Abstract

A quantum cascade distributed feedback laser operating at 5.2 µm is used to obtain sub-Doppler resolution limited saturation features in a Lamb-dip experiment on the R(13.5)1/2 and R(13.5)3/2 transitions of NO. The dips appear as transmission spikes with full widths of ~4.3 MHz. At this resolution the 73 MHz Λ-doubling of the R(13.5)3/2 line, which is normally obscured by the 130 MHz Doppler broadening, is easily resolved.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. S.W. Sharpe, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using QC-DFB lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).
  4. C. Freed, J.W. Bielinski, W. Lo, “Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS1-xSex diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 629 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R.M. Williams, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, S.W. Sharpe, M.S. Taubman, J.L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-IR QC lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler double-resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using a tunable diode laser and a CO laser,” Opt. Lett. 6, 455 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Guccione-Gush, H.P. Gush, R. Schieder, K. Yamada, G. Winnewisser, “Doppler-free two-photon absorption of ammonia using a carbon dioxide and diode laser,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2740 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler infrared-infrared double resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using Stark tuning and a diode laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6437 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T.E. Gough, R.E. Miller, G. Scoles, “Sub-Doppler resolution IR spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 72, 124 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A.S. Pine, K.W. Nill, “Molecular-beam TDL sub-Doppler spectroscopy of Λ-doubling in NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 43 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D.E. Jennings, “Saturated absorption in NH3 using a TDL,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 493 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M Mürtz, M. Schaefer, T. George, J.S. Wells, W. Urban, “Optically stabilized tunable diode-laser system for saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 31 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A.E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Mill Valley, 1986) Chap. 30.
  14. J. Ballard, W.B. Johnston, B.J. Kerridge, J.J. Remedios, “Experimental spectral line parameters in the 1–0 band of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127, 70 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A.G. Maki, J.S. Wells, Wavenumber Calibration Tables From Heterodyne Frequency Measurements, NIST Special Pub.821, 1991.
  16. C.H. Townes, A.L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955) p. 96.
  17. L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Shimoda, High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, ed. K. Shimoda, (Springer, New York, 1976) pp.11–49.
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

M Mürtz, M. Schaefer, T. George, J.S. Wells, W. Urban, “Optically stabilized tunable diode-laser system for saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Ballard, W.B. Johnston, B.J. Kerridge, J.J. Remedios, “Experimental spectral line parameters in the 1–0 band of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127, 70 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

C. Freed, J.W. Bielinski, W. Lo, “Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS1-xSex diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler infrared-infrared double resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using Stark tuning and a diode laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6437 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler double-resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using a tunable diode laser and a CO laser,” Opt. Lett. 6, 455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guccione-Gush, H.P. Gush, R. Schieder, K. Yamada, G. Winnewisser, “Doppler-free two-photon absorption of ammonia using a carbon dioxide and diode laser,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2740 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A.S. Pine, K.W. Nill, “Molecular-beam TDL sub-Doppler spectroscopy of Λ-doubling in NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 43 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

D.E. Jennings, “Saturated absorption in NH3 using a TDL,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 493 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T.E. Gough, R.E. Miller, G. Scoles, “Sub-Doppler resolution IR spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 72, 124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J.N.

Ballard, J.

J. Ballard, W.B. Johnston, B.J. Kerridge, J.J. Remedios, “Experimental spectral line parameters in the 1–0 band of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127, 70 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D.C.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bielinski, J.W.

C. Freed, J.W. Bielinski, W. Lo, “Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS1-xSex diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L.R.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R.M. Williams, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, S.W. Sharpe, M.S. Taubman, J.L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-IR QC lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.W. Sharpe, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using QC-DFB lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

Cho, A.Y.

A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R.M. Williams, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, S.W. Sharpe, M.S. Taubman, J.L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-IR QC lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.W. Sharpe, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using QC-DFB lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

Curl, R.F.

Devi, V.M.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Freed, C.

C. Freed, J.W. Bielinski, W. Lo, “Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS1-xSex diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R.R.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

George, T.

