Abstract

We present a customized multilayered dielectric stack employed as a broadband phase modulator with 6.3 THz optical bandwidth. The bandpass modulator provides up to a full-cycle of near-uniform phase modulation across a defined signal spectrum with maximized transmission and minimized pulse phase distortion. The modulator offers a compact, lightweight approach to active wavefront phase control for large optical apertures without the use of mechanical actuators. The modulator also provides for rapid signal switching. We contrast the narrowband transmission of a standard Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with the broadband transmission of our optimized bandpass modulator. We explore techniques for implementing rapid phase modulation while maintaining high average signal transmission levels.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. L. Fork, S. T. Cole, L. J. Gamble, W. M. Diffey, and A. S. Keys, “Optical amplifier for space applications,” Opt. Express 5, 292–301 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/14181.htm.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.
  3. J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An Imaging Nulling Interferometer to Study Extrasolar Planets,” ApJ. 475, 373–379 (1997), http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v475n1/34611/34611.html.
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  8. See, for example,M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, Second Revised Edition (Pergamon Press, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1964).
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  11. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).
  13. M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and J. P. Dowling, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic band gap materials,” in Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. S. Keys, R. L. Fork, T. R. Nelson, and J. P. Loehr, “Resonant Transmissive Modulator Construction for use in Beam Steering Array,” in Optical Scanning: Design and Application, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, and G. F. Marshall, eds., Proc. SPIE3787, 115–125 (1999).
  15. A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, and M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra and H. A. MacLeod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).
  16. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, “Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings,” Ap. Opt. 35, 5493–5508 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122, (1990).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. A. Trezza, K. Kang, J. S. Powell, C. G. Garvin, and R. D. Stack, “High-speed electrically controlled GaAs quantum well spatial light modulators: device creation and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 94–102 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-Induced Optical Effect in a Five-Step Asymmetric Coupled QuantumWell with Modified Potential,” IEEE J. QuantumMech. 34, 1197–1208 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical Limiting and Switching of Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Photonic Band Gap Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. L. Fork, S. T. Cole, L. J. Gamble, W. M. Diffey, and A. S. Keys, “Optical amplifier for space applications,” Opt. Express 5, 292–301 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/14181.htm.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

1998 (2)

J. A. Trezza, K. Kang, J. S. Powell, C. G. Garvin, and R. D. Stack, “High-speed electrically controlled GaAs quantum well spatial light modulators: device creation and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 94–102 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-Induced Optical Effect in a Five-Step Asymmetric Coupled QuantumWell with Modified Potential,” IEEE J. QuantumMech. 34, 1197–1208 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An Imaging Nulling Interferometer to Study Extrasolar Planets,” ApJ. 475, 373–379 (1997), http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v475n1/34611/34611.html.
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, “Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings,” Ap. Opt. 35, 5493–5508 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical Limiting and Switching of Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Photonic Band Gap Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122, (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An Imaging Nulling Interferometer to Study Extrasolar Planets,” ApJ. 475, 373–379 (1997), http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v475n1/34611/34611.html.
[Crossref]

Bendickson, J. M.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122, (1990).
[Crossref]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical Limiting and Switching of Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Photonic Band Gap Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and J. P. Dowling, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic band gap materials,” in Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1996).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

See, for example,M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, Second Revised Edition (Pergamon Press, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1964).

Bowden, C. M.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical Limiting and Switching of Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Photonic Band Gap Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and J. P. Dowling, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic band gap materials,” in Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1996).
[Crossref]

Burrus, C. A.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-C.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Cole, S. T.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

R. L. Fork, S. T. Cole, L. J. Gamble, W. M. Diffey, and A. S. Keys, “Optical amplifier for space applications,” Opt. Express 5, 292–301 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/14181.htm.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

DeBell, G. W.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, “Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings,” Ap. Opt. 35, 5493–5508 (1996).
[Crossref]

Del Alamo, J. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122, (1990).
[Crossref]

Diffey, B.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

Diffey, W. M.

