Abstract

A photonic crystal fibre has been fabricated with a photonic crystal that is surrounded by a number of silica cores. Bending of the fibre induces an interaction between the core and photonic crystal areas, resulting in a highly wavelength-dependent loss of the core modes. White-light transmission experiments are presented which show that the colour of the transmitted light changes as a function of the fibre-bending radius. We compare the results to a simple model and find agreement.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Kaiser, E.A.J. Marcatili, and S.E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, No. 2, 265–269 (1973).
  2. T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonics crystal fibre,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Ranka, R.S. Windeler, and A.J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S.E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonics crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 5, 305–330 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Canning, “Grating confinement in a photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 176, 121–124 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. See e.g. “Focus issue: photonic crystals,” Opt. Express13, 3–34 (1998) http://www.opticsexpress.org/v3n1cvr.htm.
  9. T. Ryan, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and K. Lytkkainen, “Multiple-core air-silica structure optical fibre,” Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference OECC’2000, Chiba, Japan, (2000).
  10. J. Canning, M.A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, and K. Lyytikainen, “Complex mode coupling within air-silica structures optical fibres and applications,” submitted for publication (2000).
  11. M. Kristensen, J. Canning, and T. Ryan, “Mode coupling in photonic crystal fibres with multiple cores,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO, Nice, France (2000).
  12. All photographs presented in this paper were taken with a Kodak DC210 zoom camera placed on top of an Olympus BH2 microscope. The various colours observed in all the photographs accurately represent what was observed simultaneously looking down the microscope.
  13. J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A.R. Parker, R.C. McPhedran, D.R. McKenzie, L.C. Botten, and N.A. Nicorovici, “Nature’s finest photonic crystal,” submitted for publication (2000).
  15. The fibre reported in [9–11] showed no indications of colouring at all: white light experiments showed transmission at all wavelengths, independent of bending of the fibre.

2000 (3)

J. Ranka, R.S. Windeler, and A.J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Canning, “Grating confinement in a photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 176, 121–124 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S.E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonics crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[Crossref]

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1973 (1)

P. Kaiser, E.A.J. Marcatili, and S.E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, No. 2, 265–269 (1973).

Allen, D.C.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arriaga, J.

W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

Barkou, S.E.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S.E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonics crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[Crossref]

Birks, T.A.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonics crystal fibre,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S.E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonics crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[Crossref]

Botten, L.C.

A.R. Parker, R.C. McPhedran, D.R. McKenzie, L.C. Botten, and N.A. Nicorovici, “Nature’s finest photonic crystal,” submitted for publication (2000).

Broeng, J.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S.E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonics crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, “Grating confinement in a photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 176, 121–124 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Ryan, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and K. Lytkkainen, “Multiple-core air-silica structure optical fibre,” Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference OECC’2000, Chiba, Japan, (2000).

J. Canning, M.A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, and K. Lyytikainen, “Complex mode coupling within air-silica structures optical fibres and applications,” submitted for publication (2000).

M. Kristensen, J. Canning, and T. Ryan, “Mode coupling in photonic crystal fibres with multiple cores,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO, Nice, France (2000).

Cregan, R.F.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, P.

P. Kaiser, E.A.J. Marcatili, and S.E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, No. 2, 265–269 (1973).

Knight, J.C.

W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.A. Birks, J.C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonics crystal fibre,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

M. Kristensen, J. Canning, and T. Ryan, “Mode coupling in photonic crystal fibres with multiple cores,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO, Nice, France (2000).

J. Canning, M.A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, and K. Lyytikainen, “Complex mode coupling within air-silica structures optical fibres and applications,” submitted for publication (2000).

T. Ryan, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and K. Lytkkainen, “Multiple-core air-silica structure optical fibre,” Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference OECC’2000, Chiba, Japan, (2000).

Lytkkainen, K.

T. Ryan, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and K. Lytkkainen, “Multiple-core air-silica structure optical fibre,” Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference OECC’2000, Chiba, Japan, (2000).

Lyytikainen, K.

J. Canning, M.A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, and K. Lyytikainen, “Complex mode coupling within air-silica structures optical fibres and applications,” submitted for publication (2000).

Mangan, B.J.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcatili, E.A.J.

P. Kaiser, E.A.J. Marcatili, and S.E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, No. 2, 265–269 (1973).

McKenzie, D.R.

A.R. Parker, R.C. McPhedran, D.R. McKenzie, L.C. Botten, and N.A. Nicorovici, “Nature’s finest photonic crystal,” submitted for publication (2000).

