Abstract

We have studied the double ionization of helium and other rare gases using an electron-ion coincidence technique. With this scheme, the electron energy spectrum correlated to the creation of a doubly charged ion may be compiled. In all cases, the observed double ionization electron distributions are similar and enhanced at high energies, while the single ionization spectra exhibit distinct differences.

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References

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  1. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, "Nonsequential double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884-1887 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, "Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium," J. Phys. B 31, L571-L578 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, "Photoelectron energy spectrum in 'direct' two-photon double ionization of helium," J. Phys. B 32, L603-L613 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, "Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546-3549 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Panfili, C. Szymanowski, W.-C. Liu, and J. H. Eberly, "Spectroscopy in the neighborhood of the double ionization knee" in Multiphoton Processes, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, K.C. Kulander, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY 2000).
  7. M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, "Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707-4710 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. L. Yudin and M. Ivanov, "Physics of correlated double ionization of atoms in intense laser fields: quasistatic tunneling limit," Phys. Rev. A, in press (2001).
  9. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, "Momentum distributions of Ne n+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447-450 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Witzel, N. A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis, "Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268-2271 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, "Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642-2645 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field," J. Phys. B 31, 1201-1214 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, "Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406-409 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, "Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031-5034 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, "Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942-3952 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, "Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599-1602 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, "Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97-106 (1999).

Other

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, "Nonsequential double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884-1887 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, "Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium," J. Phys. B 31, L571-L578 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, "Photoelectron energy spectrum in 'direct' two-photon double ionization of helium," J. Phys. B 32, L603-L613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, "Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546-3549 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, C. Szymanowski, W.-C. Liu, and J. H. Eberly, "Spectroscopy in the neighborhood of the double ionization knee" in Multiphoton Processes, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, K.C. Kulander, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY 2000).

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, "Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Yudin and M. Ivanov, "Physics of correlated double ionization of atoms in intense laser fields: quasistatic tunneling limit," Phys. Rev. A, in press (2001).

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, "Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization," Nature 405, 658-661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, "Momentum distributions of Ne n+ ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447-450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, "Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Witzel, N. A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis, "Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268-2271 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, "Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642-2645 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field," J. Phys. B 31, 1201-1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, "Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406-409 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "High intensity above-threshold ionization of He," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509-512 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, "Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031-5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, "Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit," Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942-3952 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, "Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599-1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, "Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97-106 (1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(55 KB) Animation of the electron-ion spectrometer. The temporal evolution shown is not intended to scale accurately for the ions and electrons. The electron trace is roughly 1 µs long, and the ion trace is roughly 10 µs long.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The electron energy spectra correlated to a) single and b) double ionization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Final electron energies calculated with a one-dimensional model of helium double ionization at 0.8 PW/cm2. The cases of zero kinetic energy (black line) after rescattering, initial forward velocity (red line), and initial backward velocity (blue line) are shown.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Experimental parameters for the rare gas coincidence survey.

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