Abstract

Quantization, which maps real values of raw data to a series of fixed gray levels, is an inevitable step in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) image formation. Three new quantization methods, Minimum Distortion, Information Expansion and Maximum Entropy are applied in the specific problem. Quantization results of a capillary with milk and the femoralis of rabbit are shown in this paper. Comparisons with the present log-based methods show that a suitable quantization method significantly increases contrast, SNR and visual fineness of the final image and reduces quantization error effectively. Applicability of different quantization methods is also discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 1205(1999)
    [Crossref]
  3. K. R. Castleman, Digital Image Processing, (Prentice Hall, Inc., 1996)
  4. J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990)
  5. R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision, (Reading Press: Addison-Wesley, 1993)
  6. J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Frei, “Image enhancement by histogram hyperbolization,” Comput. Graph. Image Process.,  6, 286(1977)
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Tao, Experimental Research of OCT System, MA’s thesis of Tsinghua University, (1998)
  9. H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)
  10. Jan C.A. Van der Lubbe, Information theory, (English translation Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  11. J. Max, “Quantizing for minimum distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-6, 7 (1960)
    [Crossref]
  12. R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis, (New York: Wiley, 1973)
  13. M. Friedman and K. Abraham, Introduction to pattern recognition: statistical, structural, neural, and fuzzy logic approaches, (River Edge, NJ: World scientific, 1999)
    [Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)

1999 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 1205(1999)
[Crossref]

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

W. Frei, “Image enhancement by histogram hyperbolization,” Comput. Graph. Image Process.,  6, 286(1977)
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

J. Max, “Quantizing for minimum distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-6, 7 (1960)
[Crossref]

Abraham, K.

M. Friedman and K. Abraham, Introduction to pattern recognition: statistical, structural, neural, and fuzzy logic approaches, (River Edge, NJ: World scientific, 1999)
[Crossref]

Bouma, B. E.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

Castleman, K. R.

K. R. Castleman, Digital Image Processing, (Prentice Hall, Inc., 1996)

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, H. L.

H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis, (New York: Wiley, 1973)

Dunkers, J. P.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flynn, K. M.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

Frei, W.

W. Frei, “Image enhancement by histogram hyperbolization,” Comput. Graph. Image Process.,  6, 286(1977)
[Crossref]

Friedman, M.

M. Friedman and K. Abraham, Introduction to pattern recognition: statistical, structural, neural, and fuzzy logic approaches, (River Edge, NJ: World scientific, 1999)
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J.G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurses-Ozden, R.

H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)

Haralick, R. M.

R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision, (Reading Press: Addison-Wesley, 1993)

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis, (New York: Wiley, 1973)

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoh, S. T.

H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)

Liebmann, J. M.

H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)

Lim, J. S.

J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990)

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Max, J.

J. Max, “Quantizing for minimum distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-6, 7 (1960)
[Crossref]

Parnas, R. S.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

Peterson, R. C.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritch, R.

H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 1205(1999)
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, L. G.

R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision, (Reading Press: Addison-Wesley, 1993)

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, Y.

Y. Tao, Experimental Research of OCT System, MA’s thesis of Tsinghua University, (1998)

Van der Lubbe, Jan C.A.

Jan C.A. Van der Lubbe, Information theory, (English translation Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Zimba, C. G.

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. (1)

J. P. Dunkers, R. S. Parnas, C. G. Zimba, R. C. Peterson, K. M. Flynn, J. G. Fujimoto, and B. E. Bouma, “Optical coherence tomography of glass reinforced polymer composites,” Compos. Pt. A: Appl. Sci. and Mfg. 30, 139 (1999)
[Crossref]

Comput. Graph. Image Process. (1)

W. Frei, “Image enhancement by histogram hyperbolization,” Comput. Graph. Image Process.,  6, 286(1977)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

J. M. Schmitt, “Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 1205(1999)
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

J. Max, “Quantizing for minimum distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-6, 7 (1960)
[Crossref]

Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers (1)

H. Ishikawa, R. Gurses-Ozden, S. T. Hoh, H. L. Dou, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, “Grayscale and proportion-corrected optical coherence tomography images,” Ophthal. Surg. and Lasers 31, 223 (2000)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254, 1178(1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis, (New York: Wiley, 1973)

M. Friedman and K. Abraham, Introduction to pattern recognition: statistical, structural, neural, and fuzzy logic approaches, (River Edge, NJ: World scientific, 1999)
[Crossref]

Jan C.A. Van der Lubbe, Information theory, (English translation Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Y. Tao, Experimental Research of OCT System, MA’s thesis of Tsinghua University, (1998)

K. R. Castleman, Digital Image Processing, (Prentice Hall, Inc., 1996)

J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990)

R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision, (Reading Press: Addison-Wesley, 1993)

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Resulting images of capillary with milk. (a) Direct Logarithm, (b) Truncation Logarithm, (c) Minimum Distortion, (d) Truncation Minimum Distortion, (e) Information Expansion, (f) Information Hyperbolized Expansion (g) Maximum Entropy (h) Equal Interval

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Resulting images of the femoralis of rabbit. (a) Direct Logarithm, (b) Truncation Logarithm, (c) Minimum Distortion, (d) Truncation Minimum Distortion, (e) Information Expansion, (f) Information Hyperbolized Expansion (g) Maximum Entropy (h) Equal Interval

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Criterion of image evaluation

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Table 2. Image quality of capillary with milk

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Table 3. Image quality of the femoralis of rabbit

Equations (4)

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Z k = 1 2 ( q k 1 + q k ) q k Z k Z k + 1 xp ( x ) dx Z k Z k + 1 p ( x ) dx
d i = y = a i a i + 1 1 y n ( y ) y = a i a i + 1 1 n ( y ) J e = i = 0 255 y = a i a i + 1 1 n ( y ) ( y d i ) 2
ρ j = { N j n ( y ) N j + n ( y ) y m j 2 j = i 1 , i + 1 N j n ( y ) N j n ( y ) y m j 2 j = 1
S e = 1 N o ( i , j ) obj pixel ( i , j ) 2 n e = 1 N b ( i , j ) bg pixel ( i , j ) 2

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