M Mürtz, M. Schaefer, T. George, J.S. Wells, W. Urban, “Optically stabilized tunable diode-laser system for saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R.M. Williams, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, S.W. Sharpe, M.S. Taubman, J.L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-IR QC lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.W. Sharpe, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using QC-DFB lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

Goldman, A.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gough, T.E.

T.E. Gough, R.E. Miller, G. Scoles, “Sub-Doppler resolution IR spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 72, 124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Guccione-Gush, R.

R. Guccione-Gush, H.P. Gush, R. Schieder, K. Yamada, G. Winnewisser, “Doppler-free two-photon absorption of ammonia using a carbon dioxide and diode laser,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2740 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gush, H.P.

R. Guccione-Gush, H.P. Gush, R. Schieder, K. Yamada, G. Winnewisser, “Doppler-free two-photon absorption of ammonia using a carbon dioxide and diode laser,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2740 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J.L.

Hartman, J.S.

Hutchinson, A.L.

A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

Jennings, D.E.

D.E. Jennings, “Saturated absorption in NH3 using a TDL,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 493 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, W.B.

J. Ballard, W.B. Johnston, B.J. Kerridge, J.J. Remedios, “Experimental spectral line parameters in the 1–0 band of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127, 70 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J.F.

Kerridge, B.J.

J. Ballard, W.B. Johnston, B.J. Kerridge, J.J. Remedios, “Experimental spectral line parameters in the 1–0 band of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127, 70 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A.A.

Lo, W.

C. Freed, J.W. Bielinski, W. Lo, “Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS1-xSex diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A.G.

A.G. Maki, J.S. Wells, Wavenumber Calibration Tables From Heterodyne Frequency Measurements, NIST Special Pub.821, 1991.

Massie, S.T.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.E.

T.E. Gough, R.E. Miller, G. Scoles, “Sub-Doppler resolution IR spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 72, 124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mürtz, M

M Mürtz, M. Schaefer, T. George, J.S. Wells, W. Urban, “Optically stabilized tunable diode-laser system for saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nill, K.W.

A.S. Pine, K.W. Nill, “Molecular-beam TDL sub-Doppler spectroscopy of Λ-doubling in NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 43 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pine, A.S.

A.S. Pine, K.W. Nill, “Molecular-beam TDL sub-Doppler spectroscopy of Λ-doubling in NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 43 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C.P.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L.S.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, M.

M Mürtz, M. Schaefer, T. George, J.S. Wells, W. Urban, “Optically stabilized tunable diode-laser system for saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A.L.

C.H. Townes, A.L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955) p. 96.

Schieder, R.

R. Guccione-Gush, H.P. Gush, R. Schieder, K. Yamada, G. Winnewisser, “Doppler-free two-photon absorption of ammonia using a carbon dioxide and diode laser,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2740 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Scoles, G.

T.E. Gough, R.E. Miller, G. Scoles, “Sub-Doppler resolution IR spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 72, 124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, S.W.

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, ed. K. Shimoda, (Springer, New York, 1976) pp.11–49.
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A.E.

A.E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Mill Valley, 1986) Chap. 30.

Sivco, D.L.

A.A. Kosterev, R.F. Curl, F.K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R.M. Williams, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, S.W. Sharpe, M.S. Taubman, J.L. Hall, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “Kilohertz linewidth from frequency-stabilized mid-IR QC lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1844 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.W. Sharpe, J.F. Kelly, J.S. Hartman, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.Y. Cho, “High-resolution (Doppler-limited) spectroscopy using QC-DFB lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

Smith, M.A.H.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M.S.

Terhune, R.W.

W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler infrared-infrared double resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using Stark tuning and a diode laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6437 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler double-resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using a tunable diode laser and a CO laser,” Opt. Lett. 6, 455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tipping, R.H.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.K.

Toth, R.A.

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C.H.

C.H. Townes, A.L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955) p. 96.

Tredicucci, A.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

Urban, W.

M Mürtz, M. Schaefer, T. George, J.S. Wells, W. Urban, “Optically stabilized tunable diode-laser system for saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W.H.

