Abstract

We measured the lower threshold of motion (LTM) of suprathreshold gratings as a function of spatial frequency and contrast, for both transient glare and no-glare conditions. A two alternatives forced choice paradigm, using the method of constant stimuli, was adopted to measure the LTM. The LTM occurs at constant velocity. This velocity threshold is higher for transient glare condition than for no-glare condition. We found that the sudden onset of glare increases LTM over the whole range of contrasts. We believe the effect of transient glare sources on the lower threshold of motion is due to the transient loss of sensitivity.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Shapley and C. Enroth-Cugell, “Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. N. Osborne and G. J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1984).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas. Eds. (Weiley-Interscience, New York, 1986).
  3. B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. of London, B 134, 283–302 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. C. Bichao, D. Tager, and J. Meng, “Disability glare: effects of temporal characteristics of the glare source and visual field location,” J. Opt. Soc Am., A 12, 2252–2258 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. E Rinalducci and A. Beare, “Visibility losses caused by transient adaptation at low luminance levels,” in Transportation Research Board Spatial Report 156 (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1975).
  6. R. M. Boynton and N. Miller, “Visual performance under conditions of transient adaptation,” Illuminating Engineering,  58, 541–550 (1963).
  7. N. Graham and D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Research,  32, 1373–1393 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. O. J. Braddick, “A short-range process in apparent motion,” Vision Research,  14, 519–529 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Cox and A. M. Derrington, “The analysis of motion of two-dimensional patterns: do Fourier components provide the first stage?,” Vision Research,  34, 59–72 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. J. Vos, “Disability Glare - a state of the art report,”. CIE J.,  3, 39–53 (1984).
  11. N. A. Macmillan and C. Douglas Greelman, Detection theory: a user’s guide (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991).
  12. A. Johnston and M. J. Wright, “Lower threshold of motion for gratings as a function of eccentricity and contrast,” Vision Research,  25, 179–185 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. C. Boulton, “Two mechanisms for the detection of slow motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am, A 4, 1634–1642 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Müller and M. W. Greenlee, “Effect of contrast and adaptation on the perception of the direction and speed of drifting gratings,” Vision Research,  34, 2071–2092 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. Nakayama and G. H. Silverman, “Detection and discrimination of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., A 2, 267–274, (1985).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Albrecht and D. B. Hamilton, “Striate cortex of monkey and cat: contrast response function,” Journal of Neurophysiology,  48, 217–237 (1982).
    [PubMed]

1995 (1)

I. C. Bichao, D. Tager, and J. Meng, “Disability glare: effects of temporal characteristics of the glare source and visual field location,” J. Opt. Soc Am., A 12, 2252–2258 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

M. J. Cox and A. M. Derrington, “The analysis of motion of two-dimensional patterns: do Fourier components provide the first stage?,” Vision Research,  34, 59–72 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Müller and M. W. Greenlee, “Effect of contrast and adaptation on the perception of the direction and speed of drifting gratings,” Vision Research,  34, 2071–2092 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

N. Graham and D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Research,  32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. C. Boulton, “Two mechanisms for the detection of slow motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am, A 4, 1634–1642 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

K. Nakayama and G. H. Silverman, “Detection and discrimination of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., A 2, 267–274, (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Johnston and M. J. Wright, “Lower threshold of motion for gratings as a function of eccentricity and contrast,” Vision Research,  25, 179–185 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

J. J. Vos, “Disability Glare - a state of the art report,”. CIE J.,  3, 39–53 (1984).

1982 (1)

D. Albrecht and D. B. Hamilton, “Striate cortex of monkey and cat: contrast response function,” Journal of Neurophysiology,  48, 217–237 (1982).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

O. J. Braddick, “A short-range process in apparent motion,” Vision Research,  14, 519–529 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

R. M. Boynton and N. Miller, “Visual performance under conditions of transient adaptation,” Illuminating Engineering,  58, 541–550 (1963).

