Abstract

It is shown that strong-field atomic stabilization can occur at any frequency, that analytical methods exist that can describe all essential features of stabilization, that relativistic effects enhance the stabilization phenomenon, and that a simple physical picture exists that explains these properties. A necessary prelude is to show that the frequency properties of the three methods often conjoined by the KFR (Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss) label are quite different. Applicability of the SFA (Strong-Field Approximation) to stabilization at any frequency is shown, and verified by exhibiting close correspondence to numerical predictions by Popov et al. that also span both low and high frequencies.

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References

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  1. M. Gavrila, "Atomic structure and decay in high frequency fields," in Atoms in intense laser fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, MA 1992).
  2. H. R. Reiss, "Atomic transitions in intense fields and the breakdown of perturbation theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1149-1151 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Reiss, "Nuclear beta decay induced by intense electromagnetic fields: forbidden transition examples," Phys. Rev. C 27, 1229-1243 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1945-1957 (1964) [Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965)].
  5. F. H. M. Faisal, "Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms," J. Phys. B 6, L89-L92 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. R. Reiss, "Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system," Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786-1813 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. C. Henneberger, "Perturbation method for atoms in intense light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 838-841 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. R. Reiss, "Energetic electrons in strong-field ionization," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1765-R1768 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Pont and M. Gavrila, "Stabilization of atomic hydrogen in superintense, high-frequency laser fields of circular polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2362-2365 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. R. Reiss, "High-frequency, high-intensity photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 355-362 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. P. Crawford and H. R. Reiss, "Stabilization in relativistic photoionization with circularly polarized light," Phys. Rev. A 50, 1844-1850 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. R. Reiss, "Relativistic strong-field photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 574-586 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. R. Reiss and D. P. Crawford, "Relativistic photoionization," in Ultrafast phenomena and interaction of superstrong laser fields with matter: nonlinear optics and high-field physics, M. V.Fedorov, V. M. Gordienko, V. V. Shuvalov, V. D. Taranukhin, eds., Proc. SPIE 3735, 148-157 (1998).
  14. A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, and E. A. Volkova, "Applicability of the Kramers-Henneberger approximation in the theory of strong-field ionization," J. Phys. B 32, 3331-3345 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. R. Reiss, "Frequency and polarization effects in stabilization," Phys. Rev. A 46, 391-394 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. R. Reiss, "Physical basis for strong-field stabilization of atoms against ionization," Las. Phys. 7, 543-550 (1997).
  17. N. J. Kylstra, R. A. Worthington, A. Patel, P. L. Knight, J. R. V zquez de Aldana, L. Roso, "Breakdown of stabilization of atoms with intense, high-frequency laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1835-1838 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. R. Reiss, "Dipole-approximation magnetic fields in strong laser beams," Phys. Rev. A 63, 013409 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

Other (18)

M. Gavrila, "Atomic structure and decay in high frequency fields," in Atoms in intense laser fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, MA 1992).

H. R. Reiss, "Atomic transitions in intense fields and the breakdown of perturbation theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1149-1151 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Reiss, "Nuclear beta decay induced by intense electromagnetic fields: forbidden transition examples," Phys. Rev. C 27, 1229-1243 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1945-1957 (1964) [Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965)].

F. H. M. Faisal, "Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms," J. Phys. B 6, L89-L92 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Reiss, "Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system," Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786-1813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Henneberger, "Perturbation method for atoms in intense light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 838-841 (1968).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Reiss, "Energetic electrons in strong-field ionization," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1765-R1768 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pont and M. Gavrila, "Stabilization of atomic hydrogen in superintense, high-frequency laser fields of circular polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2362-2365 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Reiss, "High-frequency, high-intensity photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 355-362 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Crawford and H. R. Reiss, "Stabilization in relativistic photoionization with circularly polarized light," Phys. Rev. A 50, 1844-1850 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Reiss, "Relativistic strong-field photoionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 574-586 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Reiss and D. P. Crawford, "Relativistic photoionization," in Ultrafast phenomena and interaction of superstrong laser fields with matter: nonlinear optics and high-field physics, M. V.Fedorov, V. M. Gordienko, V. V. Shuvalov, V. D. Taranukhin, eds., Proc. SPIE 3735, 148-157 (1998).

A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, and E. A. Volkova, "Applicability of the Kramers-Henneberger approximation in the theory of strong-field ionization," J. Phys. B 32, 3331-3345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Reiss, "Frequency and polarization effects in stabilization," Phys. Rev. A 46, 391-394 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Reiss, "Physical basis for strong-field stabilization of atoms against ionization," Las. Phys. 7, 543-550 (1997).

N. J. Kylstra, R. A. Worthington, A. Patel, P. L. Knight, J. R. V zquez de Aldana, L. Roso, "Breakdown of stabilization of atoms with intense, high-frequency laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1835-1838 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Reiss, "Dipole-approximation magnetic fields in strong laser beams," Phys. Rev. A 63, 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Atomic hydrogen monochromatic ionization rates in a circularly polarized laser beam.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Value of the stabilization intensity as a function of field frequency for ionization from a hydrogenic atom with binding energy 0.75 eV. The Popov et al. data are from Ref. [14], and proportions in this figure mimic those of Fig. 10 of this reference. See text for explanation of the gap in SFA results.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ionization by circularly polarized light. (a) Nonrelativistically, the electron circulates around the atom in a circular orbit in a plane perpendicular to the propagation direction, with its classical energy and radius of motion. (b) Relativistically, the plane of the orbit is displaced forward by the momentum of the number of photons that must be absorbed to supply the ponderomotive energy of the electron.

Equations (15)

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i t Φ = H 0 Φ , H 0 = 1 2 2 + V ( r ) ,
i t Ψ = ( H 0 + H I ) Ψ , H I = i c A · + 1 2 c 2 A 2 .
lim t Ψ ( + ) = Φ , lim t + Ψ ( ) = Φ .
S fi = lim t + ( Φ f , Ψ i ( + ) ) , δ fi = lim t ( Φ f , Ψ i ( + ) ) ,
( S 1 ) fi = + dt t ( Φ f , Ψ i ( + ) ) = i + dt ( Φ f , H I Ψ i ) ,
S fi = lim t ( Ψ f ( ) , Φ i ) ,
( S 1 ) fi = i dt ( Ψ f , H I Φ i ) ,
H I H I length = E · r .
Ψ f Ψ f Volk ,
Φ f Φ f free ,
Ψ i ( r , t ) = ( U KH ) 1 Φ i ( r + α , t ) ,
Φ i ( r + α , t ) Φ i ( r , t ) .
( S 1 ) fi F = i dt ( Φ f free , H I ( U KH ) 1 Φ i ( r , t ) ) ,
Ψ f Ψ f Volk .
( S 1 ) fi = i c d 4 x Ψ f ¯ A μ γ μ Φ i ,

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