Abstract

We present an implementation of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) which characterizes ultrashort optical pulses in the spectral or temporal domain at a rate of 20 Hz. This apparatus was used in real-time as a diagnostic tool to optimize our 1 kHz regeneratively amplified laser system for the shortest duration pulses.

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References

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  1. T. Dunn, I. A. Walmsley and S. Mukamel, "Experimental determination of the quantum- mechanical state of a molecular vibrational mode using fluorescence tomography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 884-7 (1995); T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn and P. H. Bucksbaum,"Measurement of the Amplitude and Phase of a Sculpted Rydberg Wave Packet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5508-11 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle and G. Gerber,"Control of Chemical Reactions by Feedback-Optimized Phase-Shaped Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Science 282,919-22 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz and M. Dahleh,"Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream is Alive," Science 259, 1581-9 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley,"Ultrashort-pulse characterization from dynamic spectrograms by iterative phase retrieval," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 944-9 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez,"Direct determination of the amplitude and phase of femtosecond light pulses," Opt. Lett. 16, 39-41 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino and I. A. Walmsley,"Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-6 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel and B. A. Richmand,"Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instr. 68, 3277-95 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Franco, H. R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz,"Characterization of ultrashort pulses by cross-phase modulation," Opt. Comm. 140, 331-40 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A. Tin and T.B. Norris,"Real-time dispersion analyzer of femtosecond laser pulses with use of a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1780-5 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley,"Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-5 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Kane,"Real-time measurement of ultrashort pulses using principal component generalized projections," IEEE J. Selected Top. in Quant. Elec. 4, 278-85 (1999). A more rapid spectrogram acquisition and screen update has been reported at the Ultrafast Optics Conference, July 10-16, 1999, Ascona, Switzerland.
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley,"Characterizing ultrashort optical pulses from the UV to the IR using SPIDER," talk presented at the OSA Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD (1998).
  13. L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley,"Pulses in the two-cycle regime from a SESAM-assisted KLM Ti:sapphire laser and sub-10-fs pulse characterization," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1999), pp.534-5.
  14. C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley,"Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-9 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Kane and J. Squier,"Fourth-order dispersion limitations of aberration free chirped pulse amplification schemes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1237-44 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1988).
  17. M. Takeda, H. Ina and S. Kobayashi,"Fourier-transform method of fringe pattern analysis for computer based tomography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1-12 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J. -P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc and J. -P. Chambaret, "Single-shot real-time characterization using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1999), pp.533-4.

Other

T. Dunn, I. A. Walmsley and S. Mukamel, "Experimental determination of the quantum- mechanical state of a molecular vibrational mode using fluorescence tomography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 884-7 (1995); T. C. Weinacht, J. Ahn and P. H. Bucksbaum,"Measurement of the Amplitude and Phase of a Sculpted Rydberg Wave Packet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5508-11 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle and G. Gerber,"Control of Chemical Reactions by Feedback-Optimized Phase-Shaped Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Science 282,919-22 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz and M. Dahleh,"Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream is Alive," Science 259, 1581-9 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley,"Ultrashort-pulse characterization from dynamic spectrograms by iterative phase retrieval," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 944-9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez,"Direct determination of the amplitude and phase of femtosecond light pulses," Opt. Lett. 16, 39-41 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino and I. A. Walmsley,"Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-6 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel and B. A. Richmand,"Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instr. 68, 3277-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franco, H. R. Lange, J.-F. Ripoche, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz,"Characterization of ultrashort pulses by cross-phase modulation," Opt. Comm. 140, 331-40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A. Tin and T.B. Norris,"Real-time dispersion analyzer of femtosecond laser pulses with use of a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1780-5 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley,"Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-5 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane,"Real-time measurement of ultrashort pulses using principal component generalized projections," IEEE J. Selected Top. in Quant. Elec. 4, 278-85 (1999). A more rapid spectrogram acquisition and screen update has been reported at the Ultrafast Optics Conference, July 10-16, 1999, Ascona, Switzerland.
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley,"Characterizing ultrashort optical pulses from the UV to the IR using SPIDER," talk presented at the OSA Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD (1998).

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley,"Pulses in the two-cycle regime from a SESAM-assisted KLM Ti:sapphire laser and sub-10-fs pulse characterization," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1999), pp.534-5.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley,"Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kane and J. Squier,"Fourth-order dispersion limitations of aberration free chirped pulse amplification schemes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1237-44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1988).

M. Takeda, H. Ina and S. Kobayashi,"Fourier-transform method of fringe pattern analysis for computer based tomography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1-12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J. -P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc and J. -P. Chambaret, "Single-shot real-time characterization using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 1999), pp.533-4.

Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Plot of an ideal interferogram of the form shown in Eq. (1). The nominal spacing between the fringes is 1/τ. Any deviations from this spacing are due to a nonconstant spectral phase profile on the pulse being characterized.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the real-time SPIDER apparatus. Notation: M=mirror, G=grating, PH=pinhole.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Computer screen displaying the SPIDER LabVIEW Control program, showing the sampled interferogram. The vertical axis is the pixel voltage from the detector and the horizontal axis is the pixel number. The pixel range 150–350 corresponds to an upconverted wavelength range of 410–420 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Movie of the pulse spectral phase as the dispersion on the pulse is changed by adjusting the grating separation in the compressor (2.5 MB QuickTime movie).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Movie of the temporal intensity of the pulse as the dispersion on the pulse is changed by adjusting the grating separation in the compressor (1.6 MB QuickTime movie).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Movie of the temporal intensity with and without a 1.5 inch thick piece of glass in the laser beam. (663 kB QuickTime movie).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of the spectral phase retrieved from real-time SPIDER and the expected spectral phase for a 1270 µm change in the grating separation in the compressor. The RMS phase error in the reconstruction across the 1/e2 extent of the spectrum is 0.128 radians which corresponds to a 6% error in the reconstructed pulsewidth.

Equations (3)

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S ( ω ) = I ( ω + Ω ) + I ( ω ) + 2 I ( ω + Ω ) I ( ω ) cos { ϕ ( ω + Ω ) ϕ ( ω ) + ω τ }
Ω = τ 2 ϕ 2
τ = 2 n L c

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