Abstract

High-power 351 nm (3ω) laser pulses can produce damaged areas in high quality fused silica optics. Recent experiments have shown the presence of a densified layer at the bottom of damage initiation craters. We have studied the propagation of shock waves through fused silica using large-scale atomistic simulations since such shocks are expected to accompany laser energy deposition. These simulations show that the shocks induce structural transformations in the material that persist long after the shock has dissipated. Values of densification and thickness of densified layer agree with experimental observations. Moreover, our simulations give an atomistic description of the structural changes in the material due to shock waves and their relation to Raman spectra measurements.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation of fused silica studied by Raman spectroscopy

Nadezda Varkentina, Marc Dussauze, Arnaud Royon, Marc Ramme, Yannick Petit, and Lionel Canioni
Opt. Mater. Express 6(1) 79-90 (2016)

Anatomy of a femtosecond laser processed silica waveguide [Invited]

J. Canning, M. Lancry, K. Cook, A. Weickman, F. Brisset, and B. Poumellec
Opt. Mater. Express 1(5) 998-1008 (2011)

Intrafilm separation of solgel film under nanosecond irradiation

Hu Wang, Hongji Qi, Jiaoling Zhao, Yingjie Chai, Bin Wang, and Jiandao Shao
Appl. Opt. 54(35) 10504-10509 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, “The radiation compaction of vitreous silica,” J.Appl.Phys. 39,5651–5658 (1968)
    [Crossref]
  2. C. Meade, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, “High-pressure X-Ray diffraction of SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1387–1390 (1992)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H. Sugiura, K. Kondo, and A. Sawaoka, “Dynamic response of fused quartz in the permanent densification region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3375–3382 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. D. Feit, L. W. Hrubesh, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. Wong, “Scaling relations for laser damage initiation craters,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)
  5. M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)
  6. J. Wong, D. Haupt, J.H. Kinney, M. Stevens-Kalceft, A. Stesmans, and J. Ferreira, “Morphology, microstructure and defects in fused silica induced by high power 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)
  7. S. G. Demos, L. Sheehan, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 surfaces of optical materials for high power lasers,” in Laser applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications V, Proc. SPIE 3933, 316–320 (2000)
  8. H. Sugiura, R. Ikeda, K. Kondo, and T. Yamadaya, “Densified silica glass after shock compression,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1651–1655 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Pasquarello and R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. Letters,  80, 5145–5147 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. P. Feuston and S. H. Garofalini, “Empirical three-body potential for vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5818–5818 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. M. Vogel, M. H. Grabow, and S. W. Martin, “Role of silica densification in the performance of optical connectors”, J. of Non-Crystalline solids 204, 95–98 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Mozzi and B. E. Warren, “The structure of vitreous silica,” J. Appl. Crystl. 2, 164–168 (1969)
    [Crossref]
  13. A. B. Belonoshko, “Atomistic simulation of shock wave-induced melting in Argon,” Science,  275, 955–957 (1997)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. H. Robertson, J.J. C. Barrett, M. L. Elert, and C. T. White, “Self-similar behavior from molecular dynamics simulations of detonations,” Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 297–300 (1998)
  15. J. K. West and L. L. Hench, “Molecular orbital models of silica rings and their vibrational spectra,” J. of the American Ceramic Society,  78, 1093–1096 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Feng, “Formation and propagation of failure in shocked glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1693–1700 (2000)
    [Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. G. Demos, L. Sheehan, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 surfaces of optical materials for high power lasers,” in Laser applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications V, Proc. SPIE 3933, 316–320 (2000)

