Abstract

This paper reports the reflective features of a water surface covered with an oil film expressed by the dependence of the reflectance on the angle of light incidence and wavelength and film thickness with respect to downward and upward light fluxes. The sensitivity of the shape of these functions on the oil type appears especially strong in case of the upward light fluxes as opposed to downward fluxes.

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References

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  1. K. Magnusson, Oil handling in the Baltic Sea Area, 1996-2001, SSPA Maritime Consulting AB, Report 7935-2, 1998.
  2. C.E. Brown, M.F. Fingas, R.H. Goodman, "Oil-spill Remote Sensors: New tools that provide solutions to old problems", in Proc. XXI Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar (1998).
  3. M. F. Fingas, C. E. Brown, "Review of the visibility of oil slics and oil discharges on water", in Proc. XXI Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar (1998).
  4. V. Byfiel, S. Boxal, "Thickness estimated and classification of surface oil using passive sensing at visible and near-infrared wavelength", in Proc. Of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (1999).
  5. M. Born, E. Wolf., Principles of optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).
  6. A. Vasicek, Optics of thin film (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1960).
  7. Z. Otremba, "A thin oil film covering the sea surface as a modifier of the downward transmission of light," Oceanologia, 39, 397-411 (1997).
  8. Z. Otremba, S. Gebala, W. Targowski, "Calculation of thin oil film contrast on waved sea", in Remote Sensing of the Ocean and Sea Ice Applications, Giovanna Cecchi, Edwin T. Engman, Eugenio Ziolioli, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3868, 639-648 (1999).
  9. Z. Otremba, "Selected results of light field modeling above the sea surface covered by thin oil film", in Computer Simulation and Boundary field problems, Environmental Simulations, 41'th issue (Riga Technical University 1999), http://www.rtu.lv/www_emc/issue_41.pdf/z_otremb.pdf

Other (9)

K. Magnusson, Oil handling in the Baltic Sea Area, 1996-2001, SSPA Maritime Consulting AB, Report 7935-2, 1998.

C.E. Brown, M.F. Fingas, R.H. Goodman, "Oil-spill Remote Sensors: New tools that provide solutions to old problems", in Proc. XXI Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar (1998).

M. F. Fingas, C. E. Brown, "Review of the visibility of oil slics and oil discharges on water", in Proc. XXI Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar (1998).

V. Byfiel, S. Boxal, "Thickness estimated and classification of surface oil using passive sensing at visible and near-infrared wavelength", in Proc. Of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (1999).

M. Born, E. Wolf., Principles of optics (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).

A. Vasicek, Optics of thin film (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1960).

Z. Otremba, "A thin oil film covering the sea surface as a modifier of the downward transmission of light," Oceanologia, 39, 397-411 (1997).

Z. Otremba, S. Gebala, W. Targowski, "Calculation of thin oil film contrast on waved sea", in Remote Sensing of the Ocean and Sea Ice Applications, Giovanna Cecchi, Edwin T. Engman, Eugenio Ziolioli, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3868, 639-648 (1999).

Z. Otremba, "Selected results of light field modeling above the sea surface covered by thin oil film", in Computer Simulation and Boundary field problems, Environmental Simulations, 41'th issue (Riga Technical University 1999), http://www.rtu.lv/www_emc/issue_41.pdf/z_otremb.pdf

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral variation of the real part of the refractive index (A) and the imaginary part of the refractive index (B) of two types of oil: (a) crude Romashkino and (b) crude Petrobaltic

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of reflectance for perpendicular downward (A) and upward (B) light illuminating a water surface covered with an oil film. Two types of oil: (a) crude Petrobaltic at a temperature of 10°C, wavelength 600 nm (n=1.473, k=0.00006) and (b) crude Romashkino under the same conditions (n=1.488, k=0.00303). Colored lines show the averaged values of reflectance.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of reflectance for perpendicular downward (A) and upward (B) light illuminating a water surface covered with an oil film 20 µm thick on wavelengths. Two types of oil: (a) crude Petrobaltic at a temperature of 10°C and (b) crude Romashkino at the same temperature. Colored lines show the averaged values of reflectance. Line ‘c’ represents the reflective features of a clean water surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of reflectance for perpendicular downward (A) and upward (B) light illuminating a water surface covered with an oil film 20 µm thick on the angle of incidence. Two types of oil: (a) crude Petrobaltic at temperature of 10°C, wavelength 600 nm (n=1.473, k=0.00006) and (b) crude Romashkino under the same conditions (n=1.488, k=0.00303). Line ‘c’ represents the reflective feature of a clean water surface.

Equations (1)

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f ( ρ ) = ln T O T d

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