Abstract

This article summarizes the developing understanding of coherent atomic excitation, as gained through a collaboration of J. H. Eberly with the Laser Isotope Separation Program of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, particularly aspects of coherence, population trapping, multilevel multiphoton excitation sequences, analytic solutions to multistate excitation chains, the quasicontinuum, pulse propagation, and noise. In addition to the discovery of several curious and unexpected properties of coherent excitation, mentioned here, the collaboration provided an excellent example of unexpected benefits from investment into basic research.

© Optical Society of America

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  1. J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz and M. L. Spaeth, "Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation," Laser Focus Sept. 1982, 49-54 (1982).
  2. J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke and J. I. Davis, "Laser R & D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications," IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-20, 591-602 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. V. Ambartzumian and V. S. Letokhov, "Selective two-step (STS) photoionization of atoms and photodissociation of molecules by laser radiation," Appl. Opt. 11, 354-8 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. V. Karlov and A. M. Prokhorov, "Laser isotope separation," Sov. Phys. Usp. 19, 285-300 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii and V. I. Romanenko, "New methods of isotope separation,"Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209-25 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. S. Letokhov, "Laser selective photophysics and photochemistry," Prog. Opt. 16, 1-69 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell and D. C. Cartwright, "Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,"in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O.Scully and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),
  8. B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, N.Y., 1990).
  9. P. T. Greenland, "Laser Isotope Separation," Contemporary Physics 31, 405-424 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva and A. Mirage, "Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium," Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217-264 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. "Atomic vapor laser isotope separation program: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, first session, on the status of the Department of Energy's atomic vapor laser isotope separation program, September 24, 1991,"(U.S. G.P.O. For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, Washington, 1991).
  12. J. H. Eberly, N. B. Narozhny and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, "Periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in a simple quantum model," Phys. Rev. Letts. 44, 1323-6 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. R. Ackerhalt and J. H. Eberly, "Coherence versus incoherence in stepwise laser excitation of atoms," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1705-10 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore, "Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. A 16, 277-82 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. W. Shore and J. Ackerhalt, "Dynamics of multilevel laser excitation: Three-level atoms," Phys. Rev. A 15, 1640-1646 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Ackerhalt, J. H. Eberly and B. W. Shore, "Statistical broadening and population loss in strongly excited three-level systems," Phys. Rev. A 19, 248-262 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, N.Y., 1975)
  18. P. Avan and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Two-level atom saturated by a fluctuating resonant laser beam. Calculation of the fluorescence spectrum," J. Phys. B 10, 155-170 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, "Population trapping and dispersion in a three-level system," J. Phys. B 15, 561-73 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Oreg, F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, "Adiabatic following in multilevel systems," Phys. Rev. 29, 690-7 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Arimondo, "Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy," Prog. Optics 35, 259-356 (1996).
  22. B. W. Shore, "Inaccessible populations in multistep ionization," ed. (LLNL TAMP memo (unpublished), 1976).
  23. R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, Jr., "Double optical resonance," Phys. Rev. A14, 1498-1512 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, Jr., "Coherent trapping of atomic populations," Opt. Lett. 3, 218-220 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, "Non-absorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in three-level optical pumping," Nuov. Cim. Lett. 17, 333-338 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe and K. Bergmann, "Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741-44 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann and K. Bergmann, "Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results," J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Bergmann and B. W. Shore, "Coherent population transfer," in Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping ed. H. L. Dai and R. W. Field (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995),
    [CrossRef]
  29. K. Bergmann, H. Theuer and B. W. Shore, "Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules," Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003-1023 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg and J. H. Eberly, "Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study," Phys. Rev. A 45, (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula and I. Bialynicki-Birula, "Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments," Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038-47 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. P. Feynman and A. R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1965)