1947 (1)

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. of London, B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, D.

D. Albrecht and D. B. Hamilton, “Striate cortex of monkey and cat: contrast response function,” Journal of Neurophysiology,  48, 217–237 (1982).
[PubMed]

Beare, A.

E Rinalducci and A. Beare, “Visibility losses caused by transient adaptation at low luminance levels,” in Transportation Research Board Spatial Report 156 (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1975).

Bichao, I. C.

I. C. Bichao, D. Tager, and J. Meng, “Disability glare: effects of temporal characteristics of the glare source and visual field location,” J. Opt. Soc Am., A 12, 2252–2258 (1995).
[Crossref]

Boulton, J. C.

J. C. Boulton, “Two mechanisms for the detection of slow motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am, A 4, 1634–1642 (1987).
[Crossref]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and N. Miller, “Visual performance under conditions of transient adaptation,” Illuminating Engineering,  58, 541–550 (1963).

Braddick, O. J.

O. J. Braddick, “A short-range process in apparent motion,” Vision Research,  14, 519–529 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, M. J.

M. J. Cox and A. M. Derrington, “The analysis of motion of two-dimensional patterns: do Fourier components provide the first stage?,” Vision Research,  34, 59–72 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. of London, B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

Derrington, A. M.

M. J. Cox and A. M. Derrington, “The analysis of motion of two-dimensional patterns: do Fourier components provide the first stage?,” Vision Research,  34, 59–72 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douglas Greelman, C.

N. A. Macmillan and C. Douglas Greelman, Detection theory: a user’s guide (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991).

Enroth-Cugell, C.

R. M. Shapley and C. Enroth-Cugell, “Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. N. Osborne and G. J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1984).
[Crossref]

Finkelstein, M. A.

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas. Eds. (Weiley-Interscience, New York, 1986).

Graham, N.

N. Graham and D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Research,  32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenlee, M. W.

R. Müller and M. W. Greenlee, “Effect of contrast and adaptation on the perception of the direction and speed of drifting gratings,” Vision Research,  34, 2071–2092 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamilton, D. B.

D. Albrecht and D. B. Hamilton, “Striate cortex of monkey and cat: contrast response function,” Journal of Neurophysiology,  48, 217–237 (1982).
[PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

N. Graham and D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Research,  32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas. Eds. (Weiley-Interscience, New York, 1986).

Johnston, A.

A. Johnston and M. J. Wright, “Lower threshold of motion for gratings as a function of eccentricity and contrast,” Vision Research,  25, 179–185 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macmillan, N. A.

N. A. Macmillan and C. Douglas Greelman, Detection theory: a user’s guide (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991).

Meng, J.

I. C. Bichao, D. Tager, and J. Meng, “Disability glare: effects of temporal characteristics of the glare source and visual field location,” J. Opt. Soc Am., A 12, 2252–2258 (1995).
[Crossref]

Miller, N.

R. M. Boynton and N. Miller, “Visual performance under conditions of transient adaptation,” Illuminating Engineering,  58, 541–550 (1963).

Müller, R.

R. Müller and M. W. Greenlee, “Effect of contrast and adaptation on the perception of the direction and speed of drifting gratings,” Vision Research,  34, 2071–2092 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakayama, K.

K. Nakayama and G. H. Silverman, “Detection and discrimination of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., A 2, 267–274, (1985).
[Crossref]

Rinalducci, E

E Rinalducci and A. Beare, “Visibility losses caused by transient adaptation at low luminance levels,” in Transportation Research Board Spatial Report 156 (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1975).

Shapley, R. M.

R. M. Shapley and C. Enroth-Cugell, “Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. N. Osborne and G. J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1984).
[Crossref]

Silverman, G. H.

K. Nakayama and G. H. Silverman, “Detection and discrimination of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., A 2, 267–274, (1985).
[Crossref]

Tager, D.