R. Feng, “Formation and propagation of failure in shocked glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1693–1700 (2000)
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. P. Feuston and S. H. Garofalini, “Empirical three-body potential for vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5818–5818 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. B. Belonoshko, “Atomistic simulation of shock wave-induced melting in Argon,” Science,  275, 955–957 (1997)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sugiura, R. Ikeda, K. Kondo, and T. Yamadaya, “Densified silica glass after shock compression,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1651–1655 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. M. Vogel, M. H. Grabow, and S. W. Martin, “Role of silica densification in the performance of optical connectors”, J. of Non-Crystalline solids 204, 95–98 (1996)
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. K. West and L. L. Hench, “Molecular orbital models of silica rings and their vibrational spectra,” J. of the American Ceramic Society,  78, 1093–1096 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. Pasquarello and R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. Letters,  80, 5145–5147 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. Meade, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, “High-pressure X-Ray diffraction of SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1387–1390 (1992)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

H. Sugiura, K. Kondo, and A. Sawaoka, “Dynamic response of fused quartz in the permanent densification region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3375–3382 (1981).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

L. Mozzi and B. E. Warren, “The structure of vitreous silica,” J. Appl. Crystl. 2, 164–168 (1969)
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, “The radiation compaction of vitreous silica,” J.Appl.Phys. 39,5651–5658 (1968)
[Crossref]

Barrett, J.J. C.

D. H. Robertson, J.J. C. Barrett, M. L. Elert, and C. T. White, “Self-similar behavior from molecular dynamics simulations of detonations,” Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 297–300 (1998)

Belonoshko, A. B.

A. B. Belonoshko, “Atomistic simulation of shock wave-induced melting in Argon,” Science,  275, 955–957 (1997)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnham, A.

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Car, R.

A. Pasquarello and R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. Letters,  80, 5145–5147 (1993).
[Crossref]

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, L. Sheehan, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 surfaces of optical materials for high power lasers,” in Laser applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications V, Proc. SPIE 3933, 316–320 (2000)

Elert, M. L.

D. H. Robertson, J.J. C. Barrett, M. L. Elert, and C. T. White, “Self-similar behavior from molecular dynamics simulations of detonations,” Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 297–300 (1998)

Feit, M. D.

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

M. D. Feit, L. W. Hrubesh, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. Wong, “Scaling relations for laser damage initiation craters,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Feng, R.

R. Feng, “Formation and propagation of failure in shocked glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1693–1700 (2000)
[Crossref]

Ferreira, J.

J. Wong, D. Haupt, J.H. Kinney, M. Stevens-Kalceft, A. Stesmans, and J. Ferreira, “Morphology, microstructure and defects in fused silica induced by high power 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Feuston, B. P.

B. P. Feuston and S. H. Garofalini, “Empirical three-body potential for vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5818–5818 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fluck, R.

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Garofalini, S. H.

B. P. Feuston and S. H. Garofalini, “Empirical three-body potential for vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5818–5818 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grabow, M. H.

E. M. Vogel, M. H. Grabow, and S. W. Martin, “Role of silica densification in the performance of optical connectors”, J. of Non-Crystalline solids 204, 95–98 (1996)
[Crossref]

Haupt, D.

J. Wong, D. Haupt, J.H. Kinney, M. Stevens-Kalceft, A. Stesmans, and J. Ferreira, “Morphology, microstructure and defects in fused silica induced by high power 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Hemley, R. J.

C. Meade, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, “High-pressure X-Ray diffraction of SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1387–1390 (1992)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hench, L. L.

J. K. West and L. L. Hench, “Molecular orbital models of silica rings and their vibrational spectra,” J. of the American Ceramic Society,  78, 1093–1096 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hrubesh, L. W.

M. D. Feit, L. W. Hrubesh, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. Wong, “Scaling relations for laser damage initiation craters,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Ikeda, R.

H. Sugiura, R. Ikeda, K. Kondo, and T. Yamadaya, “Densified silica glass after shock compression,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1651–1655 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kampwirth, R.

W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, “The radiation compaction of vitreous silica,” J.Appl.Phys. 39,5651–5658 (1968)
[Crossref]

Kinney, J.H.

J. Wong, D. Haupt, J.H. Kinney, M. Stevens-Kalceft, A. Stesmans, and J. Ferreira, “Morphology, microstructure and defects in fused silica induced by high power 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Kondo, K.

