Abstract

The design, microfabrication and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOE’s) with continuous relief used for fiber coupling are discussed in detail. DOE’s with diameters as small as 50 mm are fabricated by means of focused ion beam (FIB) technology. A focused Ga+ ion beam is used to mill a continuous relief microstructure at a 50 kV acceleration voltage. The optical performance of DOE’s made in this way was compared with that of DOE’s fabricated by other methods. The focusing performance of DOE’s fabricated with three and six annulus by FIB milling was investigated. Testing of the system which has a coupling efficiency of -1.25 dB (75%) shows that the design meets the application’s requirement for fiber coupling, and that DOE’s manufactured by our FIB technology are practicable. Compared with a conventional fiber coupling system that uses a plano - convex lens, our system has the advantages of simplicity, short focal length, low cost for the lens and high coupling efficiency.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. Gao Hong edited, Manufacturing by E-beam and Ion Beam. Mechanical Industry Press, in Beijing (1989).
  2. Bi Jianhua and Li Zhigang, “Experimental study of submicron focused ion beam sputtered etching” Micromanufacturing Technology, No.2, pp.2 (1996).
  3. Mai Zhihong and Liu Haiqing, “Fabrication of silicon microlens arrays using ion beam milling” Semiconductor Photonics and Technology,  Vol.2, No.1, pp.61~65 (1996).
  4. Guo Yongkang, Guo Lurong, and Zhang Xiaochun, “Study of etching condition for lithography holography”. ARCT OPTIC SINICA,  Vol.12, No.3, 1992, pp.252~255.
  5. Wipiejewski, Torsten, and Shwansen, “Tunable vertical-cavity laser diodes with submilliamp threshold currents and efficient fiber coupling”. Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays, Proc. SPIE 2147, 48–59 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Hall, A. Shawn, Wang Hanchung, and Lane. “Coupling efficiency of a batch-aligned laser-fiber array”. Electro-Optic Computer Peripherals Technology, Proc. SPIE1816, 86–93 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Willing, L. Steven, Worland, and D. Philip, “10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector”, Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358–362 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.
  9. P Kung and L Song, “Rapid prototyping of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C ., 1994), .pp.133–136.
  10. L.B. Lesem, P.M. Hirsch, and J.A. Jordan, “Tha kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction devices,” IBM J.Res. Develop. 13, 150–155 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P.P. Clark and C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single-point diamond turning,” Opt. News 15 (12), 39–40 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B.E. Bernacki, A.C. Miller, L.C. Maxey, and J.P. Cunningham, “Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, Nv.j.Dougherty and H.P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 463–474 (1995).
  13. J. Futhey and M. Fleining, “Superzone diffractive lenses” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications. Vol.9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.4–6.
  14. M.T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists”. Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566, 1994.
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, and S. Hard, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture with direct-writing, electron beam lithograpgy”. Appl. Opt. 33, 103–107, 1994.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D.C. O’Shea and W.S. Rockward, “Gray scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: II. Spatially filtered halftone screens ”. Appl. Opt. 34, 7518–7526, 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  17. T.J. Suleski and D.C. O’Shea, “Gray scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: Commercial slide imagers”. Appl. Opt. 34, 7507–7517, 1995.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M.T. Duignan and G.P. Behrmann, “Excimer laser micromachining for rapid fabrication of binary and blazed diffractive optical elements”. Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics. Vol.5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp.314–317.
  19. K. Kawano, “Coupling characteristics of lens system for laser diode modules using single-mode fiber.” Appl. Opt.,  Vol.25, pp2600–2605, 1986.
    [CrossRef]
  20. H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, “Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers.” Electro. Lett.,  Vol.24, pp.323–324, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Hillerich, “Aberration induced coupling loss of microlenses used for LD’s and LED’s to single-mode fiber coupling.” In Tech. Dig. OFC’88 (New Orleans, 1988), paper THL2.
  22. H. Karstensen, “Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling with ball lenses.” J. Opt. Commun.,  Vol.9, pp42–49, 1988.
  23. J. Yamashita, R. Suganuma, Y. Miyake, and T. Takei, “High-efficiency LD coupler with a truncated Si spherical lens.” In Tech. Dig. OFC’85 (San Diego, 1985), paper TUL2, pp.48–49.

1998 (1)

H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, “Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers.” Electro. Lett.,  Vol.24, pp.323–324, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Mai Zhihong and Liu Haiqing, “Fabrication of silicon microlens arrays using ion beam milling” Semiconductor Photonics and Technology,  Vol.2, No.1, pp.61~65 (1996).

