Abstract

Visible and UV lasers with nanosecond pulse durations, diffraction-limited beam quality and high pulse repetition rates have demonstrated micro-ablation in a wide variety of materials with sub-micron precision and sub-micron-sized heat-affected zones. The copper vapour laser (CVL) is one of the important industrial lasers for micro-ablation applications. Manufacturing applications for the CVL include orifice drilling in fuel injection components and inkjet printers, micro-milling of micromoulds, via hole drilling in printed circuit boards and silicon machining. Recent advances in higher power (100W visible, 5W UV), diffraction-limited, compact CVLs are opening new possibilities for manufacturing with this class of nanosecond laser.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. X. Chen and X. Liu, “Short pulsed laser machining: how short is short enough?,” J. Laser Applications 11, 268–272 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. M.D. Shirk and P.A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Applications 10, 18–28 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “On pulsed laser ablation of metals: comparing the relative importance of thermal diffusion in the nanosecond-femtosecond regime,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Europe paper CThH76 (1998).
  4. M.R.H. Knowles, G. Rutterford, A.I. Bell, A.J. Andrews, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Sub-micron and high precision micro-machining using nanosecond,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9885e, 112–120 (1998).
  5. H.K. Tönshoff, C. Momma, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, and G. Kamlage, “Microdrilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Laser Applications 12, 23–27 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsley, “Development of high power compact copper vapour lasers,” Advanced High-Power Lasers and Applications 99M. Osinski, H.T. Power, and K. Toyoda, eds., Proc SPIE3889, paper 3889-63, (1999).
  7. D. K Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “Efficient Generation of near diffraction-limited beam-quality output from medium-scale copper vapour laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Qu. Electronics 34, 419–426 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. M.R.H. Knowles, A.I. Bell, G. Rutterford, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Advances in copper lasers for micromachining,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9782, (1997).
  9. M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..
  10. M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).
  11. J.J. Chang, B.E. Warner, E.P. Dragon, and M.W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Applications 10, 285–291 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. R.I. Trickett, M.J. Withford, and D.J. Brown, “4.7W, 255nm source based on second-harmonic generation of a copper vapour laser in cesium lithium borate,” Optics Letters 23, 189–191, 1998.
    [Crossref]
  13. A.C. Glover, D.W. Coutts, D.J. Ramsay, and J.A. Piper, “Progress in high-speed UV micro-machining with high repetition rate frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 343–351, (1994).
  14. A.C. Glover, M.J. Withford, E.K. Illy, and J.A. Piper “Ablation threshold and etch rate measurements in high-speed ultra-violent micro-machining of polymers with uv-copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 361–370, (1995).
  15. C. Körner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, and H.W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 123–131, (1996).
    [Crossref]
  16. J.J. Chang and B.E. Warner, “Laser-plasma interaction during visible laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 473–475, 1996.
    [Crossref]
  17. H.K. Tonshoff, F. von Alvensleben, A. Ostendorf, G. Kamlage, and S. Nolte, “Micromachining of metals using ultrashort laser pulses,” IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining 4, 1–6, 1999.
  18. http:/www.oxfordlasers.demon.co.uk/movies/ddi_drilling_large.mov
  19. http:/www.oxfordlasers.demon.co.uk/movies/ddi_drilling_close.mov

2000 (1)

H.K. Tönshoff, C. Momma, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, and G. Kamlage, “Microdrilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Laser Applications 12, 23–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

X. Chen and X. Liu, “Short pulsed laser machining: how short is short enough?,” J. Laser Applications 11, 268–272 (1999).
[Crossref]

H.K. Tonshoff, F. von Alvensleben, A. Ostendorf, G. Kamlage, and S. Nolte, “Micromachining of metals using ultrashort laser pulses,” IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining 4, 1–6, 1999.

