Abstract

Low temperature (80°C) hypersensitised hydrogen-loaded phosphosilicate optical fibre is found to be unstable, decaying progressively at room temperature. However, the hypersensitisation process linearises the grating growth characteristic curve. Further, a negative index contribution is inferred at low fluence in the presence of hydrogen.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Canning, “Photosensitisation and photostabilisation of laser induced index changes in optical fibres,” Opt. Fibre. Tech.,  6275–289, (2000)
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Canning, “Contemporary Thoughts on Glass Photosensitivity and their Practical Application,” Materials Forum,  25101–128, (2001)
  3. J. Canning, M. Åslund, and P-F. Hu, “UV-induced absorption losses in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and in pre-sensitised optical fibres,” Opt. Lett.,  251621–1623, (2000)
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Åslund, J. Canning, and G. Yoffe, “Locking in photosensitivity in optical fibres and waveguides,” Opt. Lett.,  241826–1828, (1999)
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Åslund and J. Canning, “Annealing properties of gratings written into UV-presensitised hydrogen out-diffused optical fibre,” Opt. Lett.,  25692–694, (2000)
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Canning, “Improving the manufacture of fibre Bragg gratings,” SPIE Vol. 3896769–778, (1999)
  7. J. Canning and P-F. Hu, “Eliminating UV-induced losses during UV-exposure of photo-hypersensitised optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA6-1, (2001)
  8. K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “157nm F2 laser photosensitivity and photosensitisation in optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA5-1, (2001)
  9. K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “Trimming phase and birefringence errors in photosensitivity-locked planar optical circuits,” Accepted for IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett., (2001)
  10. J. Canning and K. Sommer, “Hypersensitisation of Rare-Earth Doped Waveguides for DFB Amplifier and Laser Applications,” Accepted to Opt Lett. (2001)
  11. J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres,” Adv. Mater.,  13970–973, (2001)
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Canning and P-F. Hu, “Low temperature hypersensitisation of phosphosilicate waveguides in hydrogen,” Opt. Lett.,  261230–1232, (2001)
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.,  12824–828, (2001)
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Hu, J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Phosphosilicate optical fibres: a grating host for all windows?” Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (OECC/IOOC 2001), Sydney, Australia, pp.24–25, (2001)
  15. J. Canning, M.G. Sceats, H.G. Inglis, and P. Hill, “Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibres produced by the flash condensation technique,” Opt. Lett.,  202189–2191, (1995)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A.L.G. Carter, S.B. Poole, and M.G. Sceats, “Flash-condensation technique for the fabrication of high phosphorous-content rare-earth doped fibre,” Electron. Lett.,  282009–2011, (1992)
    [Crossref]
  17. H.I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-halide Recording Materials, Springer Series in Optical Science, Vol. 66, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1995)
  18. L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, “Photoinduced absorption change in germanosilicate preforms: evidence for the color-center model of photosensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 343436–3440, (1995)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K.W. Raine, R. Feced, S.E. Kanellopoulos, and V.A. Handerek, “Measurement of stress at high spatial resolution in UV exposed fibres,” 4th Optical Fibre Measurements Conference (OFMC’97), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, pp..200–204, (1997)
  20. V. Grubsky, D.S. Starobudov, and J. Feinberg, “Mechanisms of index change induced by near-UV light in hydrogen loaded fibres,” Proceedings of Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Non-Linearity, Optical Society of America, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, p98, (1997)
  21. M. Fokine and W. Margulis, “Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation,” Opt. Lett.,  25302–304, (2000)
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Wootten, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: a computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys.,  1153336–3341, (2001)
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Crank, Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford U. Press, London, (1975)
  24. P.J. Lemaire, “Reliability of optical fibres exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases,” Opt. Eng. 30780 (1991)
    [Crossref]
  25. H.I. Inglis, “Photosensitivity in germanosilicate optical fibres,” PhD. Dissertation, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Department, University of Sydney, (1997)

2001 (5)

J. Canning, “Contemporary Thoughts on Glass Photosensitivity and their Practical Application,” Materials Forum,  25101–128, (2001)

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres,” Adv. Mater.,  13970–973, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.,  12824–828, (2001)
[Crossref]