1995 (3)

B.E. Bernacki, A.C. Miller, L.C. Maxey, and J.P. Cunningham, “Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, Nv.j.Dougherty and H.P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 463–474 (1995).

D.C. O’Shea and W.S. Rockward, “Gray scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: II. Spatially filtered halftone screens ”. Appl. Opt. 34, 7518–7526, 1995.
[CrossRef]

T.J. Suleski and D.C. O’Shea, “Gray scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: Commercial slide imagers”. Appl. Opt. 34, 7507–7517, 1995.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

M.T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists”. Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566, 1994.
[CrossRef]

M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, and S. Hard, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture with direct-writing, electron beam lithograpgy”. Appl. Opt. 33, 103–107, 1994.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wipiejewski, Torsten, and Shwansen, “Tunable vertical-cavity laser diodes with submilliamp threshold currents and efficient fiber coupling”. Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays, Proc. SPIE 2147, 48–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Guo Yongkang, Guo Lurong, and Zhang Xiaochun, “Study of etching condition for lithography holography”. ARCT OPTIC SINICA,  Vol.12, No.3, 1992, pp.252~255.

1991 (1)

Willing, L. Steven, Worland, and D. Philip, “10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector”, Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358–362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P.P. Clark and C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single-point diamond turning,” Opt. News 15 (12), 39–40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Karstensen, “Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling with ball lenses.” J. Opt. Commun.,  Vol.9, pp42–49, 1988.

1986 (1)

K. Kawano, “Coupling characteristics of lens system for laser diode modules using single-mode fiber.” Appl. Opt.,  Vol.25, pp2600–2605, 1986.
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

L.B. Lesem, P.M. Hirsch, and J.A. Jordan, “Tha kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction devices,” IBM J.Res. Develop. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Amitay, N.

H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, “Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers.” Electro. Lett.,  Vol.24, pp.323–324, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Behrmann, G.P.

M.T. Duignan and G.P. Behrmann, “Excimer laser micromachining for rapid fabrication of binary and blazed diffractive optical elements”. Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics. Vol.5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp.314–317.

Benner, A.

H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, “Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers.” Electro. Lett.,  Vol.24, pp.323–324, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B.E.

B.E. Bernacki, A.C. Miller, L.C. Maxey, and J.P. Cunningham, “Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, Nv.j.Dougherty and H.P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 463–474 (1995).

Bussjager, R.

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Chen, F.T.

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Clark, P.P.

P.P. Clark and C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single-point diamond turning,” Opt. News 15 (12), 39–40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cook, P.

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Creighead, H.C.

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Cunningham, J.P.

B.E. Bernacki, A.C. Miller, L.C. Maxey, and J.P. Cunningham, “Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, Nv.j.Dougherty and H.P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 463–474 (1995).

D.A.,

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Duignan, M.T.

M.T. Duignan and G.P. Behrmann, “Excimer laser micromachining for rapid fabrication of binary and blazed diffractive optical elements”. Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics. Vol.5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp.314–317.

Ekberg, M.

Fleining, M.

J. Futhey and M. Fleining, “Superzone diffractive lenses” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications. Vol.9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.4–6.

Futhey, J.

J. Futhey and M. Fleining, “Superzone diffractive lenses” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications. Vol.9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.4–6.

Gale, M.T.

M.T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists”. Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Haiqing, Liu

Mai Zhihong and Liu Haiqing, “Fabrication of silicon microlens arrays using ion beam milling” Semiconductor Photonics and Technology,  Vol.2, No.1, pp.61~65 (1996).

Hall,

Hall, A. Shawn, Wang Hanchung, and Lane. “Coupling efficiency of a batch-aligned laser-fiber array”. Electro-Optic Computer Peripherals Technology, Proc. SPIE1816, 86–93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanchung, Wang

Hall, A. Shawn, Wang Hanchung, and Lane. “Coupling efficiency of a batch-aligned laser-fiber array”. Electro-Optic Computer Peripherals Technology, Proc. SPIE1816, 86–93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hard, S.

Hass, F.

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Hillerich, B.

B. Hillerich, “Aberration induced coupling loss of microlenses used for LD’s and LED’s to single-mode fiber coupling.” In Tech. Dig. OFC’88 (New Orleans, 1988), paper THL2.

Hirsch, P.M.

L.B. Lesem, P.M. Hirsch, and J.A. Jordan, “Tha kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction devices,” IBM J.Res. Develop. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Honey,

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Jianhua, Bi

Bi Jianhua and Li Zhigang, “Experimental study of submicron focused ion beam sputtered etching” Micromanufacturing Technology, No.2, pp.2 (1996).

