Abstract

We characterized the fluorescence intensity distribution within the epithelia and stroma of frozen human cervical tissues at the following excitation-emission wavelength pairs: 440, 525 nm and 365, 460 nm. The intensities at both excitation-emission wavelength pairs are significantly lower in the epithelia of severely dysplastic tissues, relative to that in normal and inflammatory tissues. Furthermore, there are small differences in (1) the epithelial intensity of severe dysplasia and mild dysplasia at 440, 525 nm and (2) the stromal intensity of inflammatory and severely dysplastic tissues at 365, 460 nm. A comparison of the ratio of intensities at 440, 525 nm and 365, 460 nm between the epithelia of each tissue type indicates that this ratio is lowest in severely dysplastic tissues. It is interesting to note that the epithelial and stromal intensities are comparable at 365, 460 nm; however, at 440, 525 nm, the epithelial intensity is more than a factor of two less that that of the stroma for all tissue types.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  2. R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia 2, 1–29 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
  7. G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  10. B. Chance, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, “Low temperature trapping method for cytochrome oxidase oxygen intermediates,” Anal. Biochem. 67, 552–579 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, “Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples,” J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764–4771 (1979).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  17. D. Fujimoto, “The structure of pyridinoline, a collagen crosslink,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 76, 1124–1129 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J.P. Freyer, “Rates of oxygen consumption for proliferating and quiescent cells isolated from multicellular tumor spheroids,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 335–342 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2000 (2)

N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia 2, 1–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

1996 (3)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).

G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J.P. Freyer, “Rates of oxygen consumption for proliferating and quiescent cells isolated from multicellular tumor spheroids,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 335–342 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

B. Quistorff, J.C. Haselgrove, and B. Chance, “High spatial resolution readout of 3-D metabolic organ structure: an automated, low-temperature redox ratio-scanning instrument,” Anal. Biochem. 148, 389–400 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, “Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples,” J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764–4771 (1979).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

D. Fujimoto, “The structure of pyridinoline, a collagen crosslink,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 76, 1124–1129 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

B. Chance, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, “Low temperature trapping method for cytochrome oxidase oxygen intermediates,” Anal. Biochem. 67, 552–579 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

F.N. Ghadially, W.J.P. Neish, and H.C. Dawkins, “Mechanisms involved in the production of red fluorescence of human and experimental tumors,” J. Path. Bact. 85, 77–92 (1963).
[Crossref]

Anidjar, M.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, A.

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, E.N.

U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
[Crossref]

Avrillier, S.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babai, F.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

Balassy, A.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blais, J.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, L.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

Boiko, I.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bottiroli, G.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourdon, O.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brookner, C.K.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cantor, S.B.

U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chance, B.

B. Quistorff, J.C. Haselgrove, and B. Chance, “High spatial resolution readout of 3-D metabolic organ structure: an automated, low-temperature redox ratio-scanning instrument,” Anal. Biochem. 148, 389–400 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, “Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples,” J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764–4771 (1979).
[PubMed]

B. Chance, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, “Low temperature trapping method for cytochrome oxidase oxygen intermediates,” Anal. Biochem. 67, 552–579 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cothren, R.M.

T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).

Croce, A.C.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cussenot, O.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuzzoni, C.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalfante, M.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawkins, H.C.

F.N. Ghadially, W.J.P. Neish, and H.C. Dawkins, “Mechanisms involved in the production of red fluorescence of human and experimental tumors,” J. Path. Bact. 85, 77–92 (1963).
[Crossref]

Deckelbaum, L.I.

G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
[Crossref]

Di Palma, S.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durocher, G.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ettori, D.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fairman, G.S.

G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ferenczy, A.

T.C. Wright, R.J. Kurman, and A. Ferenczy, “Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia” in Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, A. Blaustein, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).

Fiet, J.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).

Follen, M.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freyer, J.P.

J.P. Freyer, “Rates of oxygen consumption for proliferating and quiescent cells isolated from multicellular tumor spheroids,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 335–342 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, D.

D. Fujimoto, “The structure of pyridinoline, a collagen crosslink,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 76, 1124–1129 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaboury, L.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

Galvan, J.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghadially, F.N.

F.N. Ghadially, W.J.P. Neish, and H.C. Dawkins, “Mechanisms involved in the production of red fluorescence of human and experimental tumors,” J. Path. Bact. 85, 77–92 (1963).
[Crossref]

Graham, N.

B. Chance, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, “Low temperature trapping method for cytochrome oxidase oxygen intermediates,” Anal. Biochem. 67, 552–579 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haselgrove, J.C.

B. Quistorff, J.C. Haselgrove, and B. Chance, “High spatial resolution readout of 3-D metabolic organ structure: an automated, low-temperature redox ratio-scanning instrument,” Anal. Biochem. 148, 389–400 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itshak, F.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, “Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples,” J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764–4771 (1979).
[PubMed]

Kapadia, C.R.

G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kelly, L.

G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kramer, J.R.

T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).

Kurman, R.J.

T.C. Wright, R.J. Kurman, and A. Ferenczy, “Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia” in Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, A. Blaustein, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).

Le Duc, A.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Legallais, V.

B. Chance, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, “Low temperature trapping method for cytochrome oxidase oxygen intermediates,” Anal. Biochem. 67, 552–579 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Locatelli, D.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lotan, R.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, M.F.

U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakase, Y.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, “Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples,” J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764–4771 (1979).
[PubMed]

Nathanson, M.H.

G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
[Crossref]

Neish, W.J.P.