I. C. Bichao, D. Tager, and J. Meng, “Disability glare: effects of temporal characteristics of the glare source and visual field location,” J. Opt. Soc Am., A 12, 2252–2258 (1995).
[Crossref]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Disability Glare - a state of the art report,”. CIE J.,  3, 39–53 (1984).

Wright, M. J.

A. Johnston and M. J. Wright, “Lower threshold of motion for gratings as a function of eccentricity and contrast,” Vision Research,  25, 179–185 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

CIE J. (1)

J. J. Vos, “Disability Glare - a state of the art report,”. CIE J.,  3, 39–53 (1984).

Illuminating Engineering (1)

R. M. Boynton and N. Miller, “Visual performance under conditions of transient adaptation,” Illuminating Engineering,  58, 541–550 (1963).

J. Opt. Soc Am., A (1)

I. C. Bichao, D. Tager, and J. Meng, “Disability glare: effects of temporal characteristics of the glare source and visual field location,” J. Opt. Soc Am., A 12, 2252–2258 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am, A (1)

J. C. Boulton, “Two mechanisms for the detection of slow motion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am, A 4, 1634–1642 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am., A (1)

K. Nakayama and G. H. Silverman, “Detection and discrimination of sinusoidal gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., A 2, 267–274, (1985).
[Crossref]

Journal of Neurophysiology (1)

D. Albrecht and D. B. Hamilton, “Striate cortex of monkey and cat: contrast response function,” Journal of Neurophysiology,  48, 217–237 (1982).
[PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. of London, B (1)

B. H. Crawford, “Visual adaptation in relation to brief conditioning stimuli,” Proc. R. Soc. of London, B 134, 283–302 (1947).
[Crossref]

Vision Research (5)

A. Johnston and M. J. Wright, “Lower threshold of motion for gratings as a function of eccentricity and contrast,” Vision Research,  25, 179–185 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Müller and M. W. Greenlee, “Effect of contrast and adaptation on the perception of the direction and speed of drifting gratings,” Vision Research,  34, 2071–2092 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Graham and D. C. Hood, “Modeling the dynamics of light adaptation: the merging of two traditions,” Vision Research,  32, 1373–1393 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. J. Braddick, “A short-range process in apparent motion,” Vision Research,  14, 519–529 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Cox and A. M. Derrington, “The analysis of motion of two-dimensional patterns: do Fourier components provide the first stage?,” Vision Research,  34, 59–72 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

E Rinalducci and A. Beare, “Visibility losses caused by transient adaptation at low luminance levels,” in Transportation Research Board Spatial Report 156 (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1975).

R. M. Shapley and C. Enroth-Cugell, “Visual adaptation and retinal gain controls,” in Progress in Retinal Research, N. N. Osborne and G. J. Chader, eds. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1984).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, “Sensitivity to light,” in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas. Eds. (Weiley-Interscience, New York, 1986).

N. A. Macmillan and C. Douglas Greelman, Detection theory: a user’s guide (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Stimulus and glare presentation in time. The stimulus contrast is modulated with a Gaussian function whose time constant is 0.150 sec. The time course of glare follows a logarithmic law and was obtained measuring the voltage produced by light on a photodiode, using a LeCroy digital oscilloscope.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Lower threshold of motion as a function of spatial frequency for no-glare and transient glare conditions. The LTM increases with the spatial frequency in a linear form for both situations. Velocity threshold obtained with transient glare is greater than that obtained without glare.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Lower threshold of motion as a function of retinal contrast, for no-glare and transient glare. Figures show that the no-glare curves are moved up by transient glare.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Polar representation of a sinusoidal grating. The length of the vector denotes the grating contrast, the change in position is denoted by the angle φ, and Tq represents the quadrature contrasts.

Equations (3)

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C R = C g ( Lm Lm + Lv )
Lv = k Eg θ n
ϕ m = arcsin ( Tq Ce )

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