,” Technical report of IEICE, SANE 2000–27, 35–40 (2000).

2000 (1)

T. Jono, M. Toyoshima, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Design methodology for free-space laser communication terminal onboard a satellite,” Technical report of IEICE, SANE 2000–27, 35–40 (2000).

1989 (1)

C. C. Chen and C. S. Gardner, “Impact of random pointing and tracking errors on the design of coherent and incoherent optical intersatellite communication links,” IEEE T COMMUN 37, 252–260 (1989).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, (Bellingham, Washington, SPIE Press, 1998).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Edition, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Casey, W. L.

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser communications in space, (Boston, London, Artech House, 1995).

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. S. Gardner, “Impact of random pointing and tracking errors on the design of coherent and incoherent optical intersatellite communication links,” IEEE T COMMUN 37, 252–260 (1989).
[Crossref]

Degnan, J. J.

Gardner, C. S.

C. C. Chen and C. S. Gardner, “Impact of random pointing and tracking errors on the design of coherent and incoherent optical intersatellite communication links,” IEEE T COMMUN 37, 252–260 (1989).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Second Edition, (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Jono, T.

T. Jono, M. Toyoshima, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Design methodology for free-space laser communication terminal onboard a satellite,” Technical report of IEICE, SANE 2000–27, 35–40 (2000).

M. Toyoshima, T. Jono, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Optimum divergence angle of a Gaussian beam wave in the presence of random jitter in free-space laser communication systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, (to be published).

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, and A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).

T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).

Klein, B. J.

Koyama, Y.

T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).

Kurii, T.

T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).

Lambert, S. G.

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser communications in space, (Boston, London, Artech House, 1995).

Nakagawa, K.

T. Jono, M. Toyoshima, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Design methodology for free-space laser communication terminal onboard a satellite,” Technical report of IEICE, SANE 2000–27, 35–40 (2000).

M. Toyoshima, T. Jono, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Optimum divergence angle of a Gaussian beam wave in the presence of random jitter in free-space laser communication systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, (to be published).

T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, and A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).

K. Nakagawa and A. Yamamoto, “Preliminary design of Laser Utilizing Communications Experiment (LUCE) installed on Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS),” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 14–25 (1995).

K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, and Y. Suzuki, “OICETS optical link communications experiment in space,” in Semiconductor Laser II, S. Forouhar and Q. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2886, 172–183 (1996).

K. Nakagawa and A. Yamamoto, “Engineering model test of LUCE (Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment),” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 114–120 (1996).

Noll, R. J.

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, (Bellingham, Washington, SPIE Press, 1998).

Roddier, N.

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng.29, 1174–1180 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shiratama, K.

T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).

Silva, D. E.

Suzuki, Y.

K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, and Y. Suzuki, “OICETS optical link communications experiment in space,” in Semiconductor Laser II, S. Forouhar and Q. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2886, 172–183 (1996).

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, and A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).

Toyoda, M.

T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).

Toyoshima, M.

T. Jono, M. Toyoshima, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Design methodology for free-space laser communication terminal onboard a satellite,” Technical report of IEICE, SANE 2000–27, 35–40 (2000).

M. Toyoshima, T. Jono, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Optimum divergence angle of a Gaussian beam wave in the presence of random jitter in free-space laser communication systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, (to be published).

Wang, J. Y.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Edition, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Yamamoto, A.

T. Jono, M. Toyoshima, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Design methodology for free-space laser communication terminal onboard a satellite,” Technical report of IEICE, SANE 2000–27, 35–40 (2000).

M. Toyoshima, T. Jono, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Optimum divergence angle of a Gaussian beam wave in the presence of random jitter in free-space laser communication systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, (to be published).

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, and A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).

T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).

K. Nakagawa and A. Yamamoto, “Engineering model test of LUCE (Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment),” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 114–120 (1996).

K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, and Y. Suzuki, “OICETS optical link communications experiment in space,” in Semiconductor Laser II, S. Forouhar and Q. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2886, 172–183 (1996).

K. Nakagawa and A. Yamamoto, “Preliminary design of Laser Utilizing Communications Experiment (LUCE) installed on Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS),” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 14–25 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE T COMMUN (1)

C. C. Chen and C. S. Gardner, “Impact of random pointing and tracking errors on the design of coherent and incoherent optical intersatellite communication links,” IEEE T COMMUN 37, 252–260 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Technical report of IEICE, SANE (1)

T. Jono, M. Toyoshima, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Design methodology for free-space laser communication terminal onboard a satellite,” Technical report of IEICE, SANE 2000–27, 35–40 (2000).

Other (13)

M. Toyoshima, T. Jono, K. Nakagawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Optimum divergence angle of a Gaussian beam wave in the presence of random jitter in free-space laser communication systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, (to be published).

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, (Bellingham, Washington, SPIE Press, 1998).

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser communications in space, (Boston, London, Artech House, 1995).

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng.29, 1174–1180 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. Roddier, Ed., Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[Crossref]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Second Edition, (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996).

M. Katzman, Ed., Laser Satellite Communications, (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1987).

K. Nakagawa and A. Yamamoto, “Preliminary design of Laser Utilizing Communications Experiment (LUCE) installed on Optical Inter-Orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS),” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies VII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2381, 14–25 (1995).

