Abstract

The design, microfabrication and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOE's) with continuous relief used for fiber coupling are discussed in detail. DOE's with diameters as small as 50 mm are fabricated by means of focused ion beam (FIB) technology. A focused Ga+ ion beam is used to mill a continuous relief microstructure at a 50 kV acceleration voltage. The optical performance of DOE's made in this way was compared with that of DOE's fabricated by other methods. The focusing performance of DOE's fabricated with three and six annulus by FIB milling was investigated. Testing of the system which has a coupling efficiency of -1.25 dB (75%) shows that the design meets the application's requirement for fiber coupling, and that DOE's manufactured by our FIB technology are practicable. Compared with a conventional fiber coupling system that uses a plano - convex lens, our system has the advantages of simplicity, short focal length, low cost for the lens and high coupling efficiency.

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  1. Gao Hong edited, Manufacturing by E-beam and Ion Beam. Mechanical Industry Press, in Beijing (1989).
  2. Bi Jianhua, Li Zhigang, "Experimental study of submicron focused ion beam sputtered etching" Micromanufacturing Technology, No.2, pp.2 (1996).
  3. Mai Zhihong Liu Haiqing, "Fabrication of silicon microlens arrays using ion beam milling" Semiconductor Photonics and Technology, Vol.2, No.1, pp.61-65 (1996).
  4. Guo Yongkang, Guo Lurong, Zhang Xiaochun, "Study of etching condition for lithography holography". ARCT OPTIC SINICA, Vol.12, No.3, 1992, pp.252-255.
  5. Wipiejewski, Torsten, Shwansen, "Tunable vertical-cavity laser diodes with submilliamp threshold currents and efficient fiber coupling". Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays, Proc. SPIE 2147, 48-59 (1994).
  6. Hall, Shawn A., Wang Hanchung, Lane. "Coupling efficiency of a batch-aligned laser-fiber array". Electro-Optic Computer Peripherals Technology, Proc. SPIE 1816, 86-93 (1992).
  7. Willing, Steven L., Worland, D.Philip, "10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector", Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358-362 (1991).
  8. Shank S.M, Skvaria, M, Chen F.T., Creighead H.C., Cook P., Bussjager R., Hass F. AND Honey D.A., "Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography," in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302-305.
  9. Kung.P and Song.L, "Rapid prototyping of multi-level diffractive optical elements," in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C ., 1994) pp.133-136.
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  13. J.Futhey and M.Fleining, "Superzone diffractive lenses" in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications. Vol.9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.4-6.
  14. M.T.Gale, M.Rossi, J.Pedersen, and H.Schutz, " Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
  15. M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, and S. Hard, "Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture with direct-writing, electron beam lithograpgy," Appl. Opt. 33, 103-107 (1994).
  16. D.C. O'Shea and W.S. Rockward, "Gray scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: II. Spatially filtered halftone screens," Appl. Opt. 34, 7518-7526 (1995).
  17. T.J. Suleski and D.C. O'Shea, "Gray scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: Commercial slide imagers," Appl. Opt. 34, 7507-7517 (1995).
  18. M.T. Duignan and G.P. Behrmann, "Excimer laser micromachining for rapid fabrication of binary and blazed diffractive optical elements". Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics. Vol.5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp.314-317.
  19. K. Kawano, "Coupling characteristics of lens system for laser diode modules using single-mode fiber," Appl. Opt. 25, 2600-2605 (1986).
  20. H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, "Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers," Electro. Lett. 24, 323-324 (1998).
  21. B. Hillerich, "Aberration induced coupling loss of microlenses used for LD's and LED's to single-mode fiber coupling." In Tech. Dig. OFC'88 (New Orleans, 1988), paper THL2.
  22. H.Karstensen, "Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling with ball lenses," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42-49 (1988).
  23. J.Yamashita, R.Suganuma, Y.Miyake, and T.Takei, "High-efficiency LD coupler with a truncated Si spherical lens," In Tech. Dig. OFC'85 (San Diego, 1985), paper TUL2, pp.48-49.