1998 (4)

M.D. Shirk and P.A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Applications 10, 18–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.J. Chang, B.E. Warner, E.P. Dragon, and M.W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Applications 10, 285–291 (1998).
[Crossref]

R.I. Trickett, M.J. Withford, and D.J. Brown, “4.7W, 255nm source based on second-harmonic generation of a copper vapour laser in cesium lithium borate,” Optics Letters 23, 189–191, 1998.
[Crossref]

D. K Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “Efficient Generation of near diffraction-limited beam-quality output from medium-scale copper vapour laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Qu. Electronics 34, 419–426 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

C. Körner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, and H.W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 123–131, (1996).
[Crossref]

J.J. Chang and B.E. Warner, “Laser-plasma interaction during visible laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 473–475, 1996.
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

A.C. Glover, M.J. Withford, E.K. Illy, and J.A. Piper “Ablation threshold and etch rate measurements in high-speed ultra-violent micro-machining of polymers with uv-copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 361–370, (1995).

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

1994 (2)

M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).

A.C. Glover, D.W. Coutts, D.J. Ramsay, and J.A. Piper, “Progress in high-speed UV micro-machining with high repetition rate frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 343–351, (1994).

Abbott, J.E.

M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).

Andrews, A.

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsley, “Development of high power compact copper vapour lasers,” Advanced High-Power Lasers and Applications 99M. Osinski, H.T. Power, and K. Toyoda, eds., Proc SPIE3889, paper 3889-63, (1999).

Andrews, A.J.

M.R.H. Knowles, G. Rutterford, A.I. Bell, A.J. Andrews, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Sub-micron and high precision micro-machining using nanosecond,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9885e, 112–120 (1998).

Bell, A.I.

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

M.R.H. Knowles, A.I. Bell, G. Rutterford, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Advances in copper lasers for micromachining,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9782, (1997).

M.R.H. Knowles, G. Rutterford, A.I. Bell, A.J. Andrews, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Sub-micron and high precision micro-machining using nanosecond,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9885e, 112–120 (1998).

Benfield, R.

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsley, “Development of high power compact copper vapour lasers,” Advanced High-Power Lasers and Applications 99M. Osinski, H.T. Power, and K. Toyoda, eds., Proc SPIE3889, paper 3889-63, (1999).

Bergmann, H.W.

C. Körner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, and H.W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 123–131, (1996).
[Crossref]

Bisset, H.

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

Boaler, J.M.

M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).

Brown, D.J.

R.I. Trickett, M.J. Withford, and D.J. Brown, “4.7W, 255nm source based on second-harmonic generation of a copper vapour laser in cesium lithium borate,” Optics Letters 23, 189–191, 1998.
[Crossref]

Chang, J.J.

J.J. Chang, B.E. Warner, E.P. Dragon, and M.W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Applications 10, 285–291 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.J. Chang and B.E. Warner, “Laser-plasma interaction during visible laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 473–475, 1996.
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen and X. Liu, “Short pulsed laser machining: how short is short enough?,” J. Laser Applications 11, 268–272 (1999).
[Crossref]

Coutts, D. W.

D. K Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “Efficient Generation of near diffraction-limited beam-quality output from medium-scale copper vapour laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Qu. Electronics 34, 419–426 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “On pulsed laser ablation of metals: comparing the relative importance of thermal diffusion in the nanosecond-femtosecond regime,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Europe paper CThH76 (1998).

Coutts, D.W.

A.C. Glover, D.W. Coutts, D.J. Ramsay, and J.A. Piper, “Progress in high-speed UV micro-machining with high repetition rate frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 343–351, (1994).

Dragon, E.P.

J.J. Chang, B.E. Warner, E.P. Dragon, and M.W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Applications 10, 285–291 (1998).
[Crossref]

Errey, K.H.

M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).

Foster-Turner, G.

M.R.H. Knowles, G. Rutterford, A.I. Bell, A.J. Andrews, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Sub-micron and high precision micro-machining using nanosecond,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9885e, 112–120 (1998).

M.R.H. Knowles, A.I. Bell, G. Rutterford, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Advances in copper lasers for micromachining,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9782, (1997).

Foster-Turner, R.

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).

Glover, A.C.

A.C. Glover, M.J. Withford, E.K. Illy, and J.A. Piper “Ablation threshold and etch rate measurements in high-speed ultra-violent micro-machining of polymers with uv-copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 361–370, (1995).

A.C. Glover, D.W. Coutts, D.J. Ramsay, and J.A. Piper, “Progress in high-speed UV micro-machining with high repetition rate frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 343–351, (1994).

Hartmann, M.

C. Körner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, and H.W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 123–131, (1996).
[Crossref]

Hoult, A.P.