  33. Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly and B. W. Shore, "Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions," Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048-2054 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Analytic approximations in multi-level excitation theory," Opt. Comm. 24, 83-88 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. J. Cook and B. W. Shore, "Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules III. An analytically soluble periodic case," Phys. Rev. A 20, 539-544 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. W. Shore and M. A. Johnson, "Effects of hyperfine structure on coherent excitation," Phys. Rev. A 23, 1608-1610 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, "Reduction of degenerate two-level excitation to independent two-state systems," Phys. Rev. A 27, 906-912 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  38. P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder and B. J. Dalton, "Laser-induced continuum structure," Phys. Reports 190, 1-61 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  39. B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Modeling propagation of coherent optical pulses through molecular vapor," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 ed. C. B. Collins (STS Press, McLean, Va., 1981),
  40. J. J. Yeh, C. M. Bowden and J. H. Eberly, "Interrupted coarse-grained theory of unimolecular relaxation and stimulated recurrences in photoexcitation of a quasicontinuum," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5936-46 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  41. E. Kyrola and J. H. Eberly, "Quasicontinuum effects in molecular excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1841-54 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  42. B. W. Shore, "Coherence in the quasi-continuum model," Chem. Phys. Letts. 99, 240 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  43. M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, "Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-83 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  44. M. J. Konopnicki, P. D. Drummond and J. H. Eberly, "Theory of lossless propagation of simultaneous different-wavelength optical pulses," Opt. Comm. 36, 313-16 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  45. J. H. Eberly, M. A. Konopnicki and B. W. Shore, "The in uence of propagation on off-resonant excitation of a model molecule," Opt. Comm. 35, 76-80 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  46. B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media," in Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators ed. J. Chandra and A. C. Scott (North-Holland, N.Y., 1983).
  47. J. H. Eberly, "Atomic relaxation in the presence of intense partially coherent radiation fields," Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1387-90 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  48. G. S. Agarwal, "Exact solution for the influence of laser temporal fluctuations on resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1383-86 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  49. P. Zoller, "Ac Stark splitting in double optical resonance and resonance fluorescence by a non-monochromatic chaotic field,"Phys. Rev. A 20, 1019-1031 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  50. C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Processes (Springer, Heidelberg, 1985).
  51. A. I. Burshtein, "External relaxation," Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 908-917 (1963).
  52. A. I. Burshtein and Y. S. Oseledchik, "Relaxation in a system subjected to suddenly changing perturbations in the presence of correlation between successive values of the perturbation," Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 716-724 (1967).
  53. J. H. Eberly, K. Wodkiewicz and B. W. Shore, "Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise," Phys. Rev. A 30, 2381-2388 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  54. K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Frequency uctuations and nonexponential correlations," Phys. Rev. A 30, 2390-2398 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  55. K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Pre-Gaussian noise in strong laser-atom interactions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 398-405 (1984).
  56. Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, "Effect of coherent continuum-continuum relaxation and saturation in multiphoton ionization,"Phys. Rev. Letts. 53, 1810-1813 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  57. Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, "Multiphoton absorption above ionization threshold by atoms in strong laser fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 486-493 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  58. Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, "Variation of above-threshold ionisation power law behavior," J. Phys. B 18, L287-L291 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  59. F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite and M. Clement, "Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m," J. Phys. B 14, L677-81 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  60. B. W. Shore and P. L. Knight, "Enhancement of high optical harmonics by excess-photon ionisation," J. Phys. B 20, 413-423 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  61. K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524-26 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. B. W. Shore and K. C. Kulander, "Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. I. Propagation effects," J. Mod. Opt. 36, 857-876 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  63. K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. II. Single-atom spectrum for xenon," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 502-8 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  64. J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore and L. Roso-Franco, "High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1289-98 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  65. J. H. Eberly and K. C. Kulander, "Atomic stabilization by super-intense lasers," Science 262, 1229-33 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (65)

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz and M. L. Spaeth, "Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation," Laser Focus Sept. 1982, 49-54 (1982).

