Abstract

We conducted a computer simulation study to assess the effects of optical layer impairments on optical CDMA (O-CDMA) transmission of 8 asynchronous users at 2.5 Gb/s each user over a 214-km link. It was found that with group velocity dispersion compensation, two other residual effects, namely, the nonzero chromatic dispersion slope of the single mode fiber (which causes skew) and the non-uniform EDFA gain (which causes interference power level to exceed signal power level of some codes) degrade the signal to multi-access interference (MAI) ratio. In contrast, four wave mixing and modulation due to the Kerr and Raman contributions to the fiber nonlinear refractive index are less important. Current wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies, including dispersion management, EDFA gain flattening, and 3rd order dispersion compensation, are sufficient to overcome the impairments to the O-CDMA transmission system that we considered.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Sarwate and M. Pursley, “Crosscorrrelation properties of pseudorandom and related sequences,” Proc. IEEE,  68, 593–620 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Iversen and D. Hampicke, “Comparison and classification of all-optical CDMA systems for future telecommunication networks,” Photonics East’95, Proc. SPIE 2614, 110–121 (1995).
  3. Paul E. Green, Fiber Optic Networks; (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ;1993); Chapter 13.
  4. J. Y. Wei, “The role of DCN in optical WDM networks,” OFC Technical Digest Series, FI-1 (Invited) (2000)
  5. T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Optical CDMA Transmission for Robust Realization of Complex and Flexible Multiple Access Systems,” OFC Technical Digest Series, WM51, (1999)
  6. T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Operational Stability of a Spectrally Encoded Optical CDMA System Using Inexpensive Transmitters Without Spectral Control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 916–918 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. A.J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H.X.C. Feng, J.P. Heritage, and J-M. Morookian, “Strategies for Realizing Optical CDMA for Dense, High Speed, Long Span, Optical Network Applications,” unpublished.
  8. Khansefid, H. Taylor, and R. Gagliardi, “Design of (0,1) Sequence Sets For Pulsed Coded Systems,” University of Southern California Report CSI-88-03-03, March 3, 1988.
  9. M. Zirngibl, “Multifrequency Lasers and Applications in WDM Networks,” IEEE Communications Interactive Magazine, 2nd Article, December (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. R. Doerr, “Wageguide-grating-router lasers for WDM,” OFC Technical Digest Series, ThB3. (1999)
  11. R. Ramaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks (Morgan Kaufman, San Francisco, CA;1998); Chapter 4.
  12. 35 and 50 ps RZ electrical-to-optical modulated signals up to 10 Gb/s are feasible and commercially available. JDS Uniphase. Private communication; March 2000.
  13. H. X. C. Feng, L. R. Thombley, W. J. Lennon, and J. P. Heritage, “Computer Modeling of the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON),” Proc. LEOS 12th Annual Mtg, WP1 (Invited, 1999)
  14. R. H. Stolen and W.J. Tomlinson “Effect of the Raman part of the nonlinear refractive index on propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in fibers”. J. Opt. Soc. B 9, 565–73 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Sun, A.K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J.W. Sulhoff “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks”. Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol.4, (no.1), Lucent Technologies, Jan.-Mar.187–206 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  16. C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Stern, J.P. Heritage, and E.W. Chase “Grating compensation of third-order fiber dispersion,” IEEE J. Quan. Electr.,  28, 2742–8 (1992)
    [Crossref]

1999 (2)

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Operational Stability of a Spectrally Encoded Optical CDMA System Using Inexpensive Transmitters Without Spectral Control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 916–918 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Iversen and D. Hampicke, “Comparison and classification of all-optical CDMA systems for future telecommunication networks,” Photonics East’95, Proc. SPIE 2614, 110–121 (1995).

1992 (2)

R. H. Stolen and W.J. Tomlinson “Effect of the Raman part of the nonlinear refractive index on propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in fibers”. J. Opt. Soc. B 9, 565–73 (1992)
[Crossref]

M. Stern, J.P. Heritage, and E.W. Chase “Grating compensation of third-order fiber dispersion,” IEEE J. Quan. Electr.,  28, 2742–8 (1992)
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

D. Sarwate and M. Pursley, “Crosscorrrelation properties of pseudorandom and related sequences,” Proc. IEEE,  68, 593–620 (1980).
[Crossref]

Cappuzzo, M.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chase, E.W.

