Abstract

We discuss the design, fabrication and optical performance of a broadband form-birefringent quarter-wave plate for the 3.5 to 5 µm wavelength region. Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) was used to design the requisite subwavelength grating for silicon substrates in ambient air. Fabricated samples yield a measured phase retardation of 89° to 102° over the desired wavelength range.

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References

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  1. D. C. Flanders, "Submicrometer periodicity gratings as artificial anisotropic dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett 42, 492-49 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, "Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 24, 2457-2459 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Kim, G. Campbell, and R. K. Kostuk, "Volume holographic phase-retardation elements," Opt. Lett. 20, 2030-2032 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, "Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings," Opt. Lett. 21, 82-89 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. G. Lopez and H. G. Craighead, "Wave-plate polarizing beam splitter based on a form-birefringent multilayer grating," Opt. Lett. 23, 1627-1629 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Y. Chou, S. J. Schablitsky, and L. Zhuang, "Application of amorphous silicon gratings in polarization switching vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2864-2867 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kikuta, Y. Ohira, and K. Iwata, "Achromatic quarter-waveplates using the dispersion of form birefringence," Appl. Opt. 36, 1566-1572 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. B. Chenault and R. A. Chipman, "Infrared birefringence spectra for cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide", Appl. Opt. 32, 4223-4227 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. William L. Wolfe and George J. Zissis, ed., Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1985), pp. 7-76.
  10. S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, "Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF 6 /CHF 3 gases," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 640-645 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

Other (10)

D. C. Flanders, "Submicrometer periodicity gratings as artificial anisotropic dielectrics," Appl. Phys. Lett 42, 492-49 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu, R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, "Fabrication, modeling, and characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures," Opt. Lett. 24, 2457-2459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kim, G. Campbell, and R. K. Kostuk, "Volume holographic phase-retardation elements," Opt. Lett. 20, 2030-2032 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Tyan, P. C. Sun, A. Scherer, and Y. Fainman, "Polarizing beam splitter based on the anisotropic spectral reflectivity characteristic of form-birefringent multilayer gratings," Opt. Lett. 21, 82-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Lopez and H. G. Craighead, "Wave-plate polarizing beam splitter based on a form-birefringent multilayer grating," Opt. Lett. 23, 1627-1629 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, S. J. Schablitsky, and L. Zhuang, "Application of amorphous silicon gratings in polarization switching vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2864-2867 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuta, Y. Ohira, and K. Iwata, "Achromatic quarter-waveplates using the dispersion of form birefringence," Appl. Opt. 36, 1566-1572 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Chenault and R. A. Chipman, "Infrared birefringence spectra for cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide", Appl. Opt. 32, 4223-4227 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

William L. Wolfe and George J. Zissis, ed., Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1985), pp. 7-76.

S. Grigoropoulos, E. Gogolides, A. D. Tserepi, and A. G. Nassiopoulos, "Highly anisotropic silicon reactive ion etching for nanofabrication using mixtures of SF 6 /CHF 3 gases," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 640-645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a form birefringent wave plate and a normally incident beam showing TE and TM polarization definitions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase retardation as a function of wavelength for 1.0 µm period gratings parameterized by (a) fill factor (for a thickness of 1.25 µm) and (b) thickness (for a fill factor of 66%).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross section image of a photoresist grating on Si. (b) SEM top view image of Cr etch mask (on Si) with a Cr fill factor of ~70%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM cross section image of etched Si grating.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Measured and simulated phase retardation as a function of wavelength and (b) the corresponding TE and TM transmission coefficients.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. RCWA binary grating layer parameters. The layers are numbered from top to bottom.

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