Abstract

The application of Fermi Molecular Dynamics (FMD) to the modeling of the photoionization of atoms by a short pulse of long wavelength laser radiation is examined in detail. Depression of the single ionization threshold to values of the electric field strength below the classical over-the-barrier threshold, a common occurrence in FMD, is shown to arise from the preexcitation of bound electrons into a continuum of unphysical low-lying excited states. A connection is made to analogous calculations performed with the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation, in which the time-dependent quantum potential (Q) plays a role similar to that played in FMD by the so-called Heisenberg potential (VH). Replacement of VH by Q in the FMD equations of motion results in a large reduction in the number of excitations to unphysical bound states, while producing no essential change in the photoionization probability.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observations of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. K. Kondo, A. Sagisaka, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Wavelength dependence of nonsequential double ionization in He,” Phys. Rev. A48, R2531–R2533 (1993).
  3. B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).
  4. S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917–R919 (1995).
  5. P. Lambropoulos, “Mechanisms for multiple ionization of atoms by strong pulsed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2141–2144 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. Brabec, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A54, R2551–R2554 (1996).
  8. K. J. LaGattuta and James S. Cohen, “Quasiclassical modeling of helium double photoionization,” J. Phys. B31, 5281–5291 (1998).
  9. A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Mechanism of laser-induced double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B29, L197–L202 (1996).
  10. K. LaGattuta, “Multiple ionization of argon atoms by long-wavelength laser radiation: a fermion molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. B33, 2489–2494 (2000).
  11. Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. -84, 3546–3549 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. LaGattuta, “Laser effects in photoionization: numerical solution of coupled equations for a three-dimensional Coulomb potential,” JOSA B7, 639–646 (1990).
  15. D. Bohm, “A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of ‘hidden’ variables. I,” Phys. Rev. 85, 166–179 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. Lopreore and R. Wyatt, “Quantum wave packet dynamics with trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5190–5193 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Wasson and S. Koonin, “Molecular-dynamics simulations of atomic ionization by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A39, 5676–5685 (1989).
  18. K. LaGattuta, “Laser effects in photoionization II. Numerical solution of coupled equations for atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A41, 5110–5116 (1990).

2000 (4)

K. LaGattuta, “Multiple ionization of argon atoms by long-wavelength laser radiation: a fermion molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. B33, 2489–2494 (2000).

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. -84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. Lopreore and R. Wyatt, “Quantum wave packet dynamics with trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5190–5193 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

K. J. LaGattuta and James S. Cohen, “Quasiclassical modeling of helium double photoionization,” J. Phys. B31, 5281–5291 (1998).

1996 (2)

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Mechanism of laser-induced double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B29, L197–L202 (1996).

T. Brabec, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A54, R2551–R2554 (1996).

1995 (1)

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917–R919 (1995).

1993 (3)

K. Kondo, A. Sagisaka, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Wavelength dependence of nonsequential double ionization in He,” Phys. Rev. A48, R2531–R2533 (1993).

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observations of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

K. LaGattuta, “Laser effects in photoionization II. Numerical solution of coupled equations for atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A41, 5110–5116 (1990).

K. LaGattuta, “Laser effects in photoionization: numerical solution of coupled equations for a three-dimensional Coulomb potential,” JOSA B7, 639–646 (1990).

1989 (1)

D. Wasson and S. Koonin, “Molecular-dynamics simulations of atomic ionization by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A39, 5676–5685 (1989).

1985 (1)

P. Lambropoulos, “Mechanisms for multiple ionization of atoms by strong pulsed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2141–2144 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

D. Bohm, “A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of ‘hidden’ variables. I,” Phys. Rev. 85, 166–179 (1952).
[Crossref]

Afaneh, F.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

Antonetti, A.

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

Augst, S.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917–R919 (1995).

Beaudoin, Y.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917–R919 (1995).

Becker, A.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. -84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Mechanism of laser-induced double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B29, L197–L202 (1996).

Berger, P.

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

Bohm, D.

D. Bohm, “A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of ‘hidden’ variables. I,” Phys. Rev. 85, 166–179 (1952).
[Crossref]

Bolton, P.

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observations of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A54, R2551–R2554 (1996).

Chaker, M.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917–R919 (1995).

Chamberet, J. P.

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

Chang, B.

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observations of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917–R919 (1995).

Cohen, James S.

K. J. LaGattuta and James S. Cohen, “Quasiclassical modeling of helium double photoionization,” J. Phys. B31, 5281–5291 (1998).

Corkum, P.

T. Brabec, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A54, R2551–R2554 (1996).

P. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimauro, L. F.

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

Dorn, A.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorner, R.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faisal, F. H. M.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. -84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Mechanism of laser-induced double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B29, L197–L202 (1996).

Feuerstein, B.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D.