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke and J. I. Davis, "Laser R & D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications," IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-20, 591-602 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ambartzumian and V. S. Letokhov, "Selective two-step (STS) photoionization of atoms and photodissociation of molecules by laser radiation," Appl. Opt. 11, 354-8 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Karlov and A. M. Prokhorov, "Laser isotope separation," Sov. Phys. Usp. 19, 285-300 (1976).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii and V. I. Romanenko, "New methods of isotope separation,"Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209-25 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Letokhov, "Laser selective photophysics and photochemistry," Prog. Opt. 16, 1-69 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell and D. C. Cartwright, "Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,"in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O.Scully and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),

B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, N.Y., 1990).

P. T. Greenland, "Laser Isotope Separation," Contemporary Physics 31, 405-424 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva and A. Mirage, "Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium," Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217-264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

"Atomic vapor laser isotope separation program: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, first session, on the status of the Department of Energy's atomic vapor laser isotope separation program, September 24, 1991,"(U.S. G.P.O. For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, Washington, 1991).

J. H. Eberly, N. B. Narozhny and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, "Periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in a simple quantum model," Phys. Rev. Letts. 44, 1323-6 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt and J. H. Eberly, "Coherence versus incoherence in stepwise laser excitation of atoms," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1705-10 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore, "Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. A 16, 277-82 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore and J. Ackerhalt, "Dynamics of multilevel laser excitation: Three-level atoms," Phys. Rev. A 15, 1640-1646 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt, J. H. Eberly and B. W. Shore, "Statistical broadening and population loss in strongly excited three-level systems," Phys. Rev. A 19, 248-262 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, N.Y., 1975)

P. Avan and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Two-level atom saturated by a fluctuating resonant laser beam. Calculation of the fluorescence spectrum," J. Phys. B 10, 155-170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, "Population trapping and dispersion in a three-level system," J. Phys. B 15, 561-73 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Oreg, F. T. Hioe and J. H. Eberly, "Adiabatic following in multilevel systems," Phys. Rev. 29, 690-7 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo, "Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy," Prog. Optics 35, 259-356 (1996).

B. W. Shore, "Inaccessible populations in multistep ionization," ed. (LLNL TAMP memo (unpublished), 1976).

R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, Jr., "Double optical resonance," Phys. Rev. A14, 1498-1512 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, Jr., "Coherent trapping of atomic populations," Opt. Lett. 3, 218-220 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, "Non-absorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in three-level optical pumping," Nuov. Cim. Lett. 17, 333-338 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe and K. Bergmann, "Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741-44 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann and K. Bergmann, "Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results," J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363-76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann and B. W. Shore, "Coherent population transfer," in Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping ed. H. L. Dai and R. W. Field (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995),
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer and B. W. Shore, "Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules," Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003-1023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg and J. H. Eberly, "Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study," Phys. Rev. A 45, (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula and I. Bialynicki-Birula, "Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments," Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038-47 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Feynman and A. R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1965)

Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly and B. W. Shore, "Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions," Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048-2054 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Analytic approximations in multi-level excitation theory," Opt. Comm. 24, 83-88 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Cook and B. W. Shore, "Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules III. An analytically soluble periodic case," Phys. Rev. A 20, 539-544 (1979).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore and M. A. Johnson, "Effects of hyperfine structure on coherent excitation," Phys. Rev. A 23, 1608-1610 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, "Reduction of degenerate two-level excitation to independent two-state systems," Phys. Rev. A 27, 906-912 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder and B. J. Dalton, "Laser-induced continuum structure," Phys. Reports 190, 1-61 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Modeling propagation of coherent optical pulses through molecular vapor," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '81 ed. C. B. Collins (STS Press, McLean, Va., 1981),

J. J. Yeh, C. M. Bowden and J. H. Eberly, "Interrupted coarse-grained theory of unimolecular relaxation and stimulated recurrences in photoexcitation of a quasicontinuum," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5936-46 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Kyrola and J. H. Eberly, "Quasicontinuum effects in molecular excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1841-54 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore, "Coherence in the quasi-continuum model," Chem. Phys. Letts. 99, 240 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, "Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses," Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567-83 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Konopnicki, P. D. Drummond and J. H. Eberly, "Theory of lossless propagation of simultaneous different-wavelength optical pulses," Opt. Comm. 36, 313-16 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Eberly, M. A. Konopnicki and B. W. Shore, "The in uence of propagation on off-resonant excitation of a model molecule," Opt. Comm. 35, 76-80 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media," in Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators ed. J. Chandra and A. C. Scott (North-Holland, N.Y., 1983).