H. Sugiura, R. Ikeda, K. Kondo, and T. Yamadaya, “Densified silica glass after shock compression,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1651–1655 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Sugiura, K. Kondo, and A. Sawaoka, “Dynamic response of fused quartz in the permanent densification region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3375–3382 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kozlowski, M. R.

S. G. Demos, L. Sheehan, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 surfaces of optical materials for high power lasers,” in Laser applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications V, Proc. SPIE 3933, 316–320 (2000)

Mao, H. K.

C. Meade, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, “High-pressure X-Ray diffraction of SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1387–1390 (1992)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, S. W.

E. M. Vogel, M. H. Grabow, and S. W. Martin, “Role of silica densification in the performance of optical connectors”, J. of Non-Crystalline solids 204, 95–98 (1996)
[Crossref]

Meade, C.

C. Meade, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, “High-pressure X-Ray diffraction of SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1387–1390 (1992)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milam, D.

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Mozzi, L.

L. Mozzi and B. E. Warren, “The structure of vitreous silica,” J. Appl. Crystl. 2, 164–168 (1969)
[Crossref]

Pasquarello, A.

A. Pasquarello and R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. Letters,  80, 5145–5147 (1993).
[Crossref]

Primak, W.

W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, “The radiation compaction of vitreous silica,” J.Appl.Phys. 39,5651–5658 (1968)
[Crossref]

Robertson, D. H.

D. H. Robertson, J.J. C. Barrett, M. L. Elert, and C. T. White, “Self-similar behavior from molecular dynamics simulations of detonations,” Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 297–300 (1998)

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

M. D. Feit, L. W. Hrubesh, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. Wong, “Scaling relations for laser damage initiation craters,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Runkel, M.

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Sawaoka, A.

H. Sugiura, K. Kondo, and A. Sawaoka, “Dynamic response of fused quartz in the permanent densification region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3375–3382 (1981).
[Crossref]

Sell, W.

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Sheehan, L.

S. G. Demos, L. Sheehan, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 surfaces of optical materials for high power lasers,” in Laser applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications V, Proc. SPIE 3933, 316–320 (2000)

Stesmans, A.

J. Wong, D. Haupt, J.H. Kinney, M. Stevens-Kalceft, A. Stesmans, and J. Ferreira, “Morphology, microstructure and defects in fused silica induced by high power 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Stevens-Kalceft, M.

J. Wong, D. Haupt, J.H. Kinney, M. Stevens-Kalceft, A. Stesmans, and J. Ferreira, “Morphology, microstructure and defects in fused silica induced by high power 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Sugiura, H.

H. Sugiura, R. Ikeda, K. Kondo, and T. Yamadaya, “Densified silica glass after shock compression,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1651–1655 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Sugiura, K. Kondo, and A. Sawaoka, “Dynamic response of fused quartz in the permanent densification region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3375–3382 (1981).
[Crossref]

Vogel, E. M.

E. M. Vogel, M. H. Grabow, and S. W. Martin, “Role of silica densification in the performance of optical connectors”, J. of Non-Crystalline solids 204, 95–98 (1996)
[Crossref]

Warren, B. E.

L. Mozzi and B. E. Warren, “The structure of vitreous silica,” J. Appl. Crystl. 2, 164–168 (1969)
[Crossref]

Wegner, P.

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

West, J. K.

J. K. West and L. L. Hench, “Molecular orbital models of silica rings and their vibrational spectra,” J. of the American Ceramic Society,  78, 1093–1096 (1994).
[Crossref]

White, C. T.

D. H. Robertson, J.J. C. Barrett, M. L. Elert, and C. T. White, “Self-similar behavior from molecular dynamics simulations of detonations,” Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 297–300 (1998)

Wong, J.

J. Wong, D. Haupt, J.H. Kinney, M. Stevens-Kalceft, A. Stesmans, and J. Ferreira, “Morphology, microstructure and defects in fused silica induced by high power 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

M. D. Feit, L. W. Hrubesh, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. Wong, “Scaling relations for laser damage initiation craters,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Yamadaya, T.