K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, and Y. Suzuki, “OICETS optical link communications experiment in space,” in Semiconductor Laser II, S. Forouhar and Q. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2886, 172–183 (1996).

K. Nakagawa and A. Yamamoto, “Engineering model test of LUCE (Laser Utilizing Communications Equipment),” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies VIII, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2699, 114–120 (1996).

Y. Suzuki, K. Nakagawa, T. Jono, and A. Yamamoto, “Current status of OICETS laser-communication-terminal development: development of laser diodes and sensors for OICETS program,” in Free-Space Laser communication Technologies IX, G. S. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE2990, 31–37 (1997).

T. Jono, M. Toyoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamamoto, K. Shiratama, T. Kurii, and Y. Koyama, “Acquisition, tracking and pointing system of OICETS for free space laser communications,” in Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing XIII, M. K. Masten and L. A. Stockum, eds., Proc. SPIE3692, 41–50 (1999).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Edition, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999).

Supplementary Material (4)

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» Media 2: MOV (846 KB)     
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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Definition of the coordinate systems.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Definition of the received optical axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Definition of the transmitted optical axis.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

X-axis mutual alignment error due to wave-front aberration (F 0=α, γ=0.0 and α=1.579).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Y-axis mutual alignment error due to wave-front aberration (F 0=α, γ=0.0 and α=1.579).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Phase displacement of the Coma aberration (Z7).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Movie of the received intensity distribution due to the Coma aberration (Z7) generated from the plane wave on the optical sensor as the Zernike coefficient a7 varies with time (γ=0.0 and α=1.579). (906 KB)

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Movie of the transmitted intensity distribution due to the Coma aberration (Z7) generated from the Gaussian beam wave at the far-field as the Zernike coefficient a7 varies with time (F 0=α, γ=0.0 and α=1.579). (847 KB)

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

X-axis mutual alignment error due to the Coma aberration (Z7) as a function of the truncation ratio α (F 0=α and γ=0.0).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

X-axis mutual alignment error due to wave-front aberrations for the OICETS optical antenna (F 0=α, γ=0.2889 and α=1.579).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Y-axis mutual alignment error due to wave-front aberrations for the OICETS optical antenna (F 0=α, γ=0.2889 and α=1.579).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Movie of the wave-front variation of LD1 onboard the OICETS laser terminal measured during the thermal vacuum test. (1.70 MB)

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Movie of the wave-front variation of LD2 for the OICETS laser terminal measured during the thermal vacuum test. (1.53 MB)

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Trend of wave-front errors of LD1 onboard the OICETS laser terminal measured during the thermal vacuum test.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Trend of wave-front errors of LD2 onboard the OICETS laser terminal measured during the thermal vacuum test.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Degradation of the transmitted optical power due to wave-front aberrations at the counter terminal for the OICETS laser terminal (F 0=α, γ=0.2889 and α=1.579).

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Trends in the relative peak intensities of the far-field pattern transmitted from LD1 and LD2 onboard the OICETS laser terminal measured during the thermal vacuum test.

Equations (14)

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Φ ( ρ , θ ) = i = 1 a i Z i ( 2 ρ D , θ ) ,
Z i ( r , θ ) = { Z even i = n + 1 R n m ( r ) 2 cos m θ , m 0 Z odd i = n + 1 R n m ( r ) 2 sin m θ , m 0 , Z i = n + 1 R n 0 ( r ) , m = 0
R n m ( r ) = s = 0 ( n m ) 2 ( 1 ) s ( n s ) ! s ! [ ( n + m ) 2 s ] ! [ ( n m ) 2 s ] ! r n 2 s ,
Φ rms 2 = 1 π d 2 r W ( Dr 2 , θ ) Φ 2 ( Dr 2 , θ ) ,
= 1 π d 2 r W ( Dr 2 , θ ) [ i = 1 a i Z i ( r , θ ) ] 2 ,
= 1 π i = 1 { d 2 r W ( Dr 2 , θ ) [ a i Z i ( r , θ ) ] 2 } ,
= Φ rms , 1 2 + Φ rms , 2 2 + Φ rms , 3 2 + ,
{ W ( ρ , θ ) = 4 π D 2 for ρ D 2 W ( ρ , θ ) = 0 for D 2 < ρ .
U f ( x , y ) = A j λ f e j k 2 f ( x 2 + y 2 ) U l ( u , v ) exp [ j 2 π λ f ( xu + yv ) ] dudv ,
U l ( u , v ) = W ( ρ , θ ) exp [ j Φ ( ρ , θ ) ] ,
I f ( x , y ) = A 2 λ 2 f 2 U l ( u , v ) exp [ j 2 π λ f ( xu + yv ) ] dudv 2 .
{ 0 I f ( x X , y ) dxdy 0 I f ( x X , y ) dxdy I f ( x , y ) dxdy = 0 0 I f ( x , y Y ) dxdy 0 I f ( x , y Y ) dxdy I f ( x , y ) dxdy = 0 .
I ffp ( η , ξ ) = A 2 λ 2 z 2 W ( ρ , θ ) exp [ ρ 2 W 0 2 j k ρ 2 2 F 0
+ j Φ ( ρ , θ ) ] exp [ j 2 π λ z ( η u + ξ v ) ] dudv 2 ,

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