J. H. Eberly, "Atomic relaxation in the presence of intense partially coherent radiation fields," Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1387-90 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Agarwal, "Exact solution for the influence of laser temporal fluctuations on resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1383-86 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. Zoller, "Ac Stark splitting in double optical resonance and resonance fluorescence by a non-monochromatic chaotic field,"Phys. Rev. A 20, 1019-1031 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Processes (Springer, Heidelberg, 1985).

A. I. Burshtein, "External relaxation," Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 908-917 (1963).

A. I. Burshtein and Y. S. Oseledchik, "Relaxation in a system subjected to suddenly changing perturbations in the presence of correlation between successive values of the perturbation," Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 716-724 (1967).

J. H. Eberly, K. Wodkiewicz and B. W. Shore, "Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise," Phys. Rev. A 30, 2381-2388 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Frequency uctuations and nonexponential correlations," Phys. Rev. A 30, 2390-2398 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, "Pre-Gaussian noise in strong laser-atom interactions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 398-405 (1984).

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, "Effect of coherent continuum-continuum relaxation and saturation in multiphoton ionization,"Phys. Rev. Letts. 53, 1810-1813 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, "Multiphoton absorption above ionization threshold by atoms in strong laser fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 486-493 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, "Variation of above-threshold ionisation power law behavior," J. Phys. B 18, L287-L291 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite and M. Clement, "Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m," J. Phys. B 14, L677-81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Shore and P. L. Knight, "Enhancement of high optical harmonics by excess-photon ionisation," J. Phys. B 20, 413-423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524-26 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Shore and K. C. Kulander, "Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. I. Propagation effects," J. Mod. Opt. 36, 857-876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, "Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. II. Single-atom spectrum for xenon," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 502-8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore and L. Roso-Franco, "High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1289-98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Eberly and K. C. Kulander, "Atomic stabilization by super-intense lasers," Science 262, 1229-33 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of resonant laser excitation of a chain of N energy levels, followed by ionization. Excitation energy increases upwards. Vertical red arrows indicate connections induced by various lasers. Horizontal arrow indicates (ionization) probability loss.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time dependence of resonant excitation probability P e(t) for lossless two-level atom. Monotonic green curve is for rate equations, oscillatory red curve is for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (oscillation frequency is the Rabi frequency).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time dependence of resonant excitation probabilities Pn (t) for two-level atom with loss from upper level. Curves are marked with level number n. Times are in units of the loss rate; the Rabi frequency is twice this rate. The diagram at the left shows the laser-induced excitation linkage between the two levels. All population is eventually lost.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time dependence of resonant excitation probabilities Pn (t) for three-level lambda system, with loss from level 2, for population initially all in level 1. Curves are marked with level number n. Times are in units of the loss rate; the Rabi frequencies are each twice this rate. The diagram at the left shows the laser-induced excitation linkages between the three levels. After a long time one fourth the population resides in level 1 and another fourth in level 3; only half has been lost.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Example of linkages of linearly polarized light between magnetic sublevels of a transition between angular momentum J=1 and J=0. (a) Using a coordinate system in which the z (quantization) axis lies along the electric field. (b) Using a coordinate system in which the electric field direction is taken as the x axis, and the light is considered a coherent superposition of right- and left-circular polarization. This is an example of the lambda system of Fig. 4; it is equivalent to the linkage of (a).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Examples of resonant N-level linkages in a lossless excitation chain. From left to right N=2, 3, 4 and 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Example of linkage pattern such as would be found with degenerate hyperfine interaction, F=5/2 to F=3/2. (b) Equivalent system is four independent two-state systems, and two unconnected (“dark”) states.

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