Abstract

The finite-difference time-domain technique is employed to examine the evolution of the amplitude, duration, waveform, and phase of ultrashort light pulses propagating in a medium of two-level atoms or molecules. The results of these numerical simulations agree reasonably well with predictions of the McCall-Hahn analysis for the evolution of the amplitude and the phase of short pulses in a two-level medium until the pulse duration becomes less than the duration of a single optical cycle. Noticeable deviations from the McCall-Hahn scenario were observed for pulses with durations shorter than the duration of a single field cycle.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energylaser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Optical pulse compression 5fs at a 1-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 102–104 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M.F. Emde, A. Baltuska, A. Kummrow, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Ultrafast Librational Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4645–4648 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, “High Harmonic Generation from Ultrafast Pump Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 638–641 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, “Subfemtosecond Pulse Generation by Molecular Modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894–2897 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Raman Generation by Phased and Antiphased Molecular States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562–565 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Wittmann, A. Nazarkin, and G. Korn, “fs-Pulse Synthesis Using Phase Modulation by Impulsively Excited Molecular Vibrations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5508–5511 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457–485 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.H. Eberly, “Area Theorem rederived,” Opt. Express 2, 173–176 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/4295.htm .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R.W. Ziolkowski, J.M. Arnold, and D.M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1995).
  16. S. Hughes, “Subfemtosecond soft-x-ray generation from a two-level atom: Extreme carrier-wave Rabi flopping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055401–055405 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Hughes, “Breakdown of the Area Theorem: Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping of Femtosecond Optical Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 81, 3363–3366 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Raman Generation by Phased and Antiphased Molecular States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562–565 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wittmann, A. Nazarkin, and G. Korn, “fs-Pulse Synthesis Using Phase Modulation by Impulsively Excited Molecular Vibrations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5508–5511 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hughes, “Subfemtosecond soft-x-ray generation from a two-level atom: Extreme carrier-wave Rabi flopping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055401–055405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

S. Hughes, “Breakdown of the Area Theorem: Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping of Femtosecond Optical Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 81, 3363–3366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.H. Eberly, “Area Theorem rederived,” Opt. Express 2, 173–176 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/4295.htm .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.F. Emde, A. Baltuska, A. Kummrow, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Ultrafast Librational Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4645–4648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, “Subfemtosecond Pulse Generation by Molecular Modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894–2897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energylaser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Optical pulse compression 5fs at a 1-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, “High Harmonic Generation from Ultrafast Pump Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 638–641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R.W. Ziolkowski, J.M. Arnold, and D.M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, J.M.

R.W. Ziolkowski, J.M. Arnold, and D.M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

M.F. Emde, A. Baltuska, A. Kummrow, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Ultrafast Librational Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4645–4648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Optical pulse compression 5fs at a 1-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boscolo, A.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruzzese, R.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ceccherini, P.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I.P.

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Lisio, C.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energylaser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J.H.

Emde, M.F.

M.F. Emde, A. Baltuska, A. Kummrow, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Ultrafast Librational Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4645–4648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Gaarde, M.B.

P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gogny, D.M.

R.W. Ziolkowski, J.M. Arnold, and D.M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, E. L.

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Raman Generation by Phased and Antiphased Molecular States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562–565 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, “Subfemtosecond Pulse Generation by Molecular Modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894–2897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

S. Hughes, “Subfemtosecond soft-x-ray generation from a two-level atom: Extreme carrier-wave Rabi flopping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055401–055405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, “Breakdown of the Area Theorem: Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping of Femtosecond Optical Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 81, 3363–3366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.C.

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

M. Wittmann, A. Nazarkin, and G. Korn, “fs-Pulse Synthesis Using Phase Modulation by Impulsively Excited Molecular Vibrations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5508–5511 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

Kulander, K. C.

K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, “High Harmonic Generation from Ultrafast Pump Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 638–641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kummrow, A.

M.F. Emde, A. Baltuska, A. Kummrow, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Ultrafast Librational Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4645–4648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Miloševic, D.B.

P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.M.

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nazarkin, A.

M. Wittmann, A. Nazarkin, and G. Korn, “fs-Pulse Synthesis Using Phase Modulation by Impulsively Excited Molecular Vibrations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5508–5511 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energylaser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pshenichnikov, M.S.

M.F. Emde, A. Baltuska, A. Kummrow, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Ultrafast Librational Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4645–4648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Optical pulse compression 5fs at a 1-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, “High Harmonic Generation from Ultrafast Pump Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 638–641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, A. V.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Raman Generation by Phased and Antiphased Molecular States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562–565 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, “Subfemtosecond Pulse Generation by Molecular Modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894–2897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

Stagira, S.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svelto, O.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energylaser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22, 522–524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szipocs, R.