Dowling, J. P.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical Limiting and Switching of Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Photonic Band Gap Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and J. P. Dowling, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic band gap materials,” in Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1996).
[Crossref]

Ehret, J. E.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

Feng, H.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-Induced Optical Effect in a Five-Step Asymmetric Coupled QuantumWell with Modified Potential,” IEEE J. QuantumMech. 34, 1197–1208 (1998).
[Crossref]

Feria, Y.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Flynn, R. J.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fork, R. L.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

R. L. Fork, S. T. Cole, L. J. Gamble, W. M. Diffey, and A. S. Keys, “Optical amplifier for space applications,” Opt. Express 5, 292–301 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/14181.htm.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. S. Keys, R. L. Fork, T. R. Nelson, and J. P. Loehr, “Resonant Transmissive Modulator Construction for use in Beam Steering Array,” in Optical Scanning: Design and Application, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, and G. F. Marshall, eds., Proc. SPIE3787, 115–125 (1999).

Gamble, L.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

Gamble, L. J.

Garvin, C. G.

J. A. Trezza, K. Kang, J. S. Powell, C. G. Garvin, and R. D. Stack, “High-speed electrically controlled GaAs quantum well spatial light modulators: device creation and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 94–102 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Harcke, L. J.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Harris, T. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of Crystals and Glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. II, Second Edition, Michael Bass, Eric W. Van Stryland, David R. Williams, and William L. Wolfe, eds., p. 33.61 (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995).

Hemmati, H.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Jones, D. K.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

Kang, K.

J. A. Trezza, K. Kang, J. S. Powell, C. G. Garvin, and R. D. Stack, “High-speed electrically controlled GaAs quantum well spatial light modulators: device creation and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 94–102 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keys, A. S.

R. L. Fork, S. T. Cole, L. J. Gamble, W. M. Diffey, and A. S. Keys, “Optical amplifier for space applications,” Opt. Express 5, 292–301 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/14181.htm.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

A. S. Keys, R. L. Fork, T. R. Nelson, and J. P. Loehr, “Resonant Transmissive Modulator Construction for use in Beam Steering Array,” in Optical Scanning: Design and Application, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, and G. F. Marshall, eds., Proc. SPIE3787, 115–125 (1999).

Lansing, F.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Layland, J. W.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Leavitt, R. P.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ledbetter, H. S.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lesh, J.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Loehr, J. P.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

A. S. Keys, R. L. Fork, T. R. Nelson, and J. P. Loehr, “Resonant Transmissive Modulator Construction for use in Beam Steering Array,” in Optical Scanning: Design and Application, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, and G. F. Marshall, eds., Proc. SPIE3787, 115–125 (1999).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Montgomery, E. E.

E. E. Montgomery and G. W. Zeiders, “The case for segmentation of the primary mirror of large aperture space telescopes,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, Pierre Y. Bely and James B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 788–798 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nakano, Y.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-Induced Optical Effect in a Five-Step Asymmetric Coupled QuantumWell with Modified Potential,” IEEE J. QuantumMech. 34, 1197–1208 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nelson, T. R.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

A. S. Keys, R. L. Fork, T. R. Nelson, and J. P. Loehr, “Resonant Transmissive Modulator Construction for use in Beam Steering Array,” in Optical Scanning: Design and Application, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, and G. F. Marshall, eds., Proc. SPIE3787, 115–125 (1999).

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, “Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, Edward D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, San Diego1985).

Pang, J. P.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-Induced Optical Effect in a Five-Step Asymmetric Coupled QuantumWell with Modified Potential,” IEEE J. QuantumMech. 34, 1197–1208 (1998).
[Crossref]

Powell, J. S.

J. A. Trezza, K. Kang, J. S. Powell, C. G. Garvin, and R. D. Stack, “High-speed electrically controlled GaAs quantum well spatial light modulators: device creation and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 94–102 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rascoe, D.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Reinhardt, S. B.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical Limiting and Switching of Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Photonic Band Gap Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and J. P. Dowling, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic band gap materials,” in Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1996).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122, (1990).
[Crossref]

Stack, R. D.

