Abstract

The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10–200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time. The recent development of depth-graded multilayer coatings has made the design of telescopes for this bandpass practical, however the ability to manufacture inexpensive substrates with appropriate surface quality and figure to achieve sub-arcminute performance has remained an elusive goal. In this paper, we report on new, thermally-formed glass micro-sheet optics capable of meeting the requirements of the next-generation of astronomical hard X-ray telescopes.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Tananbaum, N. White, and N., P. Sullivan., “Proceedings of the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Workshop,” published by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, (1996).
  2. F. A. Harrison, et al., “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT balloon experiment,” to be published in “X-ray Optics, Instruments and Missions,” Eds. J. Trumper and B. Aschenbach, Proc SPIE 4012, (2000).
  3. F. Christensenet al., “X-ray scattering measurements from thin foil X-ray mirrors” Proc. SPIE 1546, 160, (1992).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. L. Windt and W. Z. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci Technol. B 12, 3826 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Windtet a.l, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” to appear in J. Appl. Physics, (2000).
  6. F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Jimenez-Garate, W. Craig, and C. Hailey, “Fast optical metrology of the hard x-ray optics for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” Proc. SPIE 3444, 622, (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Mao, F. Harrison, D. Windt, and F. Christensen, “Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Optics 38, 4766, (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Christensenet al., “Hard X-ray characterization of HEFT single-reflection prototype,” to appear in Nucl. Inst. Methods, (2000).

2000 (1)

F. A. Harrison, et al., “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT balloon experiment,” to be published in “X-ray Optics, Instruments and Missions,” Eds. J. Trumper and B. Aschenbach, Proc SPIE 4012, (2000).

1999 (1)

P. Mao, F. Harrison, D. Windt, and F. Christensen, “Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Optics 38, 4766, (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Jimenez-Garate, W. Craig, and C. Hailey, “Fast optical metrology of the hard x-ray optics for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” Proc. SPIE 3444, 622, (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

D. L. Windt and W. Z. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci Technol. B 12, 3826 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

F. Christensenet al., “X-ray scattering measurements from thin foil X-ray mirrors” Proc. SPIE 1546, 160, (1992).
[Crossref]

Abdali, S.

F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
[Crossref]

Christensen, F.

P. Mao, F. Harrison, D. Windt, and F. Christensen, “Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Optics 38, 4766, (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Christensenet al., “X-ray scattering measurements from thin foil X-ray mirrors” Proc. SPIE 1546, 160, (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Christensenet al., “Hard X-ray characterization of HEFT single-reflection prototype,” to appear in Nucl. Inst. Methods, (2000).

Craig, W.

M. Jimenez-Garate, W. Craig, and C. Hailey, “Fast optical metrology of the hard x-ray optics for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” Proc. SPIE 3444, 622, (1998).
[Crossref]

Hailey, C.

M. Jimenez-Garate, W. Craig, and C. Hailey, “Fast optical metrology of the hard x-ray optics for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” Proc. SPIE 3444, 622, (1998).
[Crossref]

Harrison, F.

P. Mao, F. Harrison, D. Windt, and F. Christensen, “Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Optics 38, 4766, (1999).
[Crossref]

Harrison, F. A.

F. A. Harrison, et al., “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT balloon experiment,” to be published in “X-ray Optics, Instruments and Missions,” Eds. J. Trumper and B. Aschenbach, Proc SPIE 4012, (2000).

Hornstrup, H.

F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jimenez-Garate, M.

M. Jimenez-Garate, W. Craig, and C. Hailey, “Fast optical metrology of the hard x-ray optics for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” Proc. SPIE 3444, 622, (1998).
[Crossref]

Mao, P.

P. Mao, F. Harrison, D. Windt, and F. Christensen, “Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Optics 38, 4766, (1999).
[Crossref]

Romaine, S.

F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schnopper, A.

F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
[Crossref]

Slane, P.

F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, N., P.

H. Tananbaum, N. White, and N., P. Sullivan., “Proceedings of the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Workshop,” published by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, (1996).

Tananbaum, H.

H. Tananbaum, N. White, and N., P. Sullivan., “Proceedings of the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Workshop,” published by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, (1996).

Waskiewicz, W. Z.

D. L. Windt and W. Z. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci Technol. B 12, 3826 (1994).
[Crossref]

White, N.

H. Tananbaum, N. White, and N., P. Sullivan., “Proceedings of the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Workshop,” published by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, (1996).

Windt, D.

P. Mao, F. Harrison, D. Windt, and F. Christensen, “Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Optics 38, 4766, (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Windtet a.l, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” to appear in J. Appl. Physics, (2000).

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt and W. Z. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci Technol. B 12, 3826 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Optics (1)

P. Mao, F. Harrison, D. Windt, and F. Christensen, “Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Optics 38, 4766, (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci Technol. B (1)

D. L. Windt and W. Z. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci Technol. B 12, 3826 (1994).
[Crossref]

Proc SPIE (2)

F. A. Harrison, et al., “Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT balloon experiment,” to be published in “X-ray Optics, Instruments and Missions,” Eds. J. Trumper and B. Aschenbach, Proc SPIE 4012, (2000).

F. Christensen, S. Abdali, A. Schnopper, H. Hornstrup, P. Slane, and S. Romaine, “High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces,” Proc SPIE 2011, 18 (1994).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. Jimenez-Garate, W. Craig, and C. Hailey, “Fast optical metrology of the hard x-ray optics for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” Proc. SPIE 3444, 622, (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Christensenet al., “X-ray scattering measurements from thin foil X-ray mirrors” Proc. SPIE 1546, 160, (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

D. Windtet a.l, “Growth, structure and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” to appear in J. Appl. Physics, (2000).

F. Christensenet al., “Hard X-ray characterization of HEFT single-reflection prototype,” to appear in Nucl. Inst. Methods, (2000).

H. Tananbaum, N. White, and N., P. Sullivan., “Proceedings of the High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy Workshop,” published by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, (1996).

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Figures (4)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Encircled power diameters from a sample of thermally formed AF45 glass illuminated by a monochromatic X-ray beam with a footprint of 25×2mm.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

The mounting geometry for the HEFT telescope modules. 72 shells are built up by constraining individual thermally formed glass pieces to precisely machined graphite spacers.

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

The distribution of individual half power diameter measurements for all shells at 28 keV.

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

The radially averaged point spread function (PSF) for the shells in the prototype The solid line is the sum, the individual shell contributions are also shown.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1: The half power diameter of the individual shells in arcseconds. Errors, including systematics are estimated to be +/- 2”.

Metrics