M. Stern, J.P. Heritage, and E.W. Chase “Grating compensation of third-order fiber dispersion,” IEEE J. Quan. Electr.,  28, 2742–8 (1992)
[Crossref]

Deppisch, B.

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Operational Stability of a Spectrally Encoded Optical CDMA System Using Inexpensive Transmitters Without Spectral Control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 916–918 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Optical CDMA Transmission for Robust Realization of Complex and Flexible Multiple Access Systems,” OFC Technical Digest Series, WM51, (1999)

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, “Wageguide-grating-router lasers for WDM,” OFC Technical Digest Series, ThB3. (1999)

Feng, H. X. C.

H. X. C. Feng, L. R. Thombley, W. J. Lennon, and J. P. Heritage, “Computer Modeling of the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON),” Proc. LEOS 12th Annual Mtg, WP1 (Invited, 1999)

Feng, H.X.C.

A.J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H.X.C. Feng, J.P. Heritage, and J-M. Morookian, “Strategies for Realizing Optical CDMA for Dense, High Speed, Long Span, Optical Network Applications,” unpublished.

Gagliardi, R.

Khansefid, H. Taylor, and R. Gagliardi, “Design of (0,1) Sequence Sets For Pulsed Coded Systems,” University of Southern California Report CSI-88-03-03, March 3, 1988.

Gagliardi, R. M.

A.J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H.X.C. Feng, J.P. Heritage, and J-M. Morookian, “Strategies for Realizing Optical CDMA for Dense, High Speed, Long Span, Optical Network Applications,” unpublished.

Gates, J.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gomez, L.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

Green, Paul E.

Paul E. Green, Fiber Optic Networks; (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ;1993); Chapter 13.

Hampicke, D.

K. Iversen and D. Hampicke, “Comparison and classification of all-optical CDMA systems for future telecommunication networks,” Photonics East’95, Proc. SPIE 2614, 110–121 (1995).

Heidemann, R.

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Operational Stability of a Spectrally Encoded Optical CDMA System Using Inexpensive Transmitters Without Spectral Control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 916–918 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Optical CDMA Transmission for Robust Realization of Complex and Flexible Multiple Access Systems,” OFC Technical Digest Series, WM51, (1999)

Heritage, J. P.

H. X. C. Feng, L. R. Thombley, W. J. Lennon, and J. P. Heritage, “Computer Modeling of the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON),” Proc. LEOS 12th Annual Mtg, WP1 (Invited, 1999)

Heritage, J.P.

M. Stern, J.P. Heritage, and E.W. Chase “Grating compensation of third-order fiber dispersion,” IEEE J. Quan. Electr.,  28, 2742–8 (1992)
[Crossref]

A.J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H.X.C. Feng, J.P. Heritage, and J-M. Morookian, “Strategies for Realizing Optical CDMA for Dense, High Speed, Long Span, Optical Network Applications,” unpublished.

Iversen, K.

K. Iversen and D. Hampicke, “Comparison and classification of all-optical CDMA systems for future telecommunication networks,” Photonics East’95, Proc. SPIE 2614, 110–121 (1995).

Khansefid,

Khansefid, H. Taylor, and R. Gagliardi, “Design of (0,1) Sequence Sets For Pulsed Coded Systems,” University of Southern California Report CSI-88-03-03, March 3, 1988.

Laswowksi, E.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lennon, W. J.

H. X. C. Feng, L. R. Thombley, W. J. Lennon, and J. P. Heritage, “Computer Modeling of the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON),” Proc. LEOS 12th Annual Mtg, WP1 (Invited, 1999)

Mendez, A.J.

A.J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H.X.C. Feng, J.P. Heritage, and J-M. Morookian, “Strategies for Realizing Optical CDMA for Dense, High Speed, Long Span, Optical Network Applications,” unpublished.

Morookian, J-M.