H. Sugiura, R. Ikeda, K. Kondo, and T. Yamadaya, “Densified silica glass after shock compression,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1651–1655 (1997).
[Crossref]

in Laser applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications V, Proc. SPIE (1)

S. G. Demos, L. Sheehan, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Spectroscopic investigation of SiO2 surfaces of optical materials for high power lasers,” in Laser applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications V, Proc. SPIE 3933, 316–320 (2000)

J. Appl. Crystl. (1)

L. Mozzi and B. E. Warren, “The structure of vitreous silica,” J. Appl. Crystl. 2, 164–168 (1969)
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. Feng, “Formation and propagation of failure in shocked glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1693–1700 (2000)
[Crossref]

H. Sugiura, R. Ikeda, K. Kondo, and T. Yamadaya, “Densified silica glass after shock compression,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1651–1655 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Sugiura, K. Kondo, and A. Sawaoka, “Dynamic response of fused quartz in the permanent densification region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3375–3382 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. P. Feuston and S. H. Garofalini, “Empirical three-body potential for vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 5818–5818 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. of Non-Crystalline solids (1)

E. M. Vogel, M. H. Grabow, and S. W. Martin, “Role of silica densification in the performance of optical connectors”, J. of Non-Crystalline solids 204, 95–98 (1996)
[Crossref]

J. of the American Ceramic Society (1)

J. K. West and L. L. Hench, “Molecular orbital models of silica rings and their vibrational spectra,” J. of the American Ceramic Society,  78, 1093–1096 (1994).
[Crossref]

J.Appl.Phys. (1)

W. Primak and R. Kampwirth, “The radiation compaction of vitreous silica,” J.Appl.Phys. 39,5651–5658 (1968)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Meade, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, “High-pressure X-Ray diffraction of SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1387–1390 (1992)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

A. Pasquarello and R. Car, “Identification of Raman defect lines as signatures of ring structures in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. Letters,  80, 5145–5147 (1993).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. B. Belonoshko, “Atomistic simulation of shock wave-induced melting in Argon,” Science,  275, 955–957 (1997)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

D. H. Robertson, J.J. C. Barrett, M. L. Elert, and C. T. White, “Self-similar behavior from molecular dynamics simulations of detonations,” Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 297–300 (1998)

M. D. Feit, L. W. Hrubesh, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. Wong, “Scaling relations for laser damage initiation craters,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

M. Runkel, A. Burnham, D. Milam, W. Sell, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. Fluck, and P. Wegner, “Results of pulse-scaling experiments on rapid-growth DKDP triplers using the Optical Sciences Laser at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

J. Wong, D. Haupt, J.H. Kinney, M. Stevens-Kalceft, A. Stesmans, and J. Ferreira, “Morphology, microstructure and defects in fused silica induced by high power 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE (in press)

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (676 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (670 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1:

Initial simulation set up. Colors represent coordination of silicon atoms, with grey being 4-fold corrdinated and yellow are 3-fold coordinated Si atoms.

Fig. 2:
Fig. 2:

Velocity profiles for (a) 0.75 km/s and (b) 2.5 km/s pistons at different times.

Fig. 3:
Fig. 3:

Velocities of shock waves as a function of piston velocity for two simulations (squares and filled circles) and experimental measurements (triangles)

Fig.4:
Fig.4:

Simulation (a) after shock, and (b) after relaxation showing the coordination of Si atoms. Gray are 4-fold coordinated, yellow 3-fold and green 5-fold. Movie of (a) (0.7Mb).

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

Ring size statistics before and after shock

Fig. 6:
Fig. 6:

Simulation (a) before, (b) after shock and (c) after relaxation showing rings of sizes 3 and 4 in magenta and the rings of size 10 and larger in yellow. Movie for shock propagation, (a) to (b) (0.7 Mb)

Metrics