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

Illy, E.K.

A.C. Glover, M.J. Withford, E.K. Illy, and J.A. Piper “Ablation threshold and etch rate measurements in high-speed ultra-violent micro-machining of polymers with uv-copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 361–370, (1995).

Kamlage, G.

H.K. Tönshoff, C. Momma, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, and G. Kamlage, “Microdrilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Laser Applications 12, 23–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

H.K. Tonshoff, F. von Alvensleben, A. Ostendorf, G. Kamlage, and S. Nolte, “Micromachining of metals using ultrashort laser pulses,” IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining 4, 1–6, 1999.

Kapitan, D.

D. Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “On pulsed laser ablation of metals: comparing the relative importance of thermal diffusion in the nanosecond-femtosecond regime,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Europe paper CThH76 (1998).

Kapitan, D. K

D. K Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “Efficient Generation of near diffraction-limited beam-quality output from medium-scale copper vapour laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Qu. Electronics 34, 419–426 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kearsley, A.

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsley, “Development of high power compact copper vapour lasers,” Advanced High-Power Lasers and Applications 99M. Osinski, H.T. Power, and K. Toyoda, eds., Proc SPIE3889, paper 3889-63, (1999).

Kearsley, A.J.

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).

M.R.H. Knowles, A.I. Bell, G. Rutterford, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Advances in copper lasers for micromachining,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9782, (1997).

M.R.H. Knowles, G. Rutterford, A.I. Bell, A.J. Andrews, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Sub-micron and high precision micro-machining using nanosecond,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9885e, 112–120 (1998).

Knowles, M.

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsley, “Development of high power compact copper vapour lasers,” Advanced High-Power Lasers and Applications 99M. Osinski, H.T. Power, and K. Toyoda, eds., Proc SPIE3889, paper 3889-63, (1999).

Knowles, M.R.H.

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).

M.R.H. Knowles, A.I. Bell, G. Rutterford, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Advances in copper lasers for micromachining,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9782, (1997).

M.R.H. Knowles, G. Rutterford, A.I. Bell, A.J. Andrews, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Sub-micron and high precision micro-machining using nanosecond,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9885e, 112–120 (1998).

Körner, C.

C. Körner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, and H.W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 123–131, (1996).
[Crossref]

Lim, S.W.

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

Liu, X.

X. Chen and X. Liu, “Short pulsed laser machining: how short is short enough?,” J. Laser Applications 11, 268–272 (1999).
[Crossref]

Martinez, M.W.

J.J. Chang, B.E. Warner, E.P. Dragon, and M.W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Applications 10, 285–291 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mayerhofer, R.

C. Körner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, and H.W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 123–131, (1996).
[Crossref]

Molian, P.A.

M.D. Shirk and P.A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Applications 10, 18–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

Momma, C.

H.K. Tönshoff, C. Momma, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, and G. Kamlage, “Microdrilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Laser Applications 12, 23–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

H.K. Tönshoff, C. Momma, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, and G. Kamlage, “Microdrilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Laser Applications 12, 23–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

H.K. Tonshoff, F. von Alvensleben, A. Ostendorf, G. Kamlage, and S. Nolte, “Micromachining of metals using ultrashort laser pulses,” IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining 4, 1–6, 1999.

Ostendorf, A.

H.K. Tönshoff, C. Momma, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, and G. Kamlage, “Microdrilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Laser Applications 12, 23–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

H.K. Tonshoff, F. von Alvensleben, A. Ostendorf, G. Kamlage, and S. Nolte, “Micromachining of metals using ultrashort laser pulses,” IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining 4, 1–6, 1999.

Piper, J.A.

A.C. Glover, M.J. Withford, E.K. Illy, and J.A. Piper “Ablation threshold and etch rate measurements in high-speed ultra-violent micro-machining of polymers with uv-copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 361–370, (1995).

A.C. Glover, D.W. Coutts, D.J. Ramsay, and J.A. Piper, “Progress in high-speed UV micro-machining with high repetition rate frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 343–351, (1994).

Ramsay, D.J.

A.C. Glover, D.W. Coutts, D.J. Ramsay, and J.A. Piper, “Progress in high-speed UV micro-machining with high repetition rate frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 343–351, (1994).