A.J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H.X.C. Feng, J.P. Heritage, and J-M. Morookian, “Strategies for Realizing Optical CDMA for Dense, High Speed, Long Span, Optical Network Applications,” unpublished.

Paunescu, A.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, T.

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Operational Stability of a Spectrally Encoded Optical CDMA System Using Inexpensive Transmitters Without Spectral Control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 916–918 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Optical CDMA Transmission for Robust Realization of Complex and Flexible Multiple Access Systems,” OFC Technical Digest Series, WM51, (1999)

Pursley, M.

D. Sarwate and M. Pursley, “Crosscorrrelation properties of pseudorandom and related sequences,” Proc. IEEE,  68, 593–620 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ramaswamy, R.

R. Ramaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks (Morgan Kaufman, San Francisco, CA;1998); Chapter 4.

Sarwate, D.

D. Sarwate and M. Pursley, “Crosscorrrelation properties of pseudorandom and related sequences,” Proc. IEEE,  68, 593–620 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks (Morgan Kaufman, San Francisco, CA;1998); Chapter 4.

Srivastava, A.K.

Y. Sun, A.K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J.W. Sulhoff “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks”. Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol.4, (no.1), Lucent Technologies, Jan.-Mar.187–206 (1999)
[Crossref]

Stern, M.

M. Stern, J.P. Heritage, and E.W. Chase “Grating compensation of third-order fiber dispersion,” IEEE J. Quan. Electr.,  28, 2742–8 (1992)
[Crossref]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen and W.J. Tomlinson “Effect of the Raman part of the nonlinear refractive index on propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in fibers”. J. Opt. Soc. B 9, 565–73 (1992)
[Crossref]

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sulhoff, J.W.

Y. Sun, A.K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J.W. Sulhoff “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks”. Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol.4, (no.1), Lucent Technologies, Jan.-Mar.187–206 (1999)
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, A.K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J.W. Sulhoff “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks”. Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol.4, (no.1), Lucent Technologies, Jan.-Mar.187–206 (1999)
[Crossref]

Taylor, H.

Khansefid, H. Taylor, and R. Gagliardi, “Design of (0,1) Sequence Sets For Pulsed Coded Systems,” University of Southern California Report CSI-88-03-03, March 3, 1988.

Thombley, L. R.

H. X. C. Feng, L. R. Thombley, W. J. Lennon, and J. P. Heritage, “Computer Modeling of the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON),” Proc. LEOS 12th Annual Mtg, WP1 (Invited, 1999)

Tomlinson, W.J.

R. H. Stolen and W.J. Tomlinson “Effect of the Raman part of the nonlinear refractive index on propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in fibers”. J. Opt. Soc. B 9, 565–73 (1992)
[Crossref]

Wei, J. Y.

J. Y. Wei, “The role of DCN in optical WDM networks,” OFC Technical Digest Series, FI-1 (Invited) (2000)

Witte, M.

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Operational Stability of a Spectrally Encoded Optical CDMA System Using Inexpensive Transmitters Without Spectral Control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 916–918 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Optical CDMA Transmission for Robust Realization of Complex and Flexible Multiple Access Systems,” OFC Technical Digest Series, WM51, (1999)

Zhou, J.

Y. Sun, A.K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J.W. Sulhoff “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks”. Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol.4, (no.1), Lucent Technologies, Jan.-Mar.187–206 (1999)
[Crossref]

Zirngibl, M.

M. Zirngibl, “Multifrequency Lasers and Applications in WDM Networks,” IEEE Communications Interactive Magazine, 2nd Article, December (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quan. Electr. (1)

M. Stern, J.P. Heritage, and E.W. Chase “Grating compensation of third-order fiber dispersion,” IEEE J. Quan. Electr.,  28, 2742–8 (1992)
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr. (2)

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Operational Stability of a Spectrally Encoded Optical CDMA System Using Inexpensive Transmitters Without Spectral Control,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 916–918 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laswowksi, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, and J. Gates, “Dynamic Wavelength Equalizer in Silica Using the Single-Filtered-Arm Interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lttr.,  11, 581–583 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. B (1)

