Abstract

The polarization properties of light backscattered from a two layer scattering medium are investigated. Linear, circular and elliptical polarization states are considered and it is demonstrated that the degree of polarization of the backscattered light is sensitive to the optical properties of both layers and to layer thickness. Furthermore, it is shown that the polarization memory of circularly polarized light enables deeper layers to be probed whereas linearly polarized light is more sensitive to surface layers. This has applications for characterizing burns and melanoma.

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References

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  1. For a review see, J.C. Hebden, S.R. Arridge and D.T. Delpy, "Optical imaging in medicine. 1. Experimental techniques," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-40 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M.J.C. Van Gemert, S.L. Jacques, H.J.C.M. Sterenborg and W.M. Star, "Skin Optics," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146-1154 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y.T. Pan and D.L. Farkas, "High-resolution imaging of living human skin with optical coherence tomography," Scanning 21, 134-135 (1999).
  4. J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Amer. Acad. Derm. 37, 958-963 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.M. Schmitt, A.H. Gandjbakhche and R.F. Bonner, "Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 31, 6535-6546 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti and Q. Wei, "Transmission of a pulsed polarized light beam through thick turbid media: numerical results," Appl. Opt. 32, 6142-6150 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S.P. Morgan, M.P. Khong and M.G. Somekh, "Effects of polarization state and scatterer concentration on optical imaging through scattering media," Appl. Opt. 36, 1560-1565 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S.L. Jacques, J.R. Roman and K. Lee, "Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light," Lasers in Surg. & Med. 26, 119-129 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.G. Demos, H.B. Radousky and R.R. Alfano, "Deep subsurface imaging in tissues using spectral and polarization filtering," Opt. Express 7, 23-28 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/opticsexpress/framestocv7n1.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Yao and L. Wang, "Propagation of polarized light in turbid media: simulated animation sequences," Opt. Express 7, 198-203 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/23140.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G.D. Lewis, D.L. Jordan and P.J. Roberts, "Backscattering target detection in a turbid medium by polarization discrimination," Appl. Opt. 38, 3937-3944 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Dehghani, D.T. Delpy and S.R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M.A. Afromowitz, J.B. Callis, D.M. Heimbach, L.A. DeSoto and M.K. Norton, "Multispectral imaging of burn wounds: a new clinical instrument for evaluating burn depth," IEEE. Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 842-849 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R.M. MacKie, "Clinical recognition of early invasive malignant melanoma. Br. Med. J. 301, 1005-1006 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L.O. Svaasand, T. Spott, J.B. Fishkin, T .Pham, B.J. Tromberg and M.W. Berns, "Reflectance measurements of layered media with diffuse photon-density waves: a potential tool for evaluating deep burns and subcutaneous lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 801-813 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T.H. Pham, T. Spott, L.O. Svaasand and B.J. Tromberg, "Quantifying the properties of two-layer turbid media with frequency-domain diffuse reflectance," Appl. Opt. 39, 4733-4745 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T.J. Farrell, M.S. Patterson and M. Essenpreis, "Influence of layered tissue architecture on estimates of tissue optical properties obtained from spatially resolved diffuse reflectometry," Appl. Opt. 37, 1958-1972 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I.V. Meglinsky and S.J. Matcher, "Development of Monte Carlo technique for determination of skin oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE. 3598, 279-287 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F.C. MacKintosh, J.X. Zhu, D.J. Pine and D.A. Weitz, "Polarization memory of multiply scattered light," Phys.Rev.B 40, 9342-9345 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A.S. Martinez and J.M. Schmitt, "Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter," Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A.H. Hielscher, J.R. Mourant and I.J. Bigio, "Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions," Appl. Opt. 36, 125- 135 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W.S. Bickel and W.M. Bailey, "Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices and polarized light," Am. J.Phys. 53, 468- 478 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M.Firbank and D.T.Delpy, "A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infrared imaging and spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847-853 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P.C.Y. Chang, J.G. Walker, K.I. opcraft, B. Ablitt and E. Jakeman, "Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media," Opt. Comms. 159, 1-6 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

Other

For a review see, J.C. Hebden, S.R. Arridge and D.T. Delpy, "Optical imaging in medicine. 1. Experimental techniques," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825-40 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.J.C. Van Gemert, S.L. Jacques, H.J.C.M. Sterenborg and W.M. Star, "Skin Optics," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146-1154 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.T. Pan and D.L. Farkas, "High-resolution imaging of living human skin with optical coherence tomography," Scanning 21, 134-135 (1999).