Rutterford, G.

M.R.H. Knowles, G. Rutterford, A.I. Bell, A.J. Andrews, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Sub-micron and high precision micro-machining using nanosecond,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9885e, 112–120 (1998).

M.R.H. Knowles, A.I. Bell, G. Rutterford, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Advances in copper lasers for micromachining,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9782, (1997).

Shirk, M.D.

M.D. Shirk and P.A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Applications 10, 18–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tonshoff, H.K.

H.K. Tonshoff, F. von Alvensleben, A. Ostendorf, G. Kamlage, and S. Nolte, “Micromachining of metals using ultrashort laser pulses,” IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining 4, 1–6, 1999.

Tönshoff, H.K.

H.K. Tönshoff, C. Momma, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, and G. Kamlage, “Microdrilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Laser Applications 12, 23–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

Trickett, R.I.

R.I. Trickett, M.J. Withford, and D.J. Brown, “4.7W, 255nm source based on second-harmonic generation of a copper vapour laser in cesium lithium borate,” Optics Letters 23, 189–191, 1998.
[Crossref]

von Alvensleben, F.

H.K. Tonshoff, F. von Alvensleben, A. Ostendorf, G. Kamlage, and S. Nolte, “Micromachining of metals using ultrashort laser pulses,” IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining 4, 1–6, 1999.

Warner, B.E.

J.J. Chang, B.E. Warner, E.P. Dragon, and M.W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Applications 10, 285–291 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.J. Chang and B.E. Warner, “Laser-plasma interaction during visible laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 473–475, 1996.
[Crossref]

Webb, C. E.

D. K Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “Efficient Generation of near diffraction-limited beam-quality output from medium-scale copper vapour laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Qu. Electronics 34, 419–426 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “On pulsed laser ablation of metals: comparing the relative importance of thermal diffusion in the nanosecond-femtosecond regime,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Europe paper CThH76 (1998).

Withford, M.J.

R.I. Trickett, M.J. Withford, and D.J. Brown, “4.7W, 255nm source based on second-harmonic generation of a copper vapour laser in cesium lithium borate,” Optics Letters 23, 189–191, 1998.
[Crossref]

A.C. Glover, M.J. Withford, E.K. Illy, and J.A. Piper “Ablation threshold and etch rate measurements in high-speed ultra-violent micro-machining of polymers with uv-copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 361–370, (1995).

Appl. Phys. A (1)

C. Körner, R. Mayerhofer, M. Hartmann, and H.W. Bergmann, “Physical and material aspects in using visible laser pulses of nanosecond duration for ablation,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 123–131, (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J.J. Chang and B.E. Warner, “Laser-plasma interaction during visible laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 473–475, 1996.
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Qu. Electronics (1)

D. K Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “Efficient Generation of near diffraction-limited beam-quality output from medium-scale copper vapour laser oscillators,” IEEE J. Qu. Electronics 34, 419–426 (1998).
[Crossref]

IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining (1)

H.K. Tonshoff, F. von Alvensleben, A. Ostendorf, G. Kamlage, and S. Nolte, “Micromachining of metals using ultrashort laser pulses,” IJEM Review International Journal of Electrical Machining 4, 1–6, 1999.

J. Laser Applications (4)

J.J. Chang, B.E. Warner, E.P. Dragon, and M.W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Applications 10, 285–291 (1998).
[Crossref]

H.K. Tönshoff, C. Momma, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, and G. Kamlage, “Microdrilling of metals with ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Laser Applications 12, 23–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. Chen and X. Liu, “Short pulsed laser machining: how short is short enough?,” J. Laser Applications 11, 268–272 (1999).
[Crossref]

M.D. Shirk and P.A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Applications 10, 18–28 (1998).
[Crossref]

Optics Letters (1)

R.I. Trickett, M.J. Withford, and D.J. Brown, “4.7W, 255nm source based on second-harmonic generation of a copper vapour laser in cesium lithium borate,” Optics Letters 23, 189–191, 1998.
[Crossref]

Proceedings of ICALEO 94 (2)

A.C. Glover, D.W. Coutts, D.J. Ramsay, and J.A. Piper, “Progress in high-speed UV micro-machining with high repetition rate frequency doubled copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 343–351, (1994).

