Abstract

The use of pulsed lasers for microprocessing material in several manufacturing industries is presented. Microvia, ink jet printer nozzle and biomedical catheter hole drilling, thin-film scribing and micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication applications are reviewed.

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References

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  1. N. Bloembergen, "Laser-material interactions, fundamentals and applications," in Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, AIP Conf. Proc. J. C. Miller & D. B. Geohegan eds., 288 (1994).
  2. J. C. Miller, 'History, scope and the future of laser ablation', in Laser Ablation, Principles and Applications, J. C. Miller ed., Springer-Verlag (1994).
  3. Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda and S. Namba, "Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Srinivasan and V. Mayne-Banton, "Self-developing photoetching of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films by far ultraviolet excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. D. Allen, M. Bass and M. L. Teisniger, "Comparison of pulsed Nd:YAG and pulsed CO2 lasers for hole drilling in printed circuit board materials," CLEO Conference Summary (1982).
  6. M. N. Watson, "Laser drilling of printed circuit boards," Circuit World, 11, 13 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Bachman, "Excimer lasers in a fabrication line for a highly integrated printed circuit board," Chemtronics 4, 149 (1989).
  8. J. R. Lankard and G. E. Wolbold, "Laser ablation of polyimide in a manufacturing facility," Appl. Phys. A54, 355 (1992).
  9. R. S. Patel, T. F. Redmond, C. Tessler, D. Tudryn and D. Pulaski, "Via production benefits from excimer laser tools," Laser Focus World (Jan 1996).
  10. H. Holden, "Microvia PCB's:the next generation of substrates & packages," Future Circuits International 1, 71 (1997).
  11. C. Rowan, "Excimer lasers drill precise holes with higher yields," Laser Focus World (Aug 1995).
  12. A. South, "Miniaturization of Medical Products: The Development Challenge," Medical Device Technology 9, 30 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  13. M. C. Gower, "Excimer lasers for surgery and biomedical fabrication," in Nanotechnology in Medicine and the Biosciences, R R H Coombs & D W Robinson eds, Gordon & Breach (1996).
  14. R. S. Gifford & D J Bartnik. "Using optical sensors to measure arterial blood gases," Opt. & Photonics News 9, 27 (Mar 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Kiyama, T. Matsuoka, Y. Hirano, S. Nakano, M. Osumi, Y. Kuwano, "Laser patterning of integrated-type a-Si solar cell submodules," JSPE, 11, 2069, (1990).
  16. A. B. Frazier, R. O. Warrington and C. Friedrich, "The Miniaturization Technologies: Past, Present and Future," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, 42, No5, 423 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. C. Harvey and P. T. Rumsby, 'Fabrication techniques and their application to produce novel micromachined structures and devices using excimer laser mask projection' in Micromachining and microfabrication process technology III, Proc. SPIE 3223, 26 (1997).
  18. R. Pethig, J. P. H. Burt, A. Parton, N. H. Rizvi, M. S. Talary and J. A. Tame, 'Development of biofactory on a chip technology using excimer laser micromachining' J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 57 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Bacher, W. Menz and J. Mohr, 'The LIGA Technique and its potential for Microsystems - A Survey', IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, 42, No5, 431 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. McKeown, 'Nanotechnology' in Emerging Technology Series: New and Advanced Materials, UN Industrial Development Organization 1 (1997).

Other

N. Bloembergen, "Laser-material interactions, fundamentals and applications," in Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, AIP Conf. Proc. J. C. Miller & D. B. Geohegan eds., 288 (1994).

J. C. Miller, 'History, scope and the future of laser ablation', in Laser Ablation, Principles and Applications, J. C. Miller ed., Springer-Verlag (1994).

Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda and S. Namba, "Effective deep ultraviolet photoetching of polymethyl methacrylate by an excimer laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 374 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Srinivasan and V. Mayne-Banton, "Self-developing photoetching of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films by far ultraviolet excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 576 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Allen, M. Bass and M. L. Teisniger, "Comparison of pulsed Nd:YAG and pulsed CO2 lasers for hole drilling in printed circuit board materials," CLEO Conference Summary (1982).