McPhedran, R.C.

A.R. Parker, R.C. McPhedran, D.R. McKenzie, L.C. Botten, and N.A. Nicorovici, “Nature’s finest photonic crystal,” submitted for publication (2000).

Miller, S.E.

P. Kaiser, E.A.J. Marcatili, and S.E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, No. 2, 265–269 (1973).

Mogilevstev, D.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S.E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonics crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nicorovici, N.A.

A.R. Parker, R.C. McPhedran, D.R. McKenzie, L.C. Botten, and N.A. Nicorovici, “Nature’s finest photonic crystal,” submitted for publication (2000).

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

Parker, A.R.

A.R. Parker, R.C. McPhedran, D.R. McKenzie, L.C. Botten, and N.A. Nicorovici, “Nature’s finest photonic crystal,” submitted for publication (2000).

Ranka, J.

Roberts, P.J.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russel, P.St.J.

W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Russell, P.St.J.

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryan, T.

J. Canning, M.A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, and K. Lyytikainen, “Complex mode coupling within air-silica structures optical fibres and applications,” submitted for publication (2000).

M. Kristensen, J. Canning, and T. Ryan, “Mode coupling in photonic crystal fibres with multiple cores,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO, Nice, France (2000).

T. Ryan, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and K. Lytkkainen, “Multiple-core air-silica structure optical fibre,” Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference OECC’2000, Chiba, Japan, (2000).

Silvestre, E.

W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.J.

van Eijkelenborg, M.A.

J. Canning, M.A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, and K. Lyytikainen, “Complex mode coupling within air-silica structures optical fibres and applications,” submitted for publication (2000).

Wadsworth, W.J.

W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R.S.

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

P. Kaiser, E.A.J. Marcatili, and S.E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, No. 2, 265–269 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (1)

W.J. Wadsworth, J.C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P.St.J. Russel, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Canning, “Grating confinement in a photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 176, 121–124 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Fiber Tech. (1)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S.E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonics crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides,” Opt. Fiber Tech. 5, 305–330 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (2)

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St.J. Russel, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allen. “Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P.St.J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

A.R. Parker, R.C. McPhedran, D.R. McKenzie, L.C. Botten, and N.A. Nicorovici, “Nature’s finest photonic crystal,” submitted for publication (2000).

The fibre reported in [9–11] showed no indications of colouring at all: white light experiments showed transmission at all wavelengths, independent of bending of the fibre.

See e.g. “Focus issue: photonic crystals,” Opt. Express13, 3–34 (1998) http://www.opticsexpress.org/v3n1cvr.htm.

T. Ryan, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and K. Lytkkainen, “Multiple-core air-silica structure optical fibre,” Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference OECC’2000, Chiba, Japan, (2000).

J. Canning, M.A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, and K. Lyytikainen, “Complex mode coupling within air-silica structures optical fibres and applications,” submitted for publication (2000).

M. Kristensen, J. Canning, and T. Ryan, “Mode coupling in photonic crystal fibres with multiple cores,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO, Nice, France (2000).

All photographs presented in this paper were taken with a Kodak DC210 zoom camera placed on top of an Olympus BH2 microscope. The various colours observed in all the photographs accurately represent what was observed simultaneously looking down the microscope.

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Figures (6)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Optical micrograph of the cross section of the fibre with five cores near the edge, surrounding a photonic crystal area in the centre. The fibre diameter is 147 µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) and b) show coloured transmission through the five cores when a white light source is launched into the fibre. The two pictures show different colours in the different cores as a result of the different fibre bending radius. c) and d) show the coloured transmission through the central region (overexposing cores 2 and 3 to allow the low intensity of the light in the centre to become visible).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

a) Model of the fibre with a core at a distance L from a photonic crystal area with an air hole spacing Λ. b) side-view of the fibre when bent at a radius R. The red dashed lines indicate the wavelength for which the guiding is enhanced by satisfying the Bragg condition.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength λB of the light that experiences the lowest loss plotted as a function of the bending radius. The curves have been calculated from Eq. (1), with the parameters corresponding to core 4: L=13.4 µm, neff=1.43, and Λ=6.7 µm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The transmission through core 4 changes colour as the fibre is bent further, starting with white in a) for an ‘unbent’ fibre and ending with green in f) for the tightest bending radius (R~1 cm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrum of the transmission through the bent fibre corresponding to the case of red transmission as in Fig 5 d).

Equations (1)

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λ B = 2 n eff Λ m ( L + R ) ( L 2 + 2 LR ) 1 2 .

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