J. A. Trezza, K. Kang, J. S. Powell, C. G. Garvin, and R. D. Stack, “High-speed electrically controlled GaAs quantum well spatial light modulators: device creation and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 94–102 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sue, M. K.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Sugiyama, M.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-Induced Optical Effect in a Five-Step Asymmetric Coupled QuantumWell with Modified Potential,” IEEE J. QuantumMech. 34, 1197–1208 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tada, K.

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-Induced Optical Effect in a Five-Step Asymmetric Coupled QuantumWell with Modified Potential,” IEEE J. QuantumMech. 34, 1197–1208 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thelen, A.

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, and M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra and H. A. MacLeod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).

Thomas, M. E.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of Crystals and Glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. II, Second Edition, Michael Bass, Eric W. Van Stryland, David R. Williams, and William L. Wolfe, eds., p. 33.61 (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995).

Tikhonravov, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, “Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings,” Ap. Opt. 35, 5493–5508 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, and M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra and H. A. MacLeod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).

Tocci, M. D.

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and J. P. Dowling, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic band gap materials,” in Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1996).
[Crossref]

Trezza, J. A.

J. A. Trezza, K. Kang, J. S. Powell, C. G. Garvin, and R. D. Stack, “High-speed electrically controlled GaAs quantum well spatial light modulators: device creation and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 94–102 (1998).
[Crossref]

Trimm, R. A.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

Tropf, W. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of Crystals and Glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. II, Second Edition, Michael Bass, Eric W. Van Stryland, David R. Williams, and William L. Wolfe, eds., p. 33.61 (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995).

Trubetskov, M. K.

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, “Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings,” Ap. Opt. 35, 5493–5508 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, and M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra and H. A. MacLeod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).

Van Nostrand, J. E.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

Wiegmann, W.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Wilhelm, M.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Wilson, K.

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

Wolf, E.

See, for example,M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, Second Revised Edition (Pergamon Press, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1964).

Wood, T. H.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Woolf, N. J.

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An Imaging Nulling Interferometer to Study Extrasolar Planets,” ApJ. 475, 373–379 (1997), http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v475n1/34611/34611.html.
[Crossref]

Xie, Q.

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media, (JohnWiley and Sons, New York, 1988), Chapter 5.

Zeiders, G. W.

E. E. Montgomery and G. W. Zeiders, “The case for segmentation of the primary mirror of large aperture space telescopes,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, Pierre Y. Bely and James B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 788–798 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ap. Opt. (1)

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, and G. W. DeBell, “Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings,” Ap. Opt. 35, 5493–5508 (1996).
[Crossref]

ApJ. (1)

J. R. P. Angel and N. J. Woolf, “An Imaging Nulling Interferometer to Study Extrasolar Planets,” ApJ. 475, 373–379 (1997), http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v475n1/34611/34611.html.
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-Induced Change in Refractive Index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122, (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. QuantumMech. (1)

H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-Induced Optical Effect in a Five-Step Asymmetric Coupled QuantumWell with Modified Potential,” IEEE J. QuantumMech. 34, 1197–1208 (1998).
[Crossref]

in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE (1)

T. R. Nelson, J. P. Loehr, Q. Xie, J. E. Ehret, J. E. Van Nostrand, L. Gamble, D. K. Jones, S. T. Cole, R. A. Trimm, B. Diffey, R. L. Fork, and A. S. Keys, “Electrically Tunable Delays Using QuantumWells in a Distributed Bragg Reflector,” in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications, Proc. SPIE 3714, 12–23 (1999).

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Scalora, R. J. Flynn, S. B. Reinhardt, R. L. Fork, M. J. Bloemer, M. D. Tocci, C. M. Bowden, H. S. Ledbetter, J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and R. P. Leavitt, “Ultrashort pulse propagation at the photonic band edge: Large tunable group delay with minimal distortion and loss,” Phys. Rev. E 54, R1078–R1081 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical Limiting and Switching of Ultrashort Pulses in Nonlinear Photonic Band Gap Materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in QuantumWell Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173–2176 (1984).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. A. Trezza, K. Kang, J. S. Powell, C. G. Garvin, and R. D. Stack, “High-speed electrically controlled GaAs quantum well spatial light modulators: device creation and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3292, 94–102 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

H. Hemmati, K. Wilson, M. K. Sue, L. J. Harcke, M. Wilhelm, C.-C. Chen, J. Lesh, Y. Feria, D. Rascoe, F. Lansing, and J. W. Layland, “Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission,” The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Progress Report42–128, Oct-Dec 1996, J. H. Yuen, ed., 1–33 (1996), http://tmo.jpl.nasa.gov/tmo/progress_report/42-128/title.htm.