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observations of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

T. Brabec, M. Ivanov, and P. Corkum, “Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes,” Phys. Rev. A54, R2551–R2554 (1996).

Jagutzki, O.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kondo, K.

K. Kondo, A. Sagisaka, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Wavelength dependence of nonsequential double ionization in He,” Phys. Rev. A48, R2531–R2533 (1993).

Koonin, S.

D. Wasson and S. Koonin, “Molecular-dynamics simulations of atomic ionization by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A39, 5676–5685 (1989).

Korn, G.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K.

D. Fittinghoff, P. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. Kulander, “Observations of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaGattuta, K.

K. LaGattuta, “Multiple ionization of argon atoms by long-wavelength laser radiation: a fermion molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. B33, 2489–2494 (2000).

K. LaGattuta, “Laser effects in photoionization II. Numerical solution of coupled equations for atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A41, 5110–5116 (1990).

K. LaGattuta, “Laser effects in photoionization: numerical solution of coupled equations for a three-dimensional Coulomb potential,” JOSA B7, 639–646 (1990).

LaGattuta, K. J.

K. J. LaGattuta and James S. Cohen, “Quasiclassical modeling of helium double photoionization,” J. Phys. B31, 5281–5291 (1998).

Lambropoulos, P.

P. Lambropoulos, “Mechanisms for multiple ionization of atoms by strong pulsed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2141–2144 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopreore, C.

C. Lopreore and R. Wyatt, “Quantum wave packet dynamics with trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5190–5193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mevel, E.

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

Moshammer, R.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

K. Kondo, A. Sagisaka, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Wavelength dependence of nonsequential double ionization in He,” Phys. Rev. A48, R2531–R2533 (1993).

Rottke, H.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagisaka, A.

K. Kondo, A. Sagisaka, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Wavelength dependence of nonsequential double ionization in He,” Phys. Rev. A48, R2531–R2533 (1993).

Sander, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroter, C.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. A52, R917–R919 (1995).

Tamida, T.

K. Kondo, A. Sagisaka, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Wavelength dependence of nonsequential double ionization in He,” Phys. Rev. A48, R2531–R2533 (1993).

Trump, C.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

Wasson, D.

D. Wasson and S. Koonin, “Molecular-dynamics simulations of atomic ionization by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A39, 5676–5685 (1989).

Watanabe, S.

K. Kondo, A. Sagisaka, T. Tamida, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Wavelength dependence of nonsequential double ionization in He,” Phys. Rev. A48, R2531–R2533 (1993).

Weber, Th.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weckenbrock, M.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dorner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittmann, M.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sander, “Momentum distributions of Ne(n+) ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyatt, R.

C. Lopreore and R. Wyatt, “Quantum wave packet dynamics with trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5190–5193 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

B. Walker, E. Mevel, B. Yang, P. Berger, J. P. Chamberet, A. Antonetti, L. F. Dimauro, and P. Agostini, “Double ionization in the perturbative and tunneling regimes,” Phys. Rev. A48, R894–R897 (1993).

J. Phys. (3)

K. J. LaGattuta and James S. Cohen, “Quasiclassical modeling of helium double photoionization,” J. Phys. B31, 5281–5291 (1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Values of the quantum potential Q(x, t) are plotted along the verticle axis as a function of x and t; primarily positive values of Q appear.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Same as Fig. 1, but the surface has been inverted; now primarily negative values of Q(x, t) appear.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Values of vx =dS/dx, from the quantum HJ equation, are plotted along the verticle axis as a function of x and t.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A spectrum of values of the final electron total energy ∊ (a.u.) is plotted, as computed with FMD: for the case in which the FMD Heisenberg potential VH has been invoked (solid curve); for the case in which VH has been replaced by Q (chain curve).

Equations (21)

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H ( t ) Ψ real = Ψ imag t
H ( t ) Ψ imag = Ψ real t
H ( t ) = 1 2 r 2 1 r r . E ( t )
E ( t ) = x ̂ E pulse ( t ) sin ( ω t + ϕ )
Ψ = R exp ( i S )
ρ t + r . ( ρ r S ) = 0
S / t = 1 2 ( r S ) 2 + Q 1 / r r . E ( t )
Q = 1 2 R r 2 R
d υ / d t = r ( Q 1 / r r . E ( t ) )
υ r S
d / d t / t + υ . r
Q 1 2 + 1 / r
d υ / d t = r ( Q 1 / r ) = 0
r S = 0
H ( t ) = p 2 / 2 1 / r r . E ( t ) + V H ( r , p )
V H ( r , p ) A H r 2 exp ( B H r 4 p 4 )
d r / d t = p H ( t )
d p / d t = r H ( t )
d p / d t = r ( V H 1 / r r . E ( t ) )
d p / d t = r ( V H 1 / r ) = 0
υ = p + p V H ( r , p ) = 0

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