A. Wootten, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: a computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys.,  1153336–3341, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning and P-F. Hu, “Low temperature hypersensitisation of phosphosilicate waveguides in hydrogen,” Opt. Lett.,  261230–1232, (2001)
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

1999 (2)

J. Canning, “Improving the manufacture of fibre Bragg gratings,” SPIE Vol. 3896769–778, (1999)

M. Åslund, J. Canning, and G. Yoffe, “Locking in photosensitivity in optical fibres and waveguides,” Opt. Lett.,  241826–1828, (1999)
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

1992 (1)

A.L.G. Carter, S.B. Poole, and M.G. Sceats, “Flash-condensation technique for the fabrication of high phosphorous-content rare-earth doped fibre,” Electron. Lett.,  282009–2011, (1992)
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

P.J. Lemaire, “Reliability of optical fibres exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases,” Opt. Eng. 30780 (1991)
[Crossref]

Archambault, J. L.

Åslund, M.

Bjelkhagen, H.I.

H.I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-halide Recording Materials, Springer Series in Optical Science, Vol. 66, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1995)

Canning, J.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres,” Adv. Mater.,  13970–973, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, “Contemporary Thoughts on Glass Photosensitivity and their Practical Application,” Materials Forum,  25101–128, (2001)

J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.,  12824–828, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning and P-F. Hu, “Low temperature hypersensitisation of phosphosilicate waveguides in hydrogen,” Opt. Lett.,  261230–1232, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, M. Åslund, and P-F. Hu, “UV-induced absorption losses in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and in pre-sensitised optical fibres,” Opt. Lett.,  251621–1623, (2000)
[Crossref]

M. Åslund and J. Canning, “Annealing properties of gratings written into UV-presensitised hydrogen out-diffused optical fibre,” Opt. Lett.,  25692–694, (2000)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, “Photosensitisation and photostabilisation of laser induced index changes in optical fibres,” Opt. Fibre. Tech.,  6275–289, (2000)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, “Improving the manufacture of fibre Bragg gratings,” SPIE Vol. 3896769–778, (1999)

M. Åslund, J. Canning, and G. Yoffe, “Locking in photosensitivity in optical fibres and waveguides,” Opt. Lett.,  241826–1828, (1999)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, M.G. Sceats, H.G. Inglis, and P. Hill, “Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibres produced by the flash condensation technique,” Opt. Lett.,  202189–2191, (1995)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Canning and P-F. Hu, “Eliminating UV-induced losses during UV-exposure of photo-hypersensitised optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA6-1, (2001)

J. Canning and K. Sommer, “Hypersensitisation of Rare-Earth Doped Waveguides for DFB Amplifier and Laser Applications,” Accepted to Opt Lett. (2001)

P. Hu, J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Phosphosilicate optical fibres: a grating host for all windows?” Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (OECC/IOOC 2001), Sydney, Australia, pp.24–25, (2001)

Carter, A.L.G.

A.L.G. Carter, S.B. Poole, and M.G. Sceats, “Flash-condensation technique for the fabrication of high phosphorous-content rare-earth doped fibre,” Electron. Lett.,  282009–2011, (1992)
[Crossref]

Chen, K.P.

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “Trimming phase and birefringence errors in photosensitivity-locked planar optical circuits,” Accepted for IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett., (2001)

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “157nm F2 laser photosensitivity and photosensitisation in optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA5-1, (2001)

Crank, J.

J. Crank, Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford U. Press, London, (1975)

Dong, L.

Englund, M.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.,  12824–828, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres,” Adv. Mater.,  13970–973, (2001)
[Crossref]

P. Hu, J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Phosphosilicate optical fibres: a grating host for all windows?” Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (OECC/IOOC 2001), Sydney, Australia, pp.24–25, (2001)

Feced, R.

K.W. Raine, R. Feced, S.E. Kanellopoulos, and V.A. Handerek, “Measurement of stress at high spatial resolution in UV exposed fibres,” 4th Optical Fibre Measurements Conference (OFMC’97), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, pp..200–204, (1997)

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky, D.S. Starobudov, and J. Feinberg, “Mechanisms of index change induced by near-UV light in hydrogen loaded fibres,” Proceedings of Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Non-Linearity, Optical Society of America, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, p98, (1997)

Fokine, M.