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and J. P. Dowling, “Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic band gap materials,” in Microcavities and Photonic Bandgaps: Physics and Applications, J. Rarity and C. Weisbuch, eds., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1996).
[Crossref]

A. S. Keys, R. L. Fork, T. R. Nelson, and J. P. Loehr, “Resonant Transmissive Modulator Construction for use in Beam Steering Array,” in Optical Scanning: Design and Application, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, and G. F. Marshall, eds., Proc. SPIE3787, 115–125 (1999).

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, and M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra and H. A. MacLeod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).

See, for example,M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, Second Revised Edition (Pergamon Press, The MacMillan Co., New York, 1964).

E. D. Palik, “Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, Edward D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, San Diego1985).

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and T. J. Harris, “Properties of Crystals and Glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. II, Second Edition, Michael Bass, Eric W. Van Stryland, David R. Williams, and William L. Wolfe, eds., p. 33.61 (McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995).

C.A. Beichman, N.J. Woolf, and C.A. Lindensmith, eds., TPF: Terrestrial Planet Finder, JPL Publication 99–003 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, 1999), http://tpf.jpl.nasa.gov/library/tpf_book/index.html.

E. E. Montgomery and G. W. Zeiders, “The case for segmentation of the primary mirror of large aperture space telescopes,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, Pierre Y. Bely and James B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 788–798 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media, (JohnWiley and Sons, New York, 1988), Chapter 5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission function of a 100-layer Distributed Bragg Reflector. (a) Plot of transmission verses wavelength, showing narrow-band transmisison resonances on each side of the reflective bandgap region. (b) Plot of relative transmitted phase verses wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plot of transmission characteristics for 100-layer DBR stack with 3 In0.2Ga0.8As quantum wells embedded within each layer of GaAs. (a) Detail of first transmission resonance on the long wavelength side of the reflective bandgap as modulated by QCSE in response to applied electric fields of 0 kV/cm and 100 kV/cm, (b) Detail of relative phase modulation in response to applied electric fields, (c) The difference between relative phase modulation levels representing the net phase modulation and its spectral dependence.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plots of the transmission functions exhibited by the initial bandpass configuration and the optimized final bandpass configuration. The transmission axis ranges from 0.8 to 1.0 for the purpose of revealing transmission function details.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plots of (a) the transmission function of the bandpass configuration when interrogated by p-polarization light at various angles of incidence; (b) the relative phase function at various angles of incidence; and (c) the relative phase modulation available at various angles of incidence.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plots of (a) the transmission function of the bandpass configuration when interrogated by s-polarization light at various angles of incidence; (b) the relative phase function at various angles of incidence; and (c) the relative phase modulation available at various angles of incidence.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω ( k ) = ( ω ) 0 + ( d ω dk ) 0 ( k k 0 ) + ( d 2 ω d k 2 ) 0 ( k k 0 ) 2 2 ! + + ( d n ω d k n ) 0 ( k k 0 ) n n ! + .
v p = ω k = Δ ϕ Δ t · λ 2 π n eff
Δ ϕ = Δ d 2 π n eff λ .
v g = ( d ω dk ) 0 = d dk ( k 0 ( v p ) 0 ) = ( v p ) 0 + k 0 ( d ( v p ) 0 dk ) .
v g = ( v p ) 0 λ 0 ( d ( v p ) 0 d λ ) .
S ( LH ) 50 A
S HLHLHLH ( 9 HLHLHLHLHLHLHL 9 H ) 5 HLHLHLH A

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