Jordan, J.A.

L.B. Lesem, P.M. Hirsch, and J.A. Jordan, “Tha kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction devices,” IBM J.Res. Develop. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Karstensen, H.

H. Karstensen, “Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling with ball lenses.” J. Opt. Commun.,  Vol.9, pp42–49, 1988.

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano, “Coupling characteristics of lens system for laser diode modules using single-mode fiber.” Appl. Opt.,  Vol.25, pp2600–2605, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Kung, P

P Kung and L Song, “Rapid prototyping of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C ., 1994), .pp.133–136.

Lane,

Hall, A. Shawn, Wang Hanchung, and Lane. “Coupling efficiency of a batch-aligned laser-fiber array”. Electro-Optic Computer Peripherals Technology, Proc. SPIE1816, 86–93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, M.

Lesem, L.B.

L.B. Lesem, P.M. Hirsch, and J.A. Jordan, “Tha kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction devices,” IBM J.Res. Develop. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Londono, C.

P.P. Clark and C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single-point diamond turning,” Opt. News 15 (12), 39–40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lurong, Guo

Guo Yongkang, Guo Lurong, and Zhang Xiaochun, “Study of etching condition for lithography holography”. ARCT OPTIC SINICA,  Vol.12, No.3, 1992, pp.252~255.

Maxey, L.C.

B.E. Bernacki, A.C. Miller, L.C. Maxey, and J.P. Cunningham, “Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, Nv.j.Dougherty and H.P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 463–474 (1995).

Miller, A.C.

B.E. Bernacki, A.C. Miller, L.C. Maxey, and J.P. Cunningham, “Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, Nv.j.Dougherty and H.P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 463–474 (1995).

Miyake, Y.

J. Yamashita, R. Suganuma, Y. Miyake, and T. Takei, “High-efficiency LD coupler with a truncated Si spherical lens.” In Tech. Dig. OFC’85 (San Diego, 1985), paper TUL2, pp.48–49.

Nikolajeff, F.

O’Shea, D.C.

Pedersen, J.

M.T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists”. Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Philip, D.

Willing, L. Steven, Worland, and D. Philip, “10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector”, Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358–362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H.M.

H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, “Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers.” Electro. Lett.,  Vol.24, pp.323–324, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Rockward, W.S.

Rossi, M.

M.T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists”. Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Schutz, H.

M.T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists”. Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Scotti, R.

H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, “Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers.” Electro. Lett.,  Vol.24, pp.323–324, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Shank, S.M

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Shawn, A.

Hall, A. Shawn, Wang Hanchung, and Lane. “Coupling efficiency of a batch-aligned laser-fiber array”. Electro-Optic Computer Peripherals Technology, Proc. SPIE1816, 86–93 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shwansen,

Wipiejewski, Torsten, and Shwansen, “Tunable vertical-cavity laser diodes with submilliamp threshold currents and efficient fiber coupling”. Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays, Proc. SPIE 2147, 48–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Skvaria, M

S.M Shank, M Skvaria, F.T. Chen, H.C. Creighead, P. Cook, R. Bussjager, F. Hass, Honey, and D.A., “Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography, ” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302–305.

Song, L

P Kung and L Song, “Rapid prototyping of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C ., 1994), .pp.133–136.

Steven, L.

Willing, L. Steven, Worland, and D. Philip, “10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector”, Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358–362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suganuma, R.

J. Yamashita, R. Suganuma, Y. Miyake, and T. Takei, “High-efficiency LD coupler with a truncated Si spherical lens.” In Tech. Dig. OFC’85 (San Diego, 1985), paper TUL2, pp.48–49.

Suleski, T.J.

Takei, T.

J. Yamashita, R. Suganuma, Y. Miyake, and T. Takei, “High-efficiency LD coupler with a truncated Si spherical lens.” In Tech. Dig. OFC’85 (San Diego, 1985), paper TUL2, pp.48–49.

Torsten,

Wipiejewski, Torsten, and Shwansen, “Tunable vertical-cavity laser diodes with submilliamp threshold currents and efficient fiber coupling”. Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays, Proc. SPIE 2147, 48–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willing,

Willing, L. Steven, Worland, and D. Philip, “10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector”, Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358–362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wipiejewski,

Wipiejewski, Torsten, and Shwansen, “Tunable vertical-cavity laser diodes with submilliamp threshold currents and efficient fiber coupling”. Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays, Proc. SPIE 2147, 48–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Worland,

Willing, L. Steven, Worland, and D. Philip, “10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector”, Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358–362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xiaochun, Zhang

Guo Yongkang, Guo Lurong, and Zhang Xiaochun, “Study of etching condition for lithography holography”. ARCT OPTIC SINICA,  Vol.12, No.3, 1992, pp.252~255.

