Abstract

We have studied the double ionization of helium and other rare gases using an electron-ion coincidence technique. With this scheme, the electron energy spectrum correlated to the creation of a doubly charged ion may be compiled. In all cases, the observed double ionization electron distributions are similar and enhanced at high energies, while the single ionization spectra exhibit distinct differences.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884–1887 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. S. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571–L578 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, “Photoelectron energy spectrum in ‘direct’ two-photon double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 32, L603–L613 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. Panfili, C. Szymanowski, W.-C. Liu, and J. H. Eberly, “Spectroscopy in the neighborhood of the double ionization knee” in Multiphoton Processes, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY2000).
  7. M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. L. Yudin and M. Ivanov, “Physics of correlated double ionization of atoms in intense laser fields: quasistatic tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A, in press (2001).
  9. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. B. Witzel, N. A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis, “Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268–2271 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, “Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97–106 (1999).

2000 (6)

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Witzel, N. A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis, “Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268–2271 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, “Photoelectron energy spectrum in ‘direct’ two-photon double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 32, L603–L613 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, “Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97–106 (1999).

1998 (3)

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. S. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571–L578 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884–1887 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afaneh, F.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostini, P. A.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

Antonetti, A.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aumiller, G. D.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bokor, J.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884–1887 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chaloupka, J. L.

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chambaret, J.-P.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

B. Witzel, N. A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis, “Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268–2271 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

R. Panfili, C. Szymanowski, W.-C. Liu, and J. H. Eberly, “Spectroscopy in the neighborhood of the double ionization knee” in Multiphoton Processes, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY2000).

Engel, V.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faisal, F. H. M.

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. R.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gross, E. K. U.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertel, I. V.

V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, “Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97–106 (1999).

Hoffman, K.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

G. L. Yudin and M. Ivanov, “Physics of correlated double ionization of atoms in intense laser fields: quasistatic tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A, in press (2001).

Jagutzki, O.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884–1887 (1997).
[Crossref]

Korn, G.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kornberg, M. A.

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, “Photoelectron energy spectrum in ‘direct’ two-photon double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 32, L603–L613 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K. C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K.C.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lafon, R.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambropoulos, P.

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, “Photoelectron energy spectrum in ‘direct’ two-photon double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 32, L603–L613 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lappas, D. G.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884–1887 (1997).
[Crossref]

Larochelle, S.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.-C.

R. Panfili, C. Szymanowski, W.-C. Liu, and J. H. Eberly, “Spectroscopy in the neighborhood of the double ionization knee” in Multiphoton Processes, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY2000).

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mevel, E.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Migus, A.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohideen, U.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panfili, R.

R. Panfili, C. Szymanowski, W.-C. Liu, and J. H. Eberly, “Spectroscopy in the neighborhood of the double ionization knee” in Multiphoton Processes, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY2000).

Papadogiannis, N. A.

B. Witzel, N. A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis, “Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268–2271 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parker, J. S.

J. S. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571–L578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Paul, P. M.

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petite, G.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radloff, W.

V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, “Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97–106 (1999).

Rottke, H.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanpera, A.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884–1887 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schröter, C. D.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulz, C. P.

V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, “Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97–106 (1999).

Sheehy, B.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sher, M. H.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smyth, E. S.

J. S. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571–L578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stert, V.

V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, “Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97–106 (1999).

Szymanowski, C.

R. Panfili, C. Szymanowski, W.-C. Liu, and J. H. Eberly, “Spectroscopy in the neighborhood of the double ionization knee” in Multiphoton Processes, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY2000).

Talebpour, A.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[Crossref]

Taylor, K. T.

J. S. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571–L578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tom, H. W. K.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trainham, R.

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trump, C.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, J. B.

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884–1887 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weber, Th.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weckenbrock, M.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Widmer, M.

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wittman, M.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witzel, B.

B. Witzel, N. A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis, “Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268–2271 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood II, O. R.

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

G. L. Yudin and M. Ivanov, “Physics of correlated double ionization of atoms in intense laser fields: quasistatic tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A, in press (2001).

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

V. Stert, W. Radloff, C. P. Schulz, and I. V. Hertel, “Ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy: femtosecond pump-probe coincidence detection of ammonia cluster ions and electrons,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 97–106 (1999).

J. Phys. B (3)

J. S. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571–L578 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kornberg and P. Lambropoulos, “Photoelectron energy spectrum in ‘direct’ two-photon double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 32, L603–L613 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. Sheehy, R. Lafon, M. Widmer, B. Walker, L. F. DiMauro, P. A. Agostini, and K.C. Kulander, “Single-and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942–3952 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (13)

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittman, G. Korn, K. Hoffman, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Witzel, N. A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis, “Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268–2271 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Mevel, P. Breger, R. Trainham, G. Petite, P. Agostini, A. Migus, J.-P. Chambaret, and A. Antonetti, “Atoms in strong optical fields: evolution from multiphoton to tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 406–409 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Mohideen, M. H. Sher, H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, O. R. Wood II, R. R. Freeman, J. Bokor, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “High intensity above-threshold ionization of He,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 509–512 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546–3549 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D. G. Lappas, P. L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884–1887 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

G. L. Yudin and M. Ivanov, “Physics of correlated double ionization of atoms in intense laser fields: quasistatic tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A, in press (2001).

R. Panfili, C. Szymanowski, W.-C. Liu, and J. H. Eberly, “Spectroscopy in the neighborhood of the double ionization knee” in Multiphoton Processes, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander, eds., (American Institute of Physics, New York, NY2000).

R. Lafon, J. L. Chaloupka, B. Sheehy, P. M. Paul, P. Agostini, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Electron energy spectra from intense laser double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett., in press (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (55 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(55 KB) Animation of the electron-ion spectrometer. The temporal evolution shown is not intended to scale accurately for the ions and electrons. The electron trace is roughly 1 µs long, and the ion trace is roughly 10 µs long.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The electron energy spectra correlated to a) single and b) double ionization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Final electron energies calculated with a one-dimensional model of helium double ionization at 0.8 PW/cm2. The cases of zero kinetic energy (black line) after rescattering, initial forward velocity (red line), and initial backward velocity (blue line) are shown.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental parameters for the rare gas coincidence survey.

Metrics