Abstract

The gallium/silica interface optical nonlinearity associated with a light-induced structural phase transition from a-gallium to a more reflective, more metallic phase shows an exceptionally broadband spectral response. It allows 40% deep nanosecond/microsecond cross-wavelength intensity modulation between signals at 1.3 and 1.55µm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and N. I. Zheludev, “A photonic switch based on a gigantic, reversible optical nonlinearity of liquefying gallium,” App. Phys. Lett. 73, 1787–1789 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. G. Von Schnering and R. Nesper, “Alpha-gallium - an alternative to the boron structure,” Acta. Chem. Scan. 45, 870–872 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Bernasconi, G. L. Chiarotti, and E. Tosatti “Theory of the structural and electronic-properties of alpha-ga(001) and (010) surfaces,” Phys. Rev B 52, 9999–10013 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Trittibach, Ch. Grutter, and J. H. Bilgram “Surface melting of gallium crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 2529–2539 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and N. I. Zheludev, “A photonic switch based on a gigantic, reversible optical nonlinearity of liquefying gallium,” App. Phys. Lett. 73, 1787–1789 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Bernasconi, G. L. Chiarotti, and E. Tosatti “Theory of the structural and electronic-properties of alpha-ga(001) and (010) surfaces,” Phys. Rev B 52, 9999–10013 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Trittibach, Ch. Grutter, and J. H. Bilgram “Surface melting of gallium crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 2529–2539 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

H. G. Von Schnering and R. Nesper, “Alpha-gallium - an alternative to the boron structure,” Acta. Chem. Scan. 45, 870–872 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bennett, P. J.

P. J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and N. I. Zheludev, “A photonic switch based on a gigantic, reversible optical nonlinearity of liquefying gallium,” App. Phys. Lett. 73, 1787–1789 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bernasconi, M.

M. Bernasconi, G. L. Chiarotti, and E. Tosatti “Theory of the structural and electronic-properties of alpha-ga(001) and (010) surfaces,” Phys. Rev B 52, 9999–10013 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bilgram, J. H.

R. Trittibach, Ch. Grutter, and J. H. Bilgram “Surface melting of gallium crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 2529–2539 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chiarotti, G. L.

M. Bernasconi, G. L. Chiarotti, and E. Tosatti “Theory of the structural and electronic-properties of alpha-ga(001) and (010) surfaces,” Phys. Rev B 52, 9999–10013 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dhanjal, S.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and N. I. Zheludev, “A photonic switch based on a gigantic, reversible optical nonlinearity of liquefying gallium,” App. Phys. Lett. 73, 1787–1789 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grutter, Ch.

R. Trittibach, Ch. Grutter, and J. H. Bilgram “Surface melting of gallium crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 2529–2539 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nesper, R.

H. G. Von Schnering and R. Nesper, “Alpha-gallium - an alternative to the boron structure,” Acta. Chem. Scan. 45, 870–872 (1991).
[Crossref]

Offerhaus, H. L.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and N. I. Zheludev, “A photonic switch based on a gigantic, reversible optical nonlinearity of liquefying gallium,” App. Phys. Lett. 73, 1787–1789 (1998).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and N. I. Zheludev, “A photonic switch based on a gigantic, reversible optical nonlinearity of liquefying gallium,” App. Phys. Lett. 73, 1787–1789 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tosatti, E.

M. Bernasconi, G. L. Chiarotti, and E. Tosatti “Theory of the structural and electronic-properties of alpha-ga(001) and (010) surfaces,” Phys. Rev B 52, 9999–10013 (1995).
[Crossref]

Trittibach, R.

R. Trittibach, Ch. Grutter, and J. H. Bilgram “Surface melting of gallium crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 2529–2539 (1994).
[Crossref]

Von Schnering, H. G.

H. G. Von Schnering and R. Nesper, “Alpha-gallium - an alternative to the boron structure,” Acta. Chem. Scan. 45, 870–872 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and N. I. Zheludev, “A photonic switch based on a gigantic, reversible optical nonlinearity of liquefying gallium,” App. Phys. Lett. 73, 1787–1789 (1998).
[Crossref]

Acta. Chem. Scan. (1)

H. G. Von Schnering and R. Nesper, “Alpha-gallium - an alternative to the boron structure,” Acta. Chem. Scan. 45, 870–872 (1991).
[Crossref]

App. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal, and N. I. Zheludev, “Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror,” App. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619–3621 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bennett, S. Dhanjal, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and N. I. Zheludev, “A photonic switch based on a gigantic, reversible optical nonlinearity of liquefying gallium,” App. Phys. Lett. 73, 1787–1789 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev B (1)

M. Bernasconi, G. L. Chiarotti, and E. Tosatti “Theory of the structural and electronic-properties of alpha-ga(001) and (010) surfaces,” Phys. Rev B 52, 9999–10013 (1995).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Trittibach, Ch. Grutter, and J. H. Bilgram “Surface melting of gallium crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 2529–2539 (1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reflectivity of a gallium-glass interface of unpolarized light as a function of temperature, near the melting point, illustrating a strong change of reflectivity, overcooling and a reflectivity hysteresis. A considerable reflectivity change is seen across visible and near infra-red parts of the spectrum. Graphs a) and b) show the reflectivity change with increase and decrease of the temperature.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

he performance of the cross-wavelength all optical gate. The gate’s output contrast ratio is presented as function of the gallium bead temperature, T, Tm=30°C. The inset shows a schematic of the fiberized gate. Input A is the control channel, Input B is the signal channel and PC is a polarization controller.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Gate switch-off time, t, as a function of temperature, T. A typical gate response function with a 100ns control pulse (dashed line) is presented in the inset for T-Tm=-25°C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The signal contrast ratio as a function of the control beam peak power for various temperatures.

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