Yamashita, J.

J. Yamashita, R. Suganuma, Y. Miyake, and T. Takei, “High-efficiency LD coupler with a truncated Si spherical lens.” In Tech. Dig. OFC’85 (San Diego, 1985), paper TUL2, pp.48–49.

Yongkang, Guo

Guo Yongkang, Guo Lurong, and Zhang Xiaochun, “Study of etching condition for lithography holography”. ARCT OPTIC SINICA,  Vol.12, No.3, 1992, pp.252~255.

Zhigang, Li

Bi Jianhua and Li Zhigang, “Experimental study of submicron focused ion beam sputtered etching” Micromanufacturing Technology, No.2, pp.2 (1996).

Zhihong, Mai

Mai Zhihong and Liu Haiqing, “Fabrication of silicon microlens arrays using ion beam milling” Semiconductor Photonics and Technology,  Vol.2, No.1, pp.61~65 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (4)

ARCT OPTIC SINICA (1)

Guo Yongkang, Guo Lurong, and Zhang Xiaochun, “Study of etching condition for lithography holography”. ARCT OPTIC SINICA,  Vol.12, No.3, 1992, pp.252~255.

Electro. Lett. (1)

H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, “Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers.” Electro. Lett.,  Vol.24, pp.323–324, 1998.
[CrossRef]

IBM J.Res. Develop. (1)

L.B. Lesem, P.M. Hirsch, and J.A. Jordan, “Tha kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction devices,” IBM J.Res. Develop. 13, 150–155 (1969).
[CrossRef]

in Optical Manufacturing and Testing (1)

B.E. Bernacki, A.C. Miller, L.C. Maxey, and J.P. Cunningham, “Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, Nv.j.Dougherty and H.P. Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 463–474 (1995).

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Karstensen, “Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling with ball lenses.” J. Opt. Commun.,  Vol.9, pp42–49, 1988.

Opt. Eng. (1)

M.T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists”. Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Opt. News (1)

P.P. Clark and C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single-point diamond turning,” Opt. News 15 (12), 39–40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

Willing, L. Steven, Worland, and D. Philip, “10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector”, Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358–362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wipiejewski, Torsten, and Shwansen, “Tunable vertical-cavity laser diodes with submilliamp threshold currents and efficient fiber coupling”. Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays, Proc. SPIE 2147, 48–59 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductor Photonics and Technology (1)

Mai Zhihong and Liu Haiqing, “Fabrication of silicon microlens arrays using ion beam milling” Semiconductor Photonics and Technology,  Vol.2, No.1, pp.61~65 (1996).

Other (9)

J. Futhey and M. Fleining, “Superzone diffractive lenses” in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications. Vol.9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.4–6.

M.T. Duignan and G.P. Behrmann, “Excimer laser micromachining for rapid fabrication of binary and blazed diffractive optical elements”. Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics. Vol.5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp.314–317.

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Figures (5)

Fig.1 .
Fig.1 .

chematic diagram of micro- diffractive/refactive lens coupling with monomode fiber

Fig.2 .
Fig.2 .

esigned DOEs with continuous relief profile and three annulius

Fig.3 .
Fig.3 .

illed DOE’s with continuous relief with three annuli (a) SEM image, (b) profile measured with the WYKO interferometer

Fig.4 .
Fig.4 .

illed DOE’s with continuous relief and six annuli (a) SEM image, (b) profile measured with the WYKO interferometer

Fig.5 .
Fig.5 .

esults of beam profile measurements. (a) Focused beam intensity distribution peak of DOE’s with three annuli and 10×10 illuminated lenslet arrays; (b) focused beam intensity distribution peak of the DOEs with six annuliar and 10×10 illuminated lenslet arrays; (c) beam profile for DOE’s with three annuli; (d) beam

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Optical Performance Data For Several Does Fabrication Methods as Reported in the Literature and for our FIB’s

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Table2. Comparison of Coupling Performance Between our DOE’s System and Conventional Plano - Convex Lens Systems

Equations (4)

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r m 2 = 2 m λ f + ( m λ ) 2
S ( r ) = m λ n 1 + c r 2 1 + 1 ( K + 1 ) c 2 r 2
c = 1 f [ 1 n ] + m λ
K = n 2

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