Abstract

We demonstrate the functionality of an en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with images from the retina and skin. En-face images collected at different depths are subsequently used to reconstruct a 3D volume of the tissue. The reconstruction allows software inferred OCT longitudinal images at any transversal position in the stack. The position in depth in the stack before creating longitudinal OCT images is also adjustable, offering a valuable guidance tool for exploring the 3D volume of the tissue. This is illustrated by Quick time movies showing either depth or lateral exploration along one of two possible different directions in the stack of transversal OCT images. Sufficient accuracy of the volume rendered is obtained in 20 seconds when the system operates at 2 frames a second. The system, equipped with the 3D rendering feature acts as a valuable diagnostic tool allowing “peeling off” of transversal and longitudinal biologic material to investigate different internal features.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. C. Youngquist, S. Carr, and D. E. N. Davies, “Optical coherence-domain reflectometry: A New Optical Evaluation Technique,” Opt. Lett. 12, 158–160 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. Puliafito, Optical coherence tomography of ocular diseases, (Thorofare, NJ, SLACK Inc., 1996).
  4. J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology,  191, 93–98 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, S.A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, and L. M. Kelly, “Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues,” Opt. Express,  6, 243–250 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/21766.htm.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 12–20 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.,  154, 179–185 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, ‘Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function’, Opt. Lett. 21, 1789–1791 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 147–149 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Hoeling, A. Fernandez, R. Haskell, E. Huang, W. Myers, D. Petersen, S. Ungersma, R. Wang, M. Williams, and S. Fraser, “An optical coherence microscope for 3-dimensional imaging in developmental biology”,  6, Opt. Express, 136–145 (2000), http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/source/19250.htm.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Pan and D. Farkas, “Non-invasive Imaging of Living Human Skin with Dual-wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography in Two and Three Dimensions,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 446–455 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. Barton, J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A.J. Welch, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Blood Vessels from in vivo Color Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology,  198, 355–361 (1999).
  15. L. Giniunas, R. Danielius, and Karkockas, “Scanning delay line with a rotating-parallelogram prism for low-coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt.,  38,. 7076–7079 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ungarunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express,  3, No.6, 219–229 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/source/5873.htm
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. Gh. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, “OCT En-face Images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.,  5, 1176–1184, (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and R. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt.,  38, 2105–2115 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Gh. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Noise Analysis of a combined optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt.,  38, 2116–2127 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Gh. Podoleanu, “Unbalanced versus balanced operation in an OCT system,” Appl. Opt.,  39, 173–182 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the human optic nerve in vivo,” Opt. Express,  3, 356–359 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/source/6295.htm
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Web page of the New York Eye and Ear infirmery: http://www.nyee.edu/glaucoma/octdata.htm.

2000 (3)

1999 (5)

A. Gh. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, “OCT En-face Images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.,  5, 1176–1184, (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson, and R. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt.,  38, 2105–2115 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Noise Analysis of a combined optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt.,  38, 2116–2127 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Barton, J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A.J. Welch, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Blood Vessels from in vivo Color Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology,  198, 355–361 (1999).

L. Giniunas, R. Danielius, and Karkockas, “Scanning delay line with a rotating-parallelogram prism for low-coherence interferometry,” Appl. Opt.,  38,. 7076–7079 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (6)

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ungarunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express,  3, No.6, 219–229 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/source/5873.htm
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pan and D. Farkas, “Non-invasive Imaging of Living Human Skin with Dual-wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography in Two and Three Dimensions,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 446–455 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the human optic nerve in vivo,” Opt. Express,  3, 356–359 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/source/6295.htm
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.,  154, 179–185 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 147–149 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology,  191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Anderson, R.

Barton, J.

J. Barton, J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A.J. Welch, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Blood Vessels from in vivo Color Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology,  198, 355–361 (1999).

Baumgartner, A.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.,  154, 179–185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Beausencourt, E.

Bonner, R. F.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology,  191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S.A.

S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.E.

S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M.E.

S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, S.A.

Carr, S.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danielius, R.

Davies, D. E. N.

Dobre, G. M.

Elsner, A. E.

Farkas, D.

Y. Pan and D. Farkas, “Non-invasive Imaging of Living Human Skin with Dual-wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography in Two and Three Dimensions,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 446–455 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fercher, A. F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.,  154, 179–185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, A.

Fitzke, F.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, S.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.G.

S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giniunas, L.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haskell, R.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.,  154, 179–185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hoeling, B.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, E.

Izatt, J. A.

Izatt, J.A.

J. Barton, J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A.J. Welch, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Blood Vessels from in vivo Color Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology,  198, 355–361 (1999).