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky, D.S. Starobudov, and J. Feinberg, “Mechanisms of index change induced by near-UV light in hydrogen loaded fibres,” Proceedings of Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Non-Linearity, Optical Society of America, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, p98, (1997)

Handerek, V.A.

K.W. Raine, R. Feced, S.E. Kanellopoulos, and V.A. Handerek, “Measurement of stress at high spatial resolution in UV exposed fibres,” 4th Optical Fibre Measurements Conference (OFMC’97), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, pp..200–204, (1997)

Harrowell, P.

A. Wootten, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: a computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys.,  1153336–3341, (2001)
[Crossref]

Hermann, P.R.

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “157nm F2 laser photosensitivity and photosensitisation in optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA5-1, (2001)

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “Trimming phase and birefringence errors in photosensitivity-locked planar optical circuits,” Accepted for IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett., (2001)

Hill, P.

Hu, P.

P. Hu, J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Phosphosilicate optical fibres: a grating host for all windows?” Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (OECC/IOOC 2001), Sydney, Australia, pp.24–25, (2001)

Hu, P-F.

J. Canning and P-F. Hu, “Low temperature hypersensitisation of phosphosilicate waveguides in hydrogen,” Opt. Lett.,  261230–1232, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, M. Åslund, and P-F. Hu, “UV-induced absorption losses in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and in pre-sensitised optical fibres,” Opt. Lett.,  251621–1623, (2000)
[Crossref]

J. Canning and P-F. Hu, “Eliminating UV-induced losses during UV-exposure of photo-hypersensitised optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA6-1, (2001)

Huntington, S.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres,” Adv. Mater.,  13970–973, (2001)
[Crossref]

Inglis, H.G.

Inglis, H.I.

H.I. Inglis, “Photosensitivity in germanosilicate optical fibres,” PhD. Dissertation, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Department, University of Sydney, (1997)

Kanellopoulos, S.E.

K.W. Raine, R. Feced, S.E. Kanellopoulos, and V.A. Handerek, “Measurement of stress at high spatial resolution in UV exposed fibres,” 4th Optical Fibre Measurements Conference (OFMC’97), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, pp..200–204, (1997)

Lemaire, P.J.

P.J. Lemaire, “Reliability of optical fibres exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases,” Opt. Eng. 30780 (1991)
[Crossref]

Margulis, W.

Payne, D. N.

Poole, S.B.

A.L.G. Carter, S.B. Poole, and M.G. Sceats, “Flash-condensation technique for the fabrication of high phosphorous-content rare-earth doped fibre,” Electron. Lett.,  282009–2011, (1992)
[Crossref]

Raine, K.W.

K.W. Raine, R. Feced, S.E. Kanellopoulos, and V.A. Handerek, “Measurement of stress at high spatial resolution in UV exposed fibres,” 4th Optical Fibre Measurements Conference (OFMC’97), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, pp..200–204, (1997)

Reekie, L.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sceats, M.G.

J. Canning, M.G. Sceats, H.G. Inglis, and P. Hill, “Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibres produced by the flash condensation technique,” Opt. Lett.,  202189–2191, (1995)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.L.G. Carter, S.B. Poole, and M.G. Sceats, “Flash-condensation technique for the fabrication of high phosphorous-content rare-earth doped fibre,” Electron. Lett.,  282009–2011, (1992)
[Crossref]

Sommer, K.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres,” Adv. Mater.,  13970–973, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.,  12824–828, (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Canning and K. Sommer, “Hypersensitisation of Rare-Earth Doped Waveguides for DFB Amplifier and Laser Applications,” Accepted to Opt Lett. (2001)

P. Hu, J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Phosphosilicate optical fibres: a grating host for all windows?” Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (OECC/IOOC 2001), Sydney, Australia, pp.24–25, (2001)

Starobudov, D.S.

V. Grubsky, D.S. Starobudov, and J. Feinberg, “Mechanisms of index change induced by near-UV light in hydrogen loaded fibres,” Proceedings of Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Non-Linearity, Optical Society of America, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, p98, (1997)

Tam, R.