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1995).

Tondello, G.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, D. R.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Raman Generation by Phased and Antiphased Molecular States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562–565 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Z.

Wiersma, D.A.

M.F. Emde, A. Baltuska, A. Kummrow, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Ultrafast Librational Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4645–4648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Optical pulse compression 5fs at a 1-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 102–104 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, M.

M. Wittmann, A. Nazarkin, and G. Korn, “fs-Pulse Synthesis Using Phase Modulation by Impulsively Excited Molecular Vibrations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5508–5511 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yavuz, D. D.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Raman Generation by Phased and Antiphased Molecular States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562–565 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G. Y.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Raman Generation by Phased and Antiphased Molecular States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562–565 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziolkowski, R.W.

R.W. Ziolkowski, J.M. Arnold, and D.M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. 183, 457–485 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

R.W. Ziolkowski, J.M. Arnold, and D.M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hughes, “Subfemtosecond soft-x-ray generation from a two-level atom: Extreme carrier-wave Rabi flopping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055401–055405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Antoine, D.B. Milošević, A. L’Huillier, M.B. Gaarde, P. Salières, and M. Lewenstein, “Generation of attosecond pulses in macroscopic media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4960–4969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

S. Hughes, “Breakdown of the Area Theorem: Carrier-Wave Rabi Flopping of Femtosecond Optical Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett 81, 3363–3366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, “High Harmonic Generation from Ultrafast Pump Lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 638–641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, “High-Harmonic Generation of Attosecond Pulses in the ‘Single-Cycle’ Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, “Subfemtosecond Pulse Generation by Molecular Modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894–2897 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Raman Generation by Phased and Antiphased Molecular States,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562–565 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wittmann, A. Nazarkin, and G. Korn, “fs-Pulse Synthesis Using Phase Modulation by Impulsively Excited Molecular Vibrations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5508–5511 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M.F. Emde, A. Baltuska, A. Kummrow, M.S. Pshenichnikov, and D.A. Wiersma, “Ultrafast Librational Dynamics of the Hydrated Electron,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4645–4648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, G. Cerullo, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, and A. Boscolo, “Spectral Features and Modeling of High-Order Harmonics Generated by Sub-10-fs Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1995).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (1013 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1859 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1933 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (2196 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Evolution of single-cycle (a) π (0.98 MB), (b) 2π (1.81 MB), (c) 2.9π (1.88 MB), and (d) 4π (2.14 MB) pulses in a two-level medium.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Evolution of a half-cycle 2π pulse in a two-level medium: τ=0.5 T, 2µ/ħE0πτ=2π, and µN/E0 =0.0016, (b) Evolution of a quarter-cycle 2π pulse in a two-level medium: τ=0.25 T, 2µ/ħE0πτ=2π, and µN/E0 =0.0032

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Evolution of the excited- and ground-state populations in a two-level medium under the action of (a) a half-cycle 2π pulse and (b) a quarter-cycle 2π pulse: (dashed line) ground-state population r1 and (solid line) excited-state population r2.

Equations (10)

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D z ( x , t ) t = H y ( x , t ) x , H y ( x , t ) t = E z ( x , t ) x ,
ψ ( t ) = a ( x , t ) ψ 1 + b ( x , t ) ψ 2 ,
i d a ( x , t ) d t = E 1 a ( x , t ) μ E z ( x , t ) b ( x , t ) , i d b ( x , t ) d t = E 2 b ( x , t ) μ E z ( x , t ) a ( x , t ) ,
D z , i n + 1 = D z , i n + Δ t Δ x ( H y , i + 1 2 n + 1 2 H y , i 1 2 n + 1 2 ) , H y , i + 1 2 n + 3 2 = H y , i + 1 2 n + 1 2 + Δ t Δ x ( E z , i + 1 n + 1 E z , i n + 1 ) ,
E ( x , t ) = A ( x , t ) e i ϕ + i k z i ω t + c . c . ,
A ( x , t ) x + n c A ( x , t ) t = 2 π ω μ N n c sin ( θ ( x , t ) ) ,
A ( x , t ) = μ τ sec h ( t x V τ ) ,
V = [ 4 π μ 2 τ 2 ω N n c + n c ] 1 = [ 4 π ω N E 0 2 n c + n c ] 1 .
φ = k X ω X V = ω X ( 1 v 1 V ) = 4 π ω 2 μ 2 τ 2 N X ( n c ) .
L = ( n c ) ( 4 ω 2 μ 2 τ 2 N ) = ( E 0 2 n c ) ( 4 ω 2 N ) .

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