Abstract

We present video footage demonstrating real-time visualization of domain formation in periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN). This in-situ, non-destructive technique provides important visual information concerning the global quality and dynamics of domain patterning during the fabrication of PPLN.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. Pruneri, J. Webjoorn, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Intracavity second harmonic generation of 0.532 µm in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 116, 159 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Reich, F. Korte, C. Gallnich, H. Welling, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrode geometries for periodic polling of ferroelectric materials,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1817 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. D. Miller, R. G. Batchko, W. M. Tulloch, D. R. Weise, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, “42%-efficient single-pass cw second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1834 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. G. Batchko, V. Y. Shur, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. T. Brown, G. W. Ross, R. W. Eason, and A. R. Pogosyan, “Control of domain structures in lithium tantalate using interferometric optical patterning,” Opt. Commun. 163, 310 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, “93% pump depletion, 3.5-W continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1336 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, and D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. E. Dearborn, K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and J. C. Diels, “Greater than 100% photon-conversion efficiency from an optical parametric oscillator with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” Opt. Lett. 23, 759 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. H. Chou, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, and I. Brener, “Multiple-channel wavelength conversion by use of engineered quasi-phase-matching structures in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1157 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. A. Arbore, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Engineerable compression of ultrashort pulses by use of second-harmonic generation in chirped-period-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1341 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Imeshev, M. Proctor, and M. M. Fejer, “Lateral patterning of nonlinear frequency conversion with transversely varying quasi-phase-matching gratings,” Opt. Lett. 23673 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. J. Missey, V. Dominic, P. E. Powers, and K. L. Schepler, “Periodically poled lithium niobate monolithic nanosecond optical parametric oscillators and generators,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1227 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. E. Powers, T. J. Kulp, and S. E. Bisson, “Continuous tuning of a continuous-wave periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator by use of a fan-out grating design,” Opt. Lett. 23, 159 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. P. Risk and G. M. Loiacono, “Periodic poling and waveguide frequency doubling in RbTiOAsO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 331 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. G. Batchko, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, D. Woll, R. Wallenstein, V. Y. Shur, and L. Erman, “Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched generation of 60 mW at 465 nm by single-pass frequency doubling of a laser diode in backswitch-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1293 (1999).
    [Crossref]

1999 (4)

1998 (5)

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102 (1995).
[Crossref]

V. Pruneri, J. Webjoorn, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Intracavity second harmonic generation of 0.532 µm in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 116, 159 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

P. T. Brown, G. W. Ross, R. W. Eason, and A. R. Pogosyan, “Control of domain structures in lithium tantalate using interferometric optical patterning,” Opt. Commun. 163, 310 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alexander, J. I.

Arbore, M. A.

Barr, J. R. M.

V. Pruneri, J. Webjoorn, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Intracavity second harmonic generation of 0.532 µm in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 116, 159 (1995).
[Crossref]

Batchko, R. G.

Bisson, S. E.

Bosenberg, W. R.

Brener, I.

Britton, P. E.

Brown, P. T.

P. T. Brown, G. W. Ross, R. W. Eason, and A. R. Pogosyan, “Control of domain structures in lithium tantalate using interferometric optical patterning,” Opt. Commun. 163, 310 (1990).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Chou, M. H.

Clarkson, W. A.

Dearborn, M. E.

Diels, J. C.

Dominic, V.

Drobshoff, A.

Eason, R. W.

P. T. Brown, G. W. Ross, R. W. Eason, and A. R. Pogosyan, “Control of domain structures in lithium tantalate using interferometric optical patterning,” Opt. Commun. 163, 310 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eckardt, R. C.

Erman, L.

Fejer, M. M.

R. G. Batchko, V. Y. Shur, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. G. Batchko, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, D. Woll, R. Wallenstein, V. Y. Shur, and L. Erman, “Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched generation of 60 mW at 465 nm by single-pass frequency doubling of a laser diode in backswitch-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1293 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. H. Chou, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, and I. Brener, “Multiple-channel wavelength conversion by use of engineered quasi-phase-matching structures in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1157 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Imeshev, M. Proctor, and M. M. Fejer, “Lateral patterning of nonlinear frequency conversion with transversely varying quasi-phase-matching gratings,” Opt. Lett. 23673 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. A. Arbore, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Engineerable compression of ultrashort pulses by use of second-harmonic generation in chirped-period-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1341 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. D. Miller, R. G. Batchko, W. M. Tulloch, D. R. Weise, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, “42%-efficient single-pass cw second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1834 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gallnich, C.

Galvanauskas, A.

Hanna, D. C.

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, and D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Pruneri, J. Webjoorn, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Intracavity second harmonic generation of 0.532 µm in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 116, 159 (1995).
[Crossref]

Harter, D.

Imeshev, G.

Koch, K.

Korte, F.

Kulp, T. J.

Loiacono, G. M.

W. P. Risk and G. M. Loiacono, “Periodic poling and waveguide frequency doubling in RbTiOAsO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 331 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miller, G. D.

Missey, M. J.

Moore, G. T.

Myers, L. E.

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[Crossref]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Pierce, J. W.

Pogosyan, A. R.