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber and R. Engelhardt, "Optical coherence tomography of the human skin," J. Amer. Acad. Derm. 37, 958-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Schmitt, A.H. Gandjbakhche and R.F. Bonner, "Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium," Appl. Opt. 31, 6535-6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bruscaglioni, G. Zaccanti and Q. Wei, "Transmission of a pulsed polarized light beam through thick turbid media: numerical results," Appl. Opt. 32, 6142-6150 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.P. Morgan, M.P. Khong and M.G. Somekh, "Effects of polarization state and scatterer concentration on optical imaging through scattering media," Appl. Opt. 36, 1560-1565 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.L. Jacques, J.R. Roman and K. Lee, "Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light," Lasers in Surg. & Med. 26, 119-129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.G. Demos, H.B. Radousky and R.R. Alfano, "Deep subsurface imaging in tissues using spectral and polarization filtering," Opt. Express 7, 23-28 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/opticsexpress/framestocv7n1.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yao and L. Wang, "Propagation of polarized light in turbid media: simulated animation sequences," Opt. Express 7, 198-203 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/23140.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.D. Lewis, D.L. Jordan and P.J. Roberts, "Backscattering target detection in a turbid medium by polarization discrimination," Appl. Opt. 38, 3937-3944 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, D.T. Delpy and S.R. Arridge, "Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897-2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M.A. Afromowitz, J.B. Callis, D.M. Heimbach, L.A. DeSoto and M.K. Norton, "Multispectral imaging of burn wounds: a new clinical instrument for evaluating burn depth," IEEE. Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 842-849 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.M. MacKie, "Clinical recognition of early invasive malignant melanoma. Br. Med. J. 301, 1005-1006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L.O. Svaasand, T. Spott, J.B. Fishkin, T .Pham, B.J. Tromberg and M.W. Berns, "Reflectance measurements of layered media with diffuse photon-density waves: a potential tool for evaluating deep burns and subcutaneous lesions," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 801-813 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.H. Pham, T. Spott, L.O. Svaasand and B.J. Tromberg, "Quantifying the properties of two-layer turbid media with frequency-domain diffuse reflectance," Appl. Opt. 39, 4733-4745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.J. Farrell, M.S. Patterson and M. Essenpreis, "Influence of layered tissue architecture on estimates of tissue optical properties obtained from spatially resolved diffuse reflectometry," Appl. Opt. 37, 1958-1972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I.V. Meglinsky and S.J. Matcher, "Development of Monte Carlo technique for determination of skin oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy," Proc. SPIE. 3598, 279-287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.C. MacKintosh, J.X. Zhu, D.J. Pine and D.A. Weitz, "Polarization memory of multiply scattered light," Phys.Rev.B 40, 9342-9345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A.S. Martinez and J.M. Schmitt, "Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: Influence of the size parameter," Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767-1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A.H. Hielscher, J.R. Mourant and I.J. Bigio, "Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions," Appl. Opt. 36, 125- 135 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.S. Bickel and W.M. Bailey, "Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices and polarized light," Am. J.Phys. 53, 468- 478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M.Firbank and D.T.Delpy, "A design for a stable and reproducible phantom for use in near infrared imaging and spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 847-853 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.C.Y. Chang, J.G. Walker, K.I. opcraft, B. Ablitt and E. Jakeman, "Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media," Opt. Comms. 159, 1-6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set up. The input polarization state is set by a λ/4 plate. Light scattered from the two layer scattering medium is then analyzed using a λ/4 plate and a linear polarizer (LP). The modulated light is detected using a PIN photodiode and measured with a lock-in amplifier.

Fig.2.
Fig.2.

Degree of polarization measured for different scatterer concentration in medium 1 and different input polarization states. Medium 2 is not present (totally absorbing).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Different types of photons emerging from the scattering medium. a) Linear polarization contains those that emerge maintaining the original state after a single, or relatively few scattering events, and multiply scattered (depolarized) light. b) circular contains those that have their helicity flipped by a mirror reflection, maintain the original polarization state by a series of forward scattering events and multiply scattered (depolarized) photons.

Fig.4.
Fig.4.

Degree of polarization measured for different scatterer concentration in medium 1 and different input polarization states. Medium 2 is a solid tissue phantom (µs=40mm-1, µ a=0.009mm-1).

Equations (2)

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μ s ( a ) d ( a ) = μ s ( b ) d ( b )
Degree of polarization = I co I cross I co + I cross

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