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “Trimming phase and birefringence errors in photosensitivity-locked planar optical circuits,” Accepted for IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett., (2001)

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “157nm F2 laser photosensitivity and photosensitisation in optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA5-1, (2001)

Thomas, B.

A. Wootten, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: a computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys.,  1153336–3341, (2001)
[Crossref]

Wootten, A.

A. Wootten, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: a computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys.,  1153336–3341, (2001)
[Crossref]

Yoffe, G.

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund, and S. Huntington, “Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres,” Adv. Mater.,  13970–973, (2001)
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A.L.G. Carter, S.B. Poole, and M.G. Sceats, “Flash-condensation technique for the fabrication of high phosphorous-content rare-earth doped fibre,” Electron. Lett.,  282009–2011, (1992)
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Wootten, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: a computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys.,  1153336–3341, (2001)
[Crossref]

Materials Forum (1)

J. Canning, “Contemporary Thoughts on Glass Photosensitivity and their Practical Application,” Materials Forum,  25101–128, (2001)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.,  12824–828, (2001)
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P.J. Lemaire, “Reliability of optical fibres exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases,” Opt. Eng. 30780 (1991)
[Crossref]

Opt. Fibre. Tech. (1)

J. Canning, “Photosensitisation and photostabilisation of laser induced index changes in optical fibres,” Opt. Fibre. Tech.,  6275–289, (2000)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

SPIE (1)

J. Canning, “Improving the manufacture of fibre Bragg gratings,” SPIE Vol. 3896769–778, (1999)

Other (10)

J. Canning and P-F. Hu, “Eliminating UV-induced losses during UV-exposure of photo-hypersensitised optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA6-1, (2001)

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “157nm F2 laser photosensitivity and photosensitisation in optical fibres,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA5-1, (2001)

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann, and R. Tam, “Trimming phase and birefringence errors in photosensitivity-locked planar optical circuits,” Accepted for IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett., (2001)

J. Canning and K. Sommer, “Hypersensitisation of Rare-Earth Doped Waveguides for DFB Amplifier and Laser Applications,” Accepted to Opt Lett. (2001)

P. Hu, J. Canning, K. Sommer, and M. Englund, “Phosphosilicate optical fibres: a grating host for all windows?” Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (OECC/IOOC 2001), Sydney, Australia, pp.24–25, (2001)

H.I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-halide Recording Materials, Springer Series in Optical Science, Vol. 66, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, (1995)

H.I. Inglis, “Photosensitivity in germanosilicate optical fibres,” PhD. Dissertation, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Department, University of Sydney, (1997)

J. Crank, Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford U. Press, London, (1975)

K.W. Raine, R. Feced, S.E. Kanellopoulos, and V.A. Handerek, “Measurement of stress at high spatial resolution in UV exposed fibres,” 4th Optical Fibre Measurements Conference (OFMC’97), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, pp..200–204, (1997)

V. Grubsky, D.S. Starobudov, and J. Feinberg, “Mechanisms of index change induced by near-UV light in hydrogen loaded fibres,” Proceedings of Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Non-Linearity, Optical Society of America, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, p98, (1997)

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Figures (4)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Typical transmission spectrum of a grating written into hypersensitised phosphosilicate optical fibre. The resolution is 0.1nm.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

a - top) Photosensitive response curve of phosphosilicate optical fibre at various times after hydrogen loading (Time is indicated on days on the right).

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Plot of recovered fraction of normalised reflectivity after 3mins cooling inbetween temperatures during isochronal annealing for a grating written into fully-hydrogen loaded (open squares) and hypersensitised (filled squares) phosphosilicate optical fibres. Details of the isochronal annealing experiments can be found in [13].

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Normalised index change at fixed low and high fluence both as a function of out-diffusion time are shown. The normalised out-diffusion profile is also superimposed to illustrate the deviation from a simple linear proportionality between index change and hydrogen.

Equations (3)

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C t C = 2 n = 1 exp ( j n 2 D t m b 2 ) j n J 1 ( j n )
t m = t + w 2 8 D
D = ( 2.83 x 10 4 ) exp ( 40.19 kJ / mol RT ) cm 2 / s

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