R. H. Stolen and W.J. Tomlinson “Effect of the Raman part of the nonlinear refractive index on propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in fibers”. J. Opt. Soc. B 9, 565–73 (1992)
[Crossref]

Photonics East’95, Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Iversen and D. Hampicke, “Comparison and classification of all-optical CDMA systems for future telecommunication networks,” Photonics East’95, Proc. SPIE 2614, 110–121 (1995).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Sarwate and M. Pursley, “Crosscorrrelation properties of pseudorandom and related sequences,” Proc. IEEE,  68, 593–620 (1980).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

Y. Sun, A.K. Srivastava, J. Zhou, and J.W. Sulhoff “Optical fiber amplifiers for WDM optical networks”. Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol.4, (no.1), Lucent Technologies, Jan.-Mar.187–206 (1999)
[Crossref]

Paul E. Green, Fiber Optic Networks; (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ;1993); Chapter 13.

J. Y. Wei, “The role of DCN in optical WDM networks,” OFC Technical Digest Series, FI-1 (Invited) (2000)

T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, M. Witte, and R. Heidemann, “Optical CDMA Transmission for Robust Realization of Complex and Flexible Multiple Access Systems,” OFC Technical Digest Series, WM51, (1999)

A.J. Mendez, R. M. Gagliardi, H.X.C. Feng, J.P. Heritage, and J-M. Morookian, “Strategies for Realizing Optical CDMA for Dense, High Speed, Long Span, Optical Network Applications,” unpublished.

Khansefid, H. Taylor, and R. Gagliardi, “Design of (0,1) Sequence Sets For Pulsed Coded Systems,” University of Southern California Report CSI-88-03-03, March 3, 1988.

M. Zirngibl, “Multifrequency Lasers and Applications in WDM Networks,” IEEE Communications Interactive Magazine, 2nd Article, December (1998).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, “Wageguide-grating-router lasers for WDM,” OFC Technical Digest Series, ThB3. (1999)

R. Ramaswamy and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks (Morgan Kaufman, San Francisco, CA;1998); Chapter 4.

35 and 50 ps RZ electrical-to-optical modulated signals up to 10 Gb/s are feasible and commercially available. JDS Uniphase. Private communication; March 2000.

H. X. C. Feng, L. R. Thombley, W. J. Lennon, and J. P. Heritage, “Computer Modeling of the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON),” Proc. LEOS 12th Annual Mtg, WP1 (Invited, 1999)

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Figures (10)

Fig 1.
Fig 1.

Implementation of the flattened matrix codes using RZ modulation electrical- to- optical conversion and encoders/decoders based on a cascade of filters and tapped delay lines.

Fig 2.
Fig 2.

Illustration of test data stream “1101” used in the link propagation studies.

Fig 3.
Fig 3.

(a) Encoded 1101 bit stream. (b) Back-to-back decoded bit stream.

Fig 4.
Fig 4.

(a) Output “nibble” without dispersion compensation. (b) Output nibble with full group velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation at 1555 nm, prior to decoding. (c) Decoded single user nibble under (GVD) compensation.

Fig 5.
Fig 5.

(a) Superposition of eight asynchronous users at input to the link. (b) Back-to-back decoder output of code Mn3 and MAI, and MAI alone. (c) Decoder output at the link output, with full GVD compensation at 1555 nm: code Mn3 masked by MAI due to residual effects.

Fig 6.
Fig 6.

(a) Input wavelength profile. (b) Output wavelength profile.

Fig 7.
Fig 7.

The MAI may mask the signal autocorrelation peaks due to non-uniform EDFA gain.

Fig 8.
Fig 8.

Effect of non-zero dispersion slope on auto- and cross- correlation output under full GVD compensation at 1555 nm, flat EDFA gain and no nonlinear effects.

Fig 9.
Fig 9.

The nonlinear terms (nonlinear refractive index, Raman scattering) show negligible effect under full GVD compensation at 1555 nm, zero dispersion slope, and flat EDFA gain.

Fig 10.
Fig 10.

Four-wave mixing in the case of a single code O-CDMA transmission. (a) Input spectrum; (b) Output spectrum; both y-axes are in dB scale.

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