Abstract

Liquid-phase deposition of sol-gel method derived hybrid glass materials is utilized for fabrication of UV-light-sensitive thin films. The hybrid glass material undergoes a surface-relief deformation when exposed to UV light. The observed deformation phenomenon is in the form of a physical expansion of the exposed areas. The UV light induced surface expansion of the hybrid glass film was used to fabricate near-sinusoidal diffraction gratings with periods of 24 µm, 18 µm, 12 µm, and 9 µm. The maximum deformation when the material was patterned as a diffraction grating was 0.685 µm. The hybrid glass material features an index of refraction of 1.52 at 632.8 nm, rms surface roughness of 2.2±0.8 nm after processing, and extinction coefficients of 1.2×10-3 µm-1 and 0.47×10-3 µm-1 at wavelengths of 633 nm and 1550 nm, respectively.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.T. Rantala, P. Äyräs, R. Levy, S. Honkanen, M.R. Descour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Binary phase zone-plate arrays based on hybrid sol-gel glass,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 1939–1941 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, L. Kivimäki, and M.R. Descour, “Direct UV patterning of thick hybrid glass films for micro-opto-mechanical structures,” Electronics Letters,  16, 530–531 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. P.S. Rajanujam, N.C.R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, “Atomic force and optical near-field microscopic investigations of polarization holographic gratings in a liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  68, 1329–1331 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Lévy, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photoinscription of surface relief gratings on azo-hybrid gels,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1133–1136 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M.P. Andrews, S.I. Najafi, A.V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt.,  38, 6744–6748 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W.X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorizirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids,  277, 39–44 (2000). And references therein.
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Suzuki et al., U.S Patent 4 877 717 (1989).
  11. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley-VHC, Weinheim, 1999).
  12. T.J. Trout, J.J. Schmieg, W.J. Gambogi, and A.M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1219–1224 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd Ed., Ch. 4 (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

2000 (3)

J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, L. Kivimäki, and M.R. Descour, “Direct UV patterning of thick hybrid glass films for micro-opto-mechanical structures,” Electronics Letters,  16, 530–531 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W.X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorizirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids,  277, 39–44 (2000). And references therein.
[Crossref]

C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M.P. Andrews, S.I. Najafi, A.V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt.,  38, 6744–6748 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Lévy, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photoinscription of surface relief gratings on azo-hybrid gels,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1133–1136 (1998).
[Crossref]

T.J. Trout, J.J. Schmieg, W.J. Gambogi, and A.M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1219–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, P. Äyräs, R. Levy, S. Honkanen, M.R. Descour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Binary phase zone-plate arrays based on hybrid sol-gel glass,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 1939–1941 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P.S. Rajanujam, N.C.R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, “Atomic force and optical near-field microscopic investigations of polarization holographic gratings in a liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  68, 1329–1331 (1996).
[Crossref]

Andrews, M.P.

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, P. Äyräs, R. Levy, S. Honkanen, M.R. Descour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Binary phase zone-plate arrays based on hybrid sol-gel glass,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 1939–1941 (1998).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, S.

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bian, S.

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blanc, D.

Boilot, J.-P.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Lévy, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photoinscription of surface relief gratings on azo-hybrid gels,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1133–1136 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chaput, F.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Lévy, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photoinscription of surface relief gratings on azo-hybrid gels,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1133–1136 (1998).
[Crossref]

Darracq, B.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Lévy, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photoinscription of surface relief gratings on azo-hybrid gels,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1133–1136 (1998).
[Crossref]

de Veyrac, G.

C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Descour, M.R.

J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, L. Kivimäki, and M.R. Descour, “Direct UV patterning of thick hybrid glass films for micro-opto-mechanical structures,” Electronics Letters,  16, 530–531 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, P. Äyräs, R. Levy, S. Honkanen, M.R. Descour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Binary phase zone-plate arrays based on hybrid sol-gel glass,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 1939–1941 (1998).
[Crossref]

Douay, M.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W.X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorizirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids,  277, 39–44 (2000). And references therein.
[Crossref]

Fiorini, C.

C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gambogi, W.J.

T.J. Trout, J.J. Schmieg, W.J. Gambogi, and A.M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1219–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Goodman, J.W.

J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd Ed., Ch. 4 (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Holme, N.C.R.

P.S. Rajanujam, N.C.R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, “Atomic force and optical near-field microscopic investigations of polarization holographic gratings in a liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  68, 1329–1331 (1996).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, P. Äyräs, R. Levy, S. Honkanen, M.R. Descour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Binary phase zone-plate arrays based on hybrid sol-gel glass,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 1939–1941 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hvilsted, S.

P.S. Rajanujam, N.C.R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, “Atomic force and optical near-field microscopic investigations of polarization holographic gratings in a liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  68, 1329–1331 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jahns, J.

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley-VHC, Weinheim, 1999).

Kim, D.Y.

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kivimäki, L.

J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, L. Kivimäki, and M.R. Descour, “Direct UV patterning of thick hybrid glass films for micro-opto-mechanical structures,” Electronics Letters,  16, 530–531 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kumar, J.

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lahlil, K.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Lévy, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photoinscription of surface relief gratings on azo-hybrid gels,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1133–1136 (1998).
[Crossref]

Levy, R.