P. T. Brown, G. W. Ross, R. W. Eason, and A. R. Pogosyan, “Control of domain structures in lithium tantalate using interferometric optical patterning,” Opt. Commun. 163, 310 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

Powers, P. E.

Proctor, M.

Pruneri, V.

V. Pruneri, J. Webjoorn, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Intracavity second harmonic generation of 0.532 µm in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 116, 159 (1995).
[Crossref]

Reich, M.

Risk, W. P.

W. P. Risk and G. M. Loiacono, “Periodic poling and waveguide frequency doubling in RbTiOAsO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 331 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ross, G. W.

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, and D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. T. Brown, G. W. Ross, R. W. Eason, and A. R. Pogosyan, “Control of domain structures in lithium tantalate using interferometric optical patterning,” Opt. Commun. 163, 310 (1990).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

V. Pruneri, J. Webjoorn, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Intracavity second harmonic generation of 0.532 µm in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 116, 159 (1995).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schepler, K. L.

Shur, V. Y.

R. G. Batchko, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, D. Woll, R. Wallenstein, V. Y. Shur, and L. Erman, “Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched generation of 60 mW at 465 nm by single-pass frequency doubling of a laser diode in backswitch-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1293 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. G. Batchko, V. Y. Shur, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673 (1999).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. G. R.

Tulloch, W. M.

Tünnermann, A.

Wallenstein, R.

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[Crossref]

Webjoorn, J.

V. Pruneri, J. Webjoorn, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Intracavity second harmonic generation of 0.532 µm in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 116, 159 (1995).
[Crossref]

Weise, D. R.

Welling, H.

Woll, D.

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. G. Batchko, V. Y. Shur, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, “Backswitch poling in lithium niobate for high-fidelity domain patterning and efficient blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1673 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. P. Risk and G. M. Loiacono, “Periodic poling and waveguide frequency doubling in RbTiOAsO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 331 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. Pruneri, J. Webjoorn, P. St. J. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Intracavity second harmonic generation of 0.532 µm in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Commun. 116, 159 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. T. Brown, G. W. Ross, R. W. Eason, and A. R. Pogosyan, “Control of domain structures in lithium tantalate using interferometric optical patterning,” Opt. Commun. 163, 310 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (11)

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, “93% pump depletion, 3.5-W continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1336 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, and D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. E. Dearborn, K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and J. C. Diels, “Greater than 100% photon-conversion efficiency from an optical parametric oscillator with intracavity difference-frequency mixing,” Opt. Lett. 23, 759 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. H. Chou, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, and I. Brener, “Multiple-channel wavelength conversion by use of engineered quasi-phase-matching structures in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1157 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Arbore, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, M. H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, “Engineerable compression of ultrashort pulses by use of second-harmonic generation in chirped-period-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1341 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Imeshev, M. Proctor, and M. M. Fejer, “Lateral patterning of nonlinear frequency conversion with transversely varying quasi-phase-matching gratings,” Opt. Lett. 23673 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. J. Missey, V. Dominic, P. E. Powers, and K. L. Schepler, “Periodically poled lithium niobate monolithic nanosecond optical parametric oscillators and generators,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1227 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. E. Powers, T. J. Kulp, and S. E. Bisson, “Continuous tuning of a continuous-wave periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator by use of a fan-out grating design,” Opt. Lett. 23, 159 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Reich, F. Korte, C. Gallnich, H. Welling, and A. Tünnermann, “Electrode geometries for periodic polling of ferroelectric materials,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1817 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. D. Miller, R. G. Batchko, W. M. Tulloch, D. R. Weise, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, “42%-efficient single-pass cw second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1834 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. G. Batchko, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, D. Woll, R. Wallenstein, V. Y. Shur, and L. Erman, “Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched generation of 60 mW at 465 nm by single-pass frequency doubling of a laser diode in backswitch-poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1293 (1999).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: MOV (2449 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2453 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2611 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (1686 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (1176 KB)     
» Media 6: MOV (2019 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscopic view of a sample of periodically poled lithium niobate (top left) through crossed polarizers before being etched in HF acid and (top right) without polarizers after being etched with HF acid. (Bottom) Expanded view of the sample after being etched in HF acid.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the electric-field poling setup. Series resistor Rs=100 MΩ, voltage monitor resistors R1=1000 MΩ R2=333 kΩ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electric-field poling setup and domain formation visualization equipment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(2.45 MB) Movie of domain formation in a PPLN single-grating full-wafer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(2.45 MB) Movie of domain formation in a multi-grating PPLN sample.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(Left, 2.61 MB) Movie of domain formation in a PPLN full-wafer with unpoled triangular and trapezoidal sections. (Right, 1.69 MB) Movie of domain formation in a PPLN full-wafer with three fan gratings.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(1.17 Mb) Movie of domain formation in a PPLN full-wafer with multi-gratings sections.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(2.0 Mb) Movie of domain formation in an overpoled multi-grating PPLN sample.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Microscopic view of the overpoled sample of periodically poled lithium niobate of Fig. 8 (top left) through crossed polarizers before being etched in HF acid and (top right) without polarizers after being etched with HF acid. (Bottom) Expanded view of the sample after being etched in HF acid.

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