M. N. Watson, "Laser drilling of printed circuit boards," Circuit World, 11, 13 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. Bachman, "Excimer lasers in a fabrication line for a highly integrated printed circuit board," Chemtronics 4, 149 (1989).

J. R. Lankard and G. E. Wolbold, "Laser ablation of polyimide in a manufacturing facility," Appl. Phys. A54, 355 (1992).

R. S. Patel, T. F. Redmond, C. Tessler, D. Tudryn and D. Pulaski, "Via production benefits from excimer laser tools," Laser Focus World (Jan 1996).

H. Holden, "Microvia PCB's:the next generation of substrates & packages," Future Circuits International 1, 71 (1997).

C. Rowan, "Excimer lasers drill precise holes with higher yields," Laser Focus World (Aug 1995).

A. South, "Miniaturization of Medical Products: The Development Challenge," Medical Device Technology 9, 30 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. C. Gower, "Excimer lasers for surgery and biomedical fabrication," in Nanotechnology in Medicine and the Biosciences, R R H Coombs & D W Robinson eds, Gordon & Breach (1996).

R. S. Gifford & D J Bartnik. "Using optical sensors to measure arterial blood gases," Opt. & Photonics News 9, 27 (Mar 1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kiyama, T. Matsuoka, Y. Hirano, S. Nakano, M. Osumi, Y. Kuwano, "Laser patterning of integrated-type a-Si solar cell submodules," JSPE, 11, 2069, (1990).

A. B. Frazier, R. O. Warrington and C. Friedrich, "The Miniaturization Technologies: Past, Present and Future," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, 42, No5, 423 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Harvey and P. T. Rumsby, 'Fabrication techniques and their application to produce novel micromachined structures and devices using excimer laser mask projection' in Micromachining and microfabrication process technology III, Proc. SPIE 3223, 26 (1997).

R. Pethig, J. P. H. Burt, A. Parton, N. H. Rizvi, M. S. Talary and J. A. Tame, 'Development of biofactory on a chip technology using excimer laser micromachining' J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Bacher, W. Menz and J. Mohr, 'The LIGA Technique and its potential for Microsystems - A Survey', IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, 42, No5, 431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. McKeown, 'Nanotechnology' in Emerging Technology Series: New and Advanced Materials, UN Industrial Development Organization 1 (1997).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

100mm holes drilled in 75mm high-density polyethylene with (a) a twist drill bit (b) a KrF laser

Fig.2.
Fig.2.

100µm diameter blind microvia drilled in a PCB. (a) Step 1. Nd laser trepanned hole in top copper conductive layer. (b) Step 2. CO2 laser drilling of fiber reinforced composite FR4 layer to copper below.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nd:YAG & CO2 hybrid laser tool for microvia drilling.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Array of 30µm diameter ink jet printer nozzles drilled in polyimide. (b) Array of nonlinear tapered nozzles aiding laminar fluid flow

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Tapered nozzle with rifling. (b) Nozzle array with machined reservoirs

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Hole in the side of a bilumen catheter (b) Automated reel-to-reel excimer laser workstation for simultaneous hole drilling in optical fibers.

Figure 7.
Figure 7.

(a) Rectangular 50×20µm holes drilled in 100µm fibers for PaO2 & PaCO2-sensors. (b) Laser stripped insulation from 100µm diameter pH-sensor wire

Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Laser scribing of thin films on solar panels and completed TFS panel

Figure 9.
Figure 9.

(a) 25mm wide tracks in ITO layer. (b) Nd pulsed laser panel scribing machine

Figure 10.
Figure 10.

KrF laser produced surfaces in polycarbonate produced using mask-dragging techniques.

Figure 11.
Figure 11.

Micro-optical surfaces fabricated by KrF laser micromachining and orthogonal mask-dragging

Figure 12.
Figure 12.

Biochip manufactured using laser micromachining.

Figure 13.
Figure 13.

KrF laser micromachined microfluidic channels in polyester

Figure 14.
Figure 14.

KrF laser micromachined fiber holders in polyester

Figure 15.
Figure 15.

KrF laser-machined 3D-structures in polycarbonate.

Figure 16.
Figure 16.

MEMS devices fabricated by excimer laser micromachining

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