J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, L. Kivimäki, and M.R. Descour, “Direct UV patterning of thick hybrid glass films for micro-opto-mechanical structures,” Electronics Letters,  16, 530–531 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, P. Äyräs, R. Levy, S. Honkanen, M.R. Descour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Binary phase zone-plate arrays based on hybrid sol-gel glass,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 1939–1941 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lévy, Y.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Lévy, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photoinscription of surface relief gratings on azo-hybrid gels,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1133–1136 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maurin, I.

C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Najafi, S.I.

Niay, P.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W.X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorizirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids,  277, 39–44 (2000). And references therein.
[Crossref]

Nunzi, J.-M.

C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

Pelissier, S.

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, P. Äyräs, R. Levy, S. Honkanen, M.R. Descour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Binary phase zone-plate arrays based on hybrid sol-gel glass,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 1939–1941 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prudhomme, N.

C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Raimond, P.

C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rajanujam, P.S.

P.S. Rajanujam, N.C.R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, “Atomic force and optical near-field microscopic investigations of polarization holographic gratings in a liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  68, 1329–1331 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rantala, J.T.

J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, L. Kivimäki, and M.R. Descour, “Direct UV patterning of thick hybrid glass films for micro-opto-mechanical structures,” Electronics Letters,  16, 530–531 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, P. Äyräs, R. Levy, S. Honkanen, M.R. Descour, and N. Peyghambarian, “Binary phase zone-plate arrays based on hybrid sol-gel glass,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 1939–1941 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schmieg, J.J.

T.J. Trout, J.J. Schmieg, W.J. Gambogi, and A.M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1219–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sinzinger, S.

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley-VHC, Weinheim, 1999).

Smektala, F.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W.X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorizirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids,  277, 39–44 (2000). And references therein.
[Crossref]

Sramek, R.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W.X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorizirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids,  277, 39–44 (2000). And references therein.
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki et al., U.S Patent 4 877 717 (1989).

Tishchenko, A.V.

Tripathy, S.

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

Trout, T.J.

T.J. Trout, J.J. Schmieg, W.J. Gambogi, and A.M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1219–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Weber, A.M.

T.J. Trout, J.J. Schmieg, W.J. Gambogi, and A.M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1219–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Williams, J.M.

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.X.

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W.X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorizirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids,  277, 39–44 (2000). And references therein.
[Crossref]

Adv. Materials (2)

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Lévy, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photoinscription of surface relief gratings on azo-hybrid gels,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1133–1136 (1998).
[Crossref]

T.J. Trout, J.J. Schmieg, W.J. Gambogi, and A.M. Weber, “Optical photopolymers: design and applications,” Adv. Materials,  10, 1219–1224 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P.S. Rajanujam, N.C.R. Holme, and S. Hvilsted, “Atomic force and optical near-field microscopic investigations of polarization holographic gratings in a liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  68, 1329–1331 (1996).
[Crossref]

Electronics Letters (1)

J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, L. Kivimäki, and M.R. Descour, “Direct UV patterning of thick hybrid glass films for micro-opto-mechanical structures,” Electronics Letters,  16, 530–531 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Bian, J.M. Williams, D.Y. Kim, L. Li, S. Balasubramanian, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Photoinduced surface deformations on azobenzene polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys.,  86, 4498–4508 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

R. Sramek, F. Smektala, W.X. Xie, M. Douay, and P. Niay, “Photoinduced surface expansion of fluorizirconate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids,  277, 39–44 (2000). And references therein.
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Synthetic Metals (1)

C. Fiorini, N. Prudhomme, G. de Veyrac, I. Maurin, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, “Molecular migration mechanism for laser induced surface relief grating formation,” Synthetic Metals,  115, 121–125 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, R. Levy, M.R. Descour, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Multilevel structures in sol-gel thin films with a single UV-exposure using a gray-scale mask,” Thin Solid Films,  352,.9–12 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. Suzuki et al., U.S Patent 4 877 717 (1989).

S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley-VHC, Weinheim, 1999).

J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd Ed., Ch. 4 (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical transmission of the UV-exposed and the unexposed thin film samples as a function of the wavelength. The discontinuity at 800 nm is an artifact associated with changing the detector in the spectrophotometer. The inset table lists extinction coefficients at eight representative wavelengths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of refractive index with UV exposure dose. See text for measurement-procedure details.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface-topography measurement of a segment of a printed diffraction grating (24 µm period, 0.685 µm peak-to-valley height).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Segment of diffraction-grating surface profile (see Figure 3). The surface-profile curve is the result of averaging surface profiles over a width of 25 µm. The black line labeled “Photomask” indicates the opaque and clear areas in the photomask. The clear areas are 6 µm wide. The blue rectangles schematically indicate the illumination pattern on the hybrid glass material.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Diffraction efficiencies of the 24-µm-period grating formed by 2.78 J/cm2 UV dose. The computed diffraction efficiencies correspond to phase grating with a surface topography as shown in Figure 4 and an effective index of refraction of 1.48. See text for details.

Equations (1)

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𝓕 { exp [ 2 π i ( n 1 ) z ( x ) λ ] } 2 ,

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