M.R.H. Knowles, A.J. Kearsley, R. Foster-Turner, J.E. Abbott, J.M. Boaler, and K.H. Errey, “Visualization of small hole drilling using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 94 79, 352–361, (1994).

Proceedings of ICALEO 95 (2)

M.R.H. Knowles, R. Foster-Turner, A.I. Bell, A.J. Kearsley, A.P. Hoult, S.W. Lim, and H. Bisset, “Drilling of shallow angled holes in aerospace alloys using a copper laser,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 321–330, (1995)..

A.C. Glover, M.J. Withford, E.K. Illy, and J.A. Piper “Ablation threshold and etch rate measurements in high-speed ultra-violent micro-machining of polymers with uv-copper vapour lasers,” Proceedings of ICALEO 95 80, 361–370, (1995).

Other (6)

http:/www.oxfordlasers.demon.co.uk/movies/ddi_drilling_large.mov

http:/www.oxfordlasers.demon.co.uk/movies/ddi_drilling_close.mov

D. Kapitan, D. W. Coutts, and C. E. Webb, “On pulsed laser ablation of metals: comparing the relative importance of thermal diffusion in the nanosecond-femtosecond regime,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - Europe paper CThH76 (1998).

M.R.H. Knowles, G. Rutterford, A.I. Bell, A.J. Andrews, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Sub-micron and high precision micro-machining using nanosecond,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9885e, 112–120 (1998).

M. Knowles, R. Benfield, A. Andrews, and A. Kearsley, “Development of high power compact copper vapour lasers,” Advanced High-Power Lasers and Applications 99M. Osinski, H.T. Power, and K. Toyoda, eds., Proc SPIE3889, paper 3889-63, (1999).

M.R.H. Knowles, A.I. Bell, G. Rutterford, G. Foster-Turner, and A.J. Kearsley, “Advances in copper lasers for micromachining,” Proceedings of ICALEO 9782, (1997).

Supplementary Material (3)

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» Media 3: MOV (12484 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A high quality CVL drilled hole in 1mm thick steel for diesel fuel injectors (P=35W, PRF=10kHz, F=200mm, w=10 microns, t=20s trepanned) and (b) a high performance gasoline swirl injector manufactured using a CVL (P=45W, PRF=10kHz, F=250mm, w=13 microns, t=60s trepanned). These holes demonstrate the exceptional hole quality (roundness, smooth walls, sharp edges and sub-micron recast layers).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photographs of CVL drilling of a diesel fuel injector. Photograph (a) on the left shows an overview. See reference [18] for the link for the movie of this drilling (5.26MB). Photograph (b) on the right shows a close up of the drilling process and jig. See reference [19] for the link for the movie of this drilling (6.12MB). [Media 3]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

An example of a CVL drilled industrial inkjet printer nozzle orifice. In fig 3(a) the hole diameter is 50mm through 100mm stainless steel and was trepanned. The recast laser is sub-micron and the diameter reproducibility is +/-0.2mm. In fig 3(b) the hole is 5mm diameter (part of a 22,000 hole array) in a medical device and was percussion drilled (20 pulses at 10kHz, w=4 microns).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Low taper cutting of CVD diamond (250 micron thickness) to form heat sinks for laser diodes, reproduced with the permission of Marconi Materials Technology by a CVL (P=40W, PRF=10kHz, F=300mm, w=50 microns, v=0.5 mm/s) and (b) a vacuum chuck made from 1.6mm thick diamond/tungsten carbide for a pick-and-place tool (P=40W, F=250mm, w=13 microns, PRF=10kHz, v=0.01 mm/s).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The photograph on the left shows direct writing of micro-circuits using a CVL. This example has 25mm wide tracks on a 50 mm pitch through 5mm thick nickel on ceramic. Note the lack of burr around the laser cuts. (b) Sub-micron surface patterning of polished steel (P=6W, PRF=10kHz, intensity=1J/cm2, 60 pulses). The ablated squares are 2mm wide with corner radii of less than 0.25mm [4].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Blind via drilled through polyimide down to the copper layer below using the frequency mixed 271nm line from the copper laser (P=500mW, PRF=6kHz, w=40 microns, t=20ms trepanned). Note the excellent roundness, smooth walls and flat bottom to the via.

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