Jackson, D. A.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, “OCT En-face Images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.,  5, 1176–1184, (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Noise Analysis of a combined optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt.,  38, 2116–2127 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 147–149 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, ‘Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function’, Opt. Lett. 21, 1789–1791 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karkockas,

Kelly, L. M.

Kligman, A. M.

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Knuettel, A.

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, L.

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Kulkarni, M.D.

J. Barton, J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A.J. Welch, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Blood Vessels from in vivo Color Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology,  198, 355–361 (1999).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masters, B. R.

Moraes, L.

Myers, W.

Pagnoni, A.

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan and D. Farkas, “Non-invasive Imaging of Living Human Skin with Dual-wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography in Two and Three Dimensions,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 446–455 (1998).
[Crossref]

Petersen, D.

Podoleanu, A. Gh.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, “Unbalanced versus balanced operation in an OCT system,” Appl. Opt.,  39, 173–182 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, “OCT En-face Images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.,  5, 1176–1184, (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Noise Analysis of a combined optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt.,  38, 2116–2127 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, “En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,” Opt. Lett.,  23, 147–149 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, ‘Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function’, Opt. Lett. 21, 1789–1791 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C.

C. Puliafito, Optical coherence tomography of ocular diseases, (Thorofare, NJ, SLACK Inc., 1996).

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, R.

Raskauskas, P. A.

Remky, A.

Rist, M.

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, “OCT En-face Images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.,  5, 1176–1184, (1999).
[Crossref]

Rollins, A. M.

Sadiq, I.

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology,  191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seeger, M.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Southern, J.F.

S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoudemayer, T.

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Swanson, E.A.

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.J.

S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ungarunyawee, R.

Ungersma, S.

Walker, J. P.

Wang, R.

Webb, D. J.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, ‘Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function’, Opt. Lett. 21, 1789–1791 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R.

Weiter, J. J.

Welch, A.J.

J. Barton, J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A.J. Welch, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Blood Vessels from in vivo Color Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology,  198, 355–361 (1999).

Welker, P.

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Williams, M.

Wing, G. L.

Yadlowsky, M. J.

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology,  191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

J. Barton, J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A.J. Welch, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Blood Vessels from in vivo Color Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology,  198, 355–361 (1999).

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ungarunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo video rate optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express,  3, No.6, 219–229 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/oearchive/source/5873.htm
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youngquist, R. C.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology (1)

J. Barton, J.A. Izatt, M.D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A.J. Welch, “Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Blood Vessels from in vivo Color Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Clinical and Laboratory Investigations Dermatology,  198, 355–361 (1999).

Dermatology (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology,  191, 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Gh. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, “OCT En-face Images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.,  5, 1176–1184, (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed Optics (2)

Y. Pan and D. Farkas, “Non-invasive Imaging of Living Human Skin with Dual-wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography in Two and Three Dimensions,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 446–455 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. Fitzke “Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,” J. Biomed Optics,  3, 12–20 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, and A. F. Fercher, “Dispersion induced multiple signal peak splitting in partial coherence interferometry,” Opt. Commun.,  154, 179–185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

S.A. Boppart, G.J. Tearney, B.E. Bouma, J.F. Southern, M.E. Brezinski, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science,  2541178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skin Research and Technology (1)

A. Pagnoni, A. Knuettel, P. Welker, M. Rist, T. Stoudemayer, L. Kolbe, I. Sadiq, and A. M. Kligman, “Optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” Skin Research and Technology,  5, 83–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

C. Puliafito, Optical coherence tomography of ocular diseases, (Thorofare, NJ, SLACK Inc., 1996).

Web page of the New York Eye and Ear infirmery: http://www.nyee.edu/glaucoma/octdata.htm.

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (2363 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1246 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1513 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (2352 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three modes of operation of the three scanners in an OCT system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(2.37 MB) Movie of three-dimensional in vivo optic nerve. The volume is explored from the retinal nerve fiber layer to the retinal pigment epithelium, along the optic axis. Volume size: 3 mm×3 mm×1.1 mm (air).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(1.25 MB) (Y,Z) longitudinal slices in the stack of transversal OCT images from in vivo optic nerve at different X positions. Volume size: 3 mm×3 mm×1.1 mm (air).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(1.5 MB) Movie of three-dimensional in vivo finger tip. The volume is explored from the outside to the inside of the finger, along the optic axis. Volume size: 5 mm×4 mm×1 mm (air).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(2.3 MB) (Y,Z) longitudinal slices in the stack of transversal OCT images from in vivo finger tip at different X positions. Volume size: 5 mm×4 mm×1 mm (air).

Metrics