Other

Gao Hong edited, Manufacturing by E-beam and Ion Beam. Mechanical Industry Press, in Beijing (1989).

Bi Jianhua, Li Zhigang, "Experimental study of submicron focused ion beam sputtered etching" Micromanufacturing Technology, No.2, pp.2 (1996).

Mai Zhihong Liu Haiqing, "Fabrication of silicon microlens arrays using ion beam milling" Semiconductor Photonics and Technology, Vol.2, No.1, pp.61-65 (1996).

Guo Yongkang, Guo Lurong, Zhang Xiaochun, "Study of etching condition for lithography holography". ARCT OPTIC SINICA, Vol.12, No.3, 1992, pp.252-255.

Wipiejewski, Torsten, Shwansen, "Tunable vertical-cavity laser diodes with submilliamp threshold currents and efficient fiber coupling". Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser arrays, Proc. SPIE 2147, 48-59 (1994).

Hall, Shawn A., Wang Hanchung, Lane. "Coupling efficiency of a batch-aligned laser-fiber array". Electro-Optic Computer Peripherals Technology, Proc. SPIE 1816, 86-93 (1992).

Willing, Steven L., Worland, D.Philip, "10-watt cw diode laser bar efficiently fiber-coupled to a 381 um diamete fiber-optic connector", Laser Diode Technology and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 1418, 358-362 (1991).

Shank S.M, Skvaria, M, Chen F.T., Creighead H.C., Cook P., Bussjager R., Hass F. AND Honey D.A., "Fabrication of multi-level phase gratings using focued ion beam milling and electron beam lithography," in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994) pp.302-305.

Kung.P and Song.L, "Rapid prototyping of multi-level diffractive optical elements," in Vol.11 of OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics, (Optical society of America, Washington, D.C ., 1994) pp.133-136.

L.B.Lesem, P.M.Hirsch and J.A.Jordan Jr., "Tha kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction devices," IBM J.Res. Develop. 13, 150-155 (1969).

P.P.Clark and C.Londono, "Production of kinoforms by single-point diamond turning," Opt. News 15 (12), 39-40 (1989).

B.E.Bernacki, A.C.Miller, L.C.Maxey, and J.P.Cunningham, "Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds," in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, Nv.j.Dougherty and H.P.Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 463-474 (1995).

J.Futhey and M.Fleining, "Superzone diffractive lenses" in Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications. Vol.9 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp.4-6.

M.T.Gale, M.Rossi, J.Pedersen, and H.Schutz, " Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).

M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, and S. Hard, "Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture with direct-writing, electron beam lithograpgy," Appl. Opt. 33, 103-107 (1994).

D.C. O'Shea and W.S. Rockward, "Gray scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: II. Spatially filtered halftone screens," Appl. Opt. 34, 7518-7526 (1995).

T.J. Suleski and D.C. O'Shea, "Gray scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: Commercial slide imagers," Appl. Opt. 34, 7507-7517 (1995).

M.T. Duignan and G.P. Behrmann, "Excimer laser micromachining for rapid fabrication of binary and blazed diffractive optical elements". Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics. Vol.5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Sociaty of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp.314-317.

K. Kawano, "Coupling characteristics of lens system for laser diode modules using single-mode fiber," Appl. Opt. 25, 2600-2605 (1986).

H.M. Presby, N. Amitay, R. Scotti, and A. Benner, "Simplified laser to fiber coupling via optical fiber up-tapers," Electro. Lett. 24, 323-324 (1998).

B. Hillerich, "Aberration induced coupling loss of microlenses used for LD's and LED's to single-mode fiber coupling." In Tech. Dig. OFC'88 (New Orleans, 1988), paper THL2.

H.Karstensen, "Laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling with ball lenses," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 42-49 (1988).

J.Yamashita, R.Suganuma, Y.Miyake, and T.Takei, "High-efficiency LD coupler with a truncated Si spherical lens," In Tech. Dig. OFC'85 (San Diego, 1985), paper TUL2, pp.48-49.

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