W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler infrared-infrared double resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using Stark tuning and a diode laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6437 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler double-resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using a tunable diode laser and a CO laser,” Opt. Lett. 6, 455 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, J.S.

M Mürtz, M. Schaefer, T. George, J.S. Wells, W. Urban, “Optically stabilized tunable diode-laser system for saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A.G. Maki, J.S. Wells, Wavenumber Calibration Tables From Heterodyne Frequency Measurements, NIST Special Pub.821, 1991.

Williams, R.M.

Winnewisser, G.

R. Guccione-Gush, H.P. Gush, R. Schieder, K. Yamada, G. Winnewisser, “Doppler-free two-photon absorption of ammonia using a carbon dioxide and diode laser,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2740 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

R. Guccione-Gush, H.P. Gush, R. Schieder, K. Yamada, G. Winnewisser, “Doppler-free two-photon absorption of ammonia using a carbon dioxide and diode laser,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2740 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M Mürtz, M. Schaefer, T. George, J.S. Wells, W. Urban, “Optically stabilized tunable diode-laser system for saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 31 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D.E. Jennings, “Saturated absorption in NH3 using a TDL,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 493 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. Freed, J.W. Bielinski, W. Lo, “Fundamental linewidth in solitary, ultranarrow output PbS1-xSex diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 629 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W.H. Weber, R.W. Terhune, “Sub-Doppler infrared-infrared double resonance spectroscopy of NH3 using Stark tuning and a diode laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6437 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (3)

T.E. Gough, R.E. Miller, G. Scoles, “Sub-Doppler resolution IR spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 72, 124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A.S. Pine, K.W. Nill, “Molecular-beam TDL sub-Doppler spectroscopy of Λ-doubling in NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 74, 43 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballard, W.B. Johnston, B.J. Kerridge, J.J. Remedios, “Experimental spectral line parameters in the 1–0 band of NO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 127, 70 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L.S. Rothman, R.R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C.P. Rinsland, M.A.H. Smith, D.C. Benner, V.M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S.T. Massie, L.R. Brown, R.A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Guccione-Gush, H.P. Gush, R. Schieder, K. Yamada, G. Winnewisser, “Doppler-free two-photon absorption of ammonia using a carbon dioxide and diode laser,” Phys. Rev. A 23, 2740 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A.G. Maki, J.S. Wells, Wavenumber Calibration Tables From Heterodyne Frequency Measurements, NIST Special Pub.821, 1991.

C.H. Townes, A.L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955) p. 96.

A.E. Siegman, Lasers, (University Science Books, Mill Valley, 1986) Chap. 30.

K. Shimoda, High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, ed. K. Shimoda, (Springer, New York, 1976) pp.11–49.
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D.L. Sivco, A.Y. Cho“Quantum cascade lasers,” Phys. World12, 27 (1999);C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, A. Tredicucci, D.L. Sivco, J.N. Baillargeon, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, “High-power, cw, current-tunable, single-mode QC-DFB lasers at 5.2 and 7.95 µm,” Opt. Lett.25, 230 (2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of optical layout for Lamb-dip experiments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Etalon fringes and cell transmission recorded simultaneously with a rapid 1 cm-1 scan (~200 mA) of a QC-DFB laser. The frequency increases (current decreases) to the right. The measured difference between the higher R(13.5)1/2 line and the R(13.5)3/2 line is 0.8843 ±0.0003 cm-1, in agreement with the HITRAN database (0.88407 cm-1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top panel: 1 GHz scan (plotted with absorption increasing in the positive direction) showing Lamb dips on the R(13.5)1/2 lines, obtained using the geometry in Fig. 1. Bottom panel: frequency derivative of the top panel. Experimental conditions: 1500 averages, 60 Hz repetition, 25 kHz sampling rate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Scan similar to that in Fig. 3 showing the 73 MHz splitting of the Λ-doubled components of the R(13.5)3/2 line. The lower panel shows the calculated absorbance.17

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Expanded Lamb dip from the f transition of Fig. 3, sampled at 100 kHz, after subtracting the Doppler background. The solid line is a Gaussian fit.

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