F.N. Ghadially, W.J.P. Neish, and H.C. Dawkins, “Mechanisms involved in the production of red fluorescence of human and experimental tumors,” J. Path. Bact. 85, 77–92 (1963).
[Crossref]

Oshino, R.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, “Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples,” J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764–4771 (1979).
[PubMed]

Pal, P.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pignoli, E.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pradhan, A.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

Quistorff, B.

B. Quistorff, J.C. Haselgrove, and B. Chance, “High spatial resolution readout of 3-D metabolic organ structure: an automated, low-temperature redox ratio-scanning instrument,” Anal. Biochem. 148, 389–400 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia 2, 1–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ramanujam N, N.

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).

Richards-Kortum, R.R.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romer, T.J.

T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).

Schoener, B.

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, “Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples,” J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764–4771 (1979).
[PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sivak, M.V.

T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).

Spinellu, P.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staerkel, G.

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Star, W.M.

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Stryer, L.

L. Stryer, Biochemistry (W.H. Freeman and Company, 1988), Chap. 8.

Suzuki, S.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teillac, P.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomatis, S.

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trujillo, E.V.

U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
[Crossref]

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, L.

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

Villter, J.M.

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagnieres, G.A.

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

West, A.B.

G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B.C.

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Wright, T.

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, T.C.

T.C. Wright, R.J. Kurman, and A. Ferenczy, “Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia” in Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, A. Blaustein, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

J.P. Freyer, “Rates of oxygen consumption for proliferating and quiescent cells isolated from multicellular tumor spheroids,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 345, 335–342 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amer. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

T.J. Romer, M. Fitzmaurice, R.M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M.V. Sivak, and J.R. Kramer, “Laser-Induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).

Anal. Biochem. (2)

B. Chance, N. Graham, and V. Legallais, “Low temperature trapping method for cytochrome oxidase oxygen intermediates,” Anal. Biochem. 67, 552–579 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Quistorff, J.C. Haselgrove, and B. Chance, “High spatial resolution readout of 3-D metabolic organ structure: an automated, low-temperature redox ratio-scanning instrument,” Anal. Biochem. 148, 389–400 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[Crossref]

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. (1)

D. Fujimoto, “The structure of pyridinoline, a collagen crosslink,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 76, 1124–1129 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Digest. Dis. Sci. (1)

G.S. Fairman, M.H. Nathanson, A.B. West, L.I. Deckelbaum, L. Kelly, and C.R. Kapadia, “Differences in laser-induced autofluorescence between adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and normal colonic mucosa by confocal microscopy,” Digest. Dis. Sci. 40, 1261–1268 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. (1)

U. Utzinger, E.V. Trujillo, E.N. Atkinson, M.F. Mitchell, S.B. Cantor, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Performance estimation of diagnostic tests for cervical precancer based on fluorescence spectroscopy: effects of tissue type, sample size, population and signal-to-noise ratio,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. 46, 1293–1303 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

B. Chance, B. Schoener, R. Oshino, F. Itshak, and Y. Nakase, “Oxidation-reduction ratio studies of mitochondria in freeze-trapped samples,” J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4764–4771 (1979).
[PubMed]

J. Path. Bact. (1)

F.N. Ghadially, W.J.P. Neish, and H.C. Dawkins, “Mechanisms involved in the production of red fluorescence of human and experimental tumors,” J. Path. Bact. 85, 77–92 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. (1)

A. Pradhan, P. Pal, G. Durocher, L. Villeneuve, A. Balassy, F. Babai, L. Gaboury, and L. Blanchard, “Steady state and time resolved fluorescence properties of metastatic and non-metastatic malignant cells from different species,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 31, 101–112 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Urol. (1)

M. Anidjar, O. Cussenot, J. Blais, O. Bourdon, S. Avrillier, D. Ettori, J.M. Villter, J. Fiet, P. Teillac, and A. Le Duc, “Argon laser induced autofluorescence may distinguish between normal and tumor human urothelial cells: a microspectrofluorimetric study,” J. Urol. 155, 1771–1774 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

G. Bottiroli, A.C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, and P. Spinellu, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensice “ex vivo” study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

N. Ramanujam, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues,” Neoplasia 2, 1–29 (2000).
[Crossref]

Photochem. Photobiol. (3)

G.A. Wagnieres, W.M. Star, and B.C. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

C.K. Brookner, M. Follen, I. Boiko, J. Galvan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, S. Suzuki, R. Lotan, and R.R. Richards-Kortum, “Autofluorescence patterns in short-term cultures of normal cervical tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 71, 730–736 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam N, M.F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, A. Atkinson, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical pre-cancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

T.C. Wright, R.J. Kurman, and A. Ferenczy, “Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia” in Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, A. Blaustein, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).

L. Stryer, Biochemistry (W.H. Freeman and Company, 1988), Chap. 8.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Average redox ratio index of rat livers that underwent carbogen, air and nitrogen inhalation

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

H&E stained section of a normal cervical tissue and the corresponding fluorescence images at two excitation-emission wavelength pairs: 440, 525 and 365, 460 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The average fluorescence intensity as a function of tissue depth at (a) 440, 525 nm and (b) 365, 460 nm for a normal, inflammatory and severely dysplastic tissue.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Average fluorescence intensity at 440, 525 nm and 365, 460 nm for (a) the epithelium and (b) the stroma of normal, inflammatory, mildly dysplastic and severely dysplastic tissues.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The (a) average redox ratio index of the epithelia and (b) average ratio of the epithelial and stromal fluorescence intensity at 440, 525 nm and 365, 440 nm of the four different tissues.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fluorescence intensities at 460, 525 nm, 365, 460 nm and the redox ratio indices of two rat liver tissues (from the same rat) that underwent in vivo and